(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Mining and Scientific Press (July-Dec. 1917)"
























EDO? 12DDShfl 1 

California State Library 



tY. 



-*<— 



Accession No 
Call 









X 












Mining »™« Press 












VOLUME 115 

JULY to DECEMBER, 1917 












MINING sc E A N N T v PRESS 

420 MARKET STREET SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 






(••'.•■ <:. '■■ M", '■ .- ■■■• ■ 





"8 



Vol. 115 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



INDEX 



Page 

Acieral aluminum steel 512 

Active nitrogen 870 

Advance in electric steel production 321 

Agricultural land, minerals from Editorial.... 780 

Alaska, chrome deposits 653 

Engineering Commission 926 

Gold mines Editorial .... 777 

Government railroad Theodore Pilger. . . . 925 

Lode-tin in 206 

Placer mining 729 

Allen, A. W Upflow clarification of solution.... 436 

Allen, Milton A Supply of gasoline .... 511 

Ditto Trinitrotoluene for mines. . . . 688 

Alloys. British standard 684 

Acid-resisting 282 

Aluminum alloy, acieral 512 

Cables 729 

In cyanide solutions 358 

Sulphate 726 

War prices Editorial. ... 73 

American Brass Co 308 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, St. Louis meeting 

Editorial 525 

American peace Editorial .... 560 

American Smelting v. Bunker Hill Editorial. .. .335, 847 

Abstract of reply-affidavits 865 

Affidavit by F. W. Bradley 829 

Affidavit by E. L. Newhouse 797 

Analyses, screen 344 

Another Mexican crisis Editorial. . . . 414 

Anticlines, petroleum in 243 

Antimony Editorial .... 1S5 

In China 904 

In zinc 473 

Argall, Philip Mill-tests v. hand-sampling. . . . 673 

Argentina, oilfields in Patagonia 91 

Arizona, leaching copper ore at Bisbee 749 

Miami T. A. Rickard 157, 417, 457, 565, 679, 7S4 

Producing mines 468 

Artillery 233 

Assaying, cupel-absorption with low-copper 124 

Government surveys 134 

Influence of base metals 124 

Assessment work, exemption Editorial. . . .600, 631 

Work, exemption for Army and Navy. . . .Editorial. ... 73 

Work, form for exemption Editorial.... 777 

Work on mining claims 468 

Ditto Editorial 559 

Assistance, financial to families of soldiers and sailors. . . . 3S5 
Austin, L. S Recovery of converter- 
fume at Tooele, Utah 611 



Australian transcontinental railway Editorial... 

Zinc 

Austria, declaration of war Editorial. . . 

Austrian Melchizedek Editorial . . . 

Avicaya mill M. G. F. Sbhnlein . . . 



B 



669 
95 
S4S 
527 
343 



Page 

Bennett, Charles Mill-tests v. hand-sampling 529*"' 

Bethlehem Steel Co., largest ingot mold 543 

Bibles, war demand Editorial.... 297 

Bille, G. C Water and mines in Paradise. . . . 851 

Bi-metallism, international system 935 

Bituminous coal, recovery of pyrite from 385 

Blakemore, Leonard G Prospecting conditions 

in California 783 

Blast-furnace record 86 

Blasting caps 133 

Misfires 44 

Missed holes in a wet shaft 783 

Physiological effect of carbon monoxide 463 

Troubles 828 

Block, James A Flotation physics 675 

Block-stoping and timbering in deep placer-mining 

E. E. Fleming 378"^ 

Blue-sky law Editorial 149 

Bolivia, Avicaya mill 343 

Corocoro copper mines 461 

Tin-silver district 57 

Borax 684 

Boron 243 

Bourquin, Judge, decision in Minerals Separation 

Editorial 297 

Opinion in Butte & Superior case 464 

Bradley, F. W Editorial 847 

Ditto. .Affidavit, American Smelting v. Bunker Hill. . . . 829 

Bradstreet's index-number 340 

Brass 581 

Brazil enters the War Editorial 632 

St. John del Rey Editorial 37 

Brick from coal ash 536 

Brinsmade, Robert E Butte re-visited 79 

Britannia Mining & Smelting Co Editorial. . . . 411 

British export prohibitions 21 

^ Standard alloys 684 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co Editorial 813 

Brooks, L. W Graphite 391 

Brown, J. Coggin Solubility of tungsten minerals. ... 303 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan 802 

Litigation with A. S. & R. Co 797, 829, 865 

Ditto Editorial 335, 779 

Smelter 275 

Burch, Albert Extra-lateral right 303 

Burma, Bawdwin mine 221 

Tungsten 729 

Butte labor troubles 305 

Re-visited Robert E. Brinsmade 79 

Butte & Superior case, flotation 130 

Brief for defendant 168, 207 

Opinion of Judge Bourquin 464 

Decision Editorial 451, 4S7 

Suit Editorial 185, 450 



Bains, Jr., Thos. M Physics of flotation. . . . 921 

Balaklala precipitating-plant 237 

Barite 901 

Barkdoll, I. H Electric blasting-caps 

and delay-electric igniters 133 

Barytes, price 718 

Production 354 

Uses of 91 

Bauxite, fused, for furnaces 651 

In 1916 864 

Becker, Clyde M Secondary zinc deposits. . . . 530 

Behavior of aluminum in cyanide solutions 358 

Bemis Bros. Bag Co Editorial 813 



Calcareous marl 

Calcination of magnesite 

California blue-sky law Editorial 

Committee on petroleum 

Compensation law 

Field artillery W. G. Devereux 

Hidden Treasure mine Editorial 

Metal industry 

Milling methods 

Mineral resources for War Editorial. . . . 

Mines in 1917 

Paradise, water and mines in 456, 636, 

Prospecting conditions in 

Searles Lake potash 

Sponge iron in 

Steel Editorial 

Tungsten 



675 
653 
149 
171 
902 
116 
185 
638 
318 
373 
320 
851 
782 
902 
901 
112 
95 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Vol. 115 



Page 

Callow, J. M Pneumatic flotation. . . . 492 

Canadian mines, war-tax 729 

Mining regulations William Thomlinson 6 

' Canadium, a new metal 932 

Cananea, closure of Editorial 150 

Carranza Editorial. . . . 185 

Cast-iron pipe 764 

Caustic soda, treating burns 536 

Care deposits of nitrate 340 

Cement, constitution and character 132 

Effect of sulphides on 725 

From beet sugar residue 75S 

Mortars 719 

Chase, Edwin E. . .Sampling large low-grade orebodies. . . . 453 

Chemical engineers Editorial. . . . 1S5 

Industry 5S.89S 

Ditto Editorial 560 

Industry Exposition Editorial 335 

Ditto M. W. von Bernewitz 5S2 

Research 124 I 

Used in flotation O. C. Ralston and L. D. Yundt 545 \ 

Chemistry 505 

Chile, Chuquicamata Editorial .... 37, 412 

Chilean nitrate 5S1 

China, antimony in 904 

Effect of silver prices 802 

Gold-production in Editorial .... 449 

China-clay prices 54 

Chrome deposits of Alaska W. P. Lass 653 

Chromite J. S. Diller 92 

Production 463 

Chuquicamata, Chile Editorial. . . .37, 412 

Clevenger. G. H. .Synthetic making of sodium cyanide. . . . 537 

Coal deterioration in storage 802 

Colby, William E Extra-lateral right. ... 42 

Collins, Henry F Purity of selected copper 

made in converters 3S6 

Collins. J. H Editorial 297 

Colloids, dispersion of alumina and silica 231 i 

Slectric charges 198 I 

Precipitation by electrolyte 35S ■* 

.moke or fume 236 

Ultra-violet light 279 

imbia, Cauca Valley railroad 726 

Platinum production 675 

Colorado, Cresson bonanzas at Cripple Creek 3S1 

Gold output of 654 

School of Mines Editorial. . , .149, 374 

Ditto CM. Eye. ... 377 

Commerce, war extension of 221 

With Spain 317 

Compensation law in California 902 

Compressed-air hose, drop in pressure 504 

Ditto, Correction Editorial ... . 559 

Concentration, magnetic 50S 

Practice in south-east Missouri A. P. Watt 6S9 

Concrete, proportions for mortars 719 

Ships Editorial 186 

Conner, E. T Editorial .... 670 

Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co.'s furnace record 86 

Contraband. British export prohibitions 21 

Control of emulsions in flotation. .Courtenay De Kalb 227 

Ditto Alfred Schwarz S53 

Copper and magnetite 492, 818 

Chuquicamata costs Editorial . . . .' 37 

Companies dividends Editorial 335 

Corocoro mines , , 461 

Cost of producing 221 

Cupel-absorption 124 

Detrital deposits 281 

Dividends 37 

Ditt0 Editorial...! 631 

Government price Editorial 411, 450, 525 

Government purchase Editorial 111, 149 

Government regulation Editorial 1 

Hydro-metallurgy of sulphides . . . ' 713 

Leaching Editorial 705 , 

Mines in Servia 723 

Ore from Lake Huron ' 205 

Ore, leaching 749 

Oxidation from brass 5S1 

Peruvian production S69 

Precipitating from sulphate solutions S54 

Precipitating plant at Balaklala mine 

S. A. Holman 237 

Price fixation Editorial 487 



Page 

Copper producers combining Editorial. . . . 561 

Production 221 

Ditto _. Editorial 373 

Production in*1917 Editorial 883 

Production, Japanese 618 

Purity of, made in converters 3S6 

Recovered by divers Editorial .... 185 

Sheet, tinned 932 

Smelting at Kalata 309 

Speculation Editorial. . . . 777 

Sulphate ore, basic 81S 

Tailing, Michigan 757 

Utah 595 

Corliss, H. P Editorial 37 

Corning. C. R Editorial 670 

Corocoro copper mines Francis Church Lincoln. . . . 461 

Corrosion of barbed wire 938 

Corundum 652 

Cost of war Editorial .... 525 

Council of National Defense, work of 123 

Cresson bonanzas at Cripple Creek. .Horace B. Patton. . . . 381 

Crisis in manganese trade 264 

Criticism Lester S. Grant .... 675 

Currency, perils of inflation Editorial. . . . 920 

Curtis, J. S Editorial 883 

Cyanidation of flotation concentrate 

James G. Parmelee 387 

Oxidation of solutions Editorial. . . . 411 

v. flotation at Pachuca 94 

Zinc-dust as a precipitant in 428 

Cyanide, aluminum in solutions 358 

German 431 

Manufacture Editorial .... 526, 706 

Precipitating gold from copper solution 355 

Synthetic making of sodium 537 



Daniels, Wm. P Extra-lateral right. . . . 851 

Deep placer mining 191 

Deister. Emil Editorial 450 

De Kalb, Courtenay. .Control of emulsions in flotation. . . . 227 

Ditto Heap-leaching of copper-sulphide ore.... 749 

Ditto What is a metalliferous metal?. . . . 225 

Depreciation tables 352 

Desert sign-posts 350 

Deterioration of coal in storage S02 

Determination of tungsten 389 

Detrital copper deposits W. Tovote. . . . 281 

Development of flotation A. Schwarz. ... 41 

Devereux, W. G Editorial. ... Ill 

Ditto California field artillery 116 

Device for setting wagon tires 194 

Diamond-drill, deepest hole 205 

Diller. J. S Chromite 92 

Displacement-tanks Walter S. Weeks 855 

Ditches, velocity and discharge 280 

Dividends, copper companies Editorial. . . . 335 

Do we need gold Lester S. Grant 783 

Ditto L. S. Ropes 924 

Douglas. Walter Editorial 335 

Ditto. .. .Increased wages and decreased efficiency in 

the Clifton-Morenci district 339 

Drafting technical undergraduates Editorial.... 91S 

Draper. F. W Mining and smelting copper ore at 

Kalata 309 

Dredging at Oroville, California 221 

Drill-steel, freight rates on 711 

Drilling deepest drill-hole 205 

Drop in pressure of compressed-air hose 

Walter S. Weeks 504 

Drucker, A. E Hydro-metallurgy of copper 713 



Easton. Stanly A Mill-tests v. hand-sampling 636 *" 

Economic disturbance of silver Editorial 599 

Editorial: 

American peace 560 

American Smelting v. Bunker Hill 779 

Another Mexican crisis 414 

Another plea for labor S14 

Austrian Melchizedek 527 

Butte decision 451 



Vol. 115 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Editorial, i con, l Page 

Chuqutcamata 412 

Concrete ships 186 

Copper producere combining 56] 

Economic disturbance of silver 599 

Estimates of ore-reserves 838 

Exemption from assessment work 600 

Flotation 201. 850 

Flotation litigation 223 

flotation of silver minerals 815 

Flotation unpleasantness 337 

Food for the War TOT 

Food law as a price regulator 300 

Foods, metals, and labor (172 

Geologic eccentricities 375 

Grinding ore tor flotation 560 

Harnessing a volcano S50 

Hoover and sulphuric acid 528 

I. W. \V. and Butte 299 

Komspelter region 672 

Labor and I. \V. W 706 

Labor unrest 2 

Labor v. mine production 4S9 

Lady or the tiger 745 

Let us help Mr. Hoover 222 

Lynching at Butte 187 

Making a career 633 

Making of an American 884 

Mexican menace again 75 

Mine taxation 884 

Mineral on agricultural land 780 

Minerals Separation 632 

Miners advance 670 

Misfires 77 

Misgoverned Mexico 3 

Misuse of terms 223 

More manganese needed 263 

'Near-ore' — a new term 376 

Never again 336 

New copper district 526 

New metallurgy 39 

Nitrate fizzle 152 

Oil legislation needed 151 

Opportunity for small ore-producers 40 

Our oil-supply 413 

Perils of inflation 920 

Phosphate outlook .' 708 

Physics of flotation 76 

Potash as a by-product of cement 816 

Pro-American policy 596 

Recruiting labor 745 

Retrospect 919 

Russia 596 

Russian crisis 706 

Sampling large low-grade orebodies 113, 451 

School of experience 488 

Silver 374 

Spoils of war 671 

St. Louis meeting '. 597 

Steel on the Pacific Coast 112 

Storms, W. H 261 

Striking miners 38 

Thanksgiving 745 

Third anniversary 150 

Threat to gold mining 849 

War minerals 918 

Why we fight : 187 

Effect of mouthpieces on flow of water 727 

Sulphides on cement 725 

Egyptian mining rules and regulations Editorial.... Ill 

Electric blasting-caps and delay -electric igniters 

I. H. Barkdoll 133 

Furnace A. H. Fahrenwald 232 

Hoist, portable 356 

Electrification of gases 921 

Electro-metals Editorial 298 

Ellis, George Henry. .Velocity and discharge in ditches. . . . 280 

Emmons, W. H Secondary enrichment. ... 651 

Engines, gas, foundations for 932 

Estimates of ore-reserves Editorial .... 33S 

Estimating ore G. L. Sheldon. ... 674 

Examination of mineral resources, official. . .Editorial. .. . 559 

Excess-profits tax 170 

Exemption from assessment work 4S6 

Ditto Editorial 600, 631 

Explosives for coal mining 194 

High, for mining 462 

Licenses for use of 870 



Explosives, liquid oxygen Editorial.... Tor, 

Permissible list -i; i 

Safety-orders t::o 

Trinitro-toluene 688 

Exports to neutral nations Editorial.... II 

Exposition, chemical industries Editorial . 

Extra-lateral right Albert Burch 303 

Ditto William E. Colby 12 

Ditto Win. P. Daniels B61 

l>itto Leroy A. Palmer 14 

Eye, CM Colorado School of Mines ::T7 

Ditto Mining laws 530 



Facing-sand for foundries ,",i;4 

Factors in the production of electrolytic zinc 

R. G. Hall 685 

Fahrenwald, A. W An electric furnace. ... 232 

Feeding the Mexicans J. A. Parker. . . . T4S 

Feilding, Rowland C Editorial. . . . 412 

Feldspar, California :;40 

Potash from 200 

Ferro, see manganese 

Ferro-manganese 304 

Price 762 

Ferro-uranium 95 

Fertilizer, sulphur Editorial .... 336 

Filing drawings, method of 426 

Finance, perils of inflation Editorial.... 920 

Financial assistance to families of soldiers and sailors. . . . 3S5 

Fire prevention 344, 436, 456 

Protection in shafts Frank A. Madson 41 

.First-aid instructions 395 

''Fleming, E. C Block-stoping and timbering in deep 



placer-mining 



Flotation Editorial . 



37S' 
.261, S50 



Alpha-naphthylaniine in Editorial. ... 37 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co Editorial. . . . 631 

At Cobalt, Ontario W. E. Simpson 819 

Blow to mining companies 396 

Butte & Superior case 130, 168, 464 

Ditto, Argument by Henry D. Williams 207 

Ditto, Decision Editorial 451, 487 

Ditto, Suit Editorial 450 

Chemicals used in 545 

Concentrate, cyanidation of 387 

Concentration in south-east Missouri 6S9 

Control of emulsions in 853 

Development of A. Schwarz. ... 41 

Electric charges carried by gas 921 

Emulsions in 227 

Improvements Editorial. . . . 525 

Launder machine .- 201 

Litigation Editorial 223, 412 

Minerals Separation Editorial. . . . 373 

Notes on 156 

Of gold and silver mineral T. A. Riekard. . . . 265 

Of lead and zinc in the Joplin district 

C. A. Wright 575 

Of silver minerals Editorial .... 815 

Patent 899 

Physics 491 

Ditto Thos. M. Bains Jr 921 

Ditto James A. Block. ... 675 

Ditto Editorial 76 

Ditto Benjamin Rezas .... 225 

Ditto Blarney Stevens .... 341 

Pneumatic 492 

Preferential 613 

Ditto Editorial 595 

Principles of T. A. Riekard 9, 45 

Process E. P. Mathewson 472 

Scott patent Editorial 884 

Seale-Shellshear process 44 

Solubility and orientation of molecules in surface of 

liquids 357 

Soluble frothing-agents 351 

Tests on gold ores Edwin Joyce 199 

Tests with hardwood oils 

R. E. Gilmour and C. S. Parsons.... 763 

Unpleasantness Editorial. . . . 337 

Flume, concrete and timber construction 356 

Fluorspar 350 

Food for the War ' Editorial 707 

Law as a price regulator Editorial 300 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Vol. 115 



Page 

Foods, metals, and labor Editorial.... 672 

Pledges Editorial 411 

Forest Reserve H. F. Melville 5 

Ditto C. E. Racht'ord 6 

Formation of zinc ferrate 

E. H. Hamilton, G. Murray, and D. Mcintosh. . . . 195 

1 Foundations for small gas-engines 932 > 

Freight-rates on drill-steel H. D. Staley 711 

Fume, converter, recovery of 611 

Fused bauxite for furnaces 651 



6 



Gale, Hoyt S Origin of nitrates in cliffs and ledges 676 

Gallium in zinc-blende 864 

Garlichs, Herman Metallurgy of lead in lower 

Mississippi valley 315 

Gas engines, foundations for 932 

Fires at wells 172 

Gases, flammability of 456 

Gasoline from natural gas 340 

Supply of 511 

Geologic eccentricities Editorial 375 

Geology of San Sebastian mine, Salvador 

C. Erb Wuenseh 345 

Of Telkwa district. B. C 54 

German cyanide 431 

Propaganda Editorial 4S7 

Giant, see mines 

Gilmour, R. E Flotation tests with hardwood oils.... 763 

Glass, Earl Stadia-reduction chart. . . . 279 

Globules in zinc 473 

Gold, basis for currency Editorial 920 

Bullion assaying 124 

Dredging, recovery of platinum in 825 

Flotation 199. 265 

In Montana, first discovery 89S 

International monetary system 935 

Milling 318 

Mines, recruiting labor from 747 

Mining companies excess-profits tax 934 

Mining, threat to Editorial. . . . 849 

Ditto F. L. Sizer 924 

Mining, Transvaal Editorial .... 743 

Need of large reserves Editorial.... 778 

Need of reserves 783 

Output of Colorado 654 

Precipitation from coppery cyanide solution 355 

Production in China Editorial .... 449 

Reserve, need for L. S. Ropes.... 924 

Reserve of United States 730 

Goodner, Ivan E Water and mines in Paradise. . . . 456 

Government copper regulation Editorial. ... 1 

Lead purchase Clinton H. Crane. ... 24 

Railroad of Alaska Theodore Pilger. . . . 925 

Grant, Lester S A criticism ... . 675 

Ditto Do we need gold .... 783 

Graphite : L. W. Brooks 391 

Prices of 468 

Grinding ore for flotation Editorial. . . . 560 

Guggenheim. Daniel Editorial 29S 

Guild, F. N Editorial S4S 

Ditto Microscopic features in silver-deposition. . . . 857 

Gypsum prices Editorial 559 



Hall, Edgar Magnetite and copper. . . . 492 

Hall, R. G Factors in the production of electrolytic 

zinc 685 

Hamilton, E. C Formation of zinc ferrate. . . . 195 

Hand-sampling v. mill-tests 529' 

Ditto Morton Webber. ... 125 

Hardwoods, fuel-value f 730 

Hardy, Charles Tungsten .... 712 

Harrington, J. F Missed holes in a wet shaft 783 

Ditto Plea for labor. ... 712 

Hastings, John B Sampling large low-grade 

orebodies 379 

Heap-leaching of copper-sulphide ore 

Courtenay De Kalb.... 749 

Heavy blow to mining companies 396 

Hersam, Ernest A Outlook for-iron and steel on the 

Pacific Coast 117 



Page 

Homestake mine production S69 

Hess. Frank L Quality of tungsten ores. . . . 473 

Hill. James M Prospecting for platinum. . . . 474 

Hoist, electric .% 356 

Holland. L. F. S Editorial S47 

Hollis. Ira N Editorial 631 

Holman. S. A Copper-precipitating plant at 

Balaklala mine 237 

Holt Manufacturing Co Editorial. . . . S13 

Hookworm 684 

Hoover, T. J Editorial 149 

And sulphuric acid Editorial .... 52S 

Help for Editorial 222 

Howard. L. O Mining in Utah 189, 397 

Ditto What is a metalliferous mineral. ... 55 

Hubbard, J. D Water and mines in Paradise. . . . 636 

Hydro-metallurgy of copper sulphides. .A. E. Drucker. . . . 713 

Of lead-silver at the Bunker Hill smelter 

Clarence L. Larsen 275 

v. smelting .' A. E. Drucker. ... 44 



Idaho, hydro-metallurgy of lead-silver at Bunker Hill.... 275 

Mineral output 350 

Phosphate lands in 314 

Igawa, Takeo A method of mining. . . . S52 

Ikeda, Kenzo Japanese copper production.... 618 

Immigration 1916-17 Editorial 449 

Increased wages and decreased efficiency in the Clifton- 

Morenci district Walter Douglas. . . . 339 

Index-number of Bradstreet's 340 

Industrial romance 308 

Ingalls, W. R Zinc-burning 432 

Ingersoll-Rand Co Editorial .... S13 

Inspiration mine Editorial .... 450 

Iron, magnetic ores 7 

Ore, lake output Editorial .... 259 

Pacific Coast 117 

Price fixing Editorial .... 449 

Rusting of 828 

Sponge in California 901 

Italy, reverses on the Isonzo Editorial. . . . 919 

I. W. W. and Butte Editorial 299 

Sabotage 273 



Janin. Charles Russian crisis. . . . 163 

Japan, exports 678 

Intentions of Editorial .... 186 

Mineral output 432 

Japanese copper production Kenzo Ikeda .... 618 

Jennings. Sidney J Editorial 847 

Jerusalem delivered Editorial .... 847 

Johannesburg, new organization Editorial. . . . 670 

Journalism and diplomacy Editorial .... 259 

Judd, E. K Editorial C70 



K 



Kahn. Julius Editorial. . . . 77S 

Kalgoorlie, Western Australia 724 

Kansas, Komspelter region Editorial. . . . 672 

Karri-Davies, Walter Editorial. . . . S47 

Ditto New Canadian mining district. . . . 534 

Kemp. J. F Editorial 221 

Kies, W. S Chemical exposition 533 

Kiliani. R. B Simple methods of finding density and 

weight of solids in mill-pulp 390 

King of Arizona Company 747 

Ditto Epes Randolph 674 

Kitts. J. A Proportions for cement mortars and 

concretes 719 

Knox. Newton B Solubility of tungsten 818 

Komspelter region Editorial .... 672 



Labor agitators, Mr. Roosevelt and others 

T. A. Rickard 239 

And I. W. W Editorial 706 



Vol. 115 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Page 

Labor. I. W. \v. and Muiic Editorial — 899 

i. W, W. sabotage 273 

Mexican In Arizona Editorial . 

v. mine production 489 

Plea for 712, 817 

Ditto Editorial .... 815 

Recruiting Editorial 746 

Recruiting from gold mines 747 

Troubles at Butte. . . .An Occasional Correspondent. . 305 

Wages and efficiency 339 

Lang. Herbert Sponge Iron 901 

Largest ingot mold ever made 543 

Larson. Clarence L Hydro-metallurgy of lead-silver at 

the Bunker Hill smelter 275 

Lass, W. P Chrome deposits of Alaska. . . . 653 

Lassen, ML, California 20G 

Launder flotation machine B. M. Snyder. ... 201 

Law, oil legislation needed Editorial. ... 151 

Leaching and purification of zinc sulphate 

K. B. Thomas 724 

Copper ore 749 

Lead, antimonial 468 

Flotation in the Joplin district 575 

Government purchase 24 

Hydro-metallurgy of Editorial 260 

Metallurgy in Missouri 315 

Missouri 93 

Silver, hydro-metallurgy of 275 

Leadville manganese resources 758 

Ledoux, A. R Editorial 670 

Liberty Bell mercury-trap Albert G. Wolf 206 

Liberty bonds Editorial 185, 595 

Loan Editorial 525, 595 

Licenses for use of explosives S70 

Life of cast-iron pipe 764 

Lincoln. Francis Church Corocoro copper mines. . . . 461 

Ditto Oruro tin-silver district, Bolivia 57 

Lindsay, Robert Precipitating gold from coppery 

cyanide solution 355 

Lithium 356 

Litigation, flotation Editorial. . . . 223 

Loring, W. J Editorial 633 

Ditto An interview by T. A. Rickard. ... 639 

Lost mines 67S 

Louisiana petroleum S6 

Lucas, Anthony F Editorial. . . . S85 

And the Beaumont gusher 

An interview by T. A. Rickard 887 

Lynching at Butte Editorial. . . . 187 



M 



Magmatic ore segregation J. A. Dresser 7 

Magnalium 654 

Ditto Editorial 374, 814 

Magnesite, calcination of 653 

Consumption in steel-making '. 380 

Occurrence 460 

On the Pacific Coast 203 

Precipitation 432 

Uses Editorial 335 

Magnesium in magnalium Editorial. . . . S14 

Price S27 

Magnetic separation 508 

Magnetite and copper Edgar Hall. . . . 492 

Ditto H. W. Turner 818 

Making a career Editorial .... 633 

Of an American Editorial 885 

Manganese Editorial .... 705 

At Philipsburg, Montana 116 

Crisis in trade 264 

Deposits of Philipsburg, Montana 725 

Ferro 304 

Ferro, American requirements Editorial. ... 1 

Ferro, prices 762 

In furnace slags 617 

Investigations 726 

More needed Editorial. . . . 263 

Output 578 

Panama 233 

Requirements Editorial. . . . 263 

Resources at Leadville 758 

Manitoba, new mining district 534 

Marl, calcareous 675 

Mason, F. H The nitrate fizzle 226 



Pa i 

Mason Valley Mines Co Editorial .... 777 

Mathewson, B, P Flotation process.... 472 

Mcintosh, D Formation of zinc ferrate. ... 195 

McLaren, Alex Modern milling methods applied to 

Callfornlan gold ores ::is 

Mechanical ventilation Tor metal mines. . .George Rice. . . . 579 

Mekler, L. A Russia in war time. ... Tin 

Mellon Institute Editorial. ... 297 

Mercury-trap 206 

Metal, base, foreign trade Editorial. ... Ill 

Government committees Editorial. . . . 669 

Non-ferrous exports 543 

Production by States 456 

Scrap shipments Editorial 297 

Metalliferous mineral 55 

Mineral, definition 221 

Metallurgy, hydro A. E. Drucker. ... 44 

Of lead in lower Mississippi valley 

Herman Garlichs. . . . 315 
Method of construction of concrete and timber flume for 

Cove power project 356 

Of filing drawings Albert G. Wolf 426 

Of mining Takeo Ikawa 852 

Ditto George J. Young 637 

Mexican labor in Arizona Editorial .... 559 

Menace again Editorial .... 75 

Mining difficulties Editorial 150 

Postal facilities Editorial .... 37 

Mexicans, food for 74S 

Mexico, a refugee from Editorial .... 526 

Another crisis Editorial 414 

Bullion restrictions Editorial 595 

Cash needed 221 

Conditions in Editorial 847 

Cyanidation v. flotation at Pachuca 94 

Joint convention Editorial 373 

Loans for food Editorial. ... 669 

Lower California oil Editorial 260 

Opportunity for reconstruction Editorial. . . . 745 

Protection to American-owned mines Editorial 38 

Recollections of By a refugee. ... 531 

Restriction of gold and silver exportation 

Editorial 847 

Santa Eulalia S69 

Villa still active Editorial 559 

Miami, Arizona, the discovery — I T. A. Rickard 157 

Mining of the ore— II T. A. Rickard 417 

Mining of the ore— III T. A. Rickard 457 

Milling of the ore— IV T. A. Rickard 565 

Milling of the ore— V T. A. Rickard 679 

Smelting oi the ore— VI T. A. Rickard 784 

Miami Copper Co Editorial 297 

Michigan copper-tailing 757 

Microscopic features in silver-deposition. .F. N. Guild 857 

Mill-pulp, determination of density 390 

Mill-tests v. hand-sampling Philip Argall 673 

Ditto Charles Bennett 529 

Ditto Stanly A. Easton.... 636 

Ditto L. A. Parsons 781 

Ditto R. E. Raymond .... 635 

Ditto F. F. Sharpless. ... 63S 

Ditto H. R. Sleeman 5.63 

Ditto E. P. Spaulding 301 

Ditto Morton Webber 125, 453 

Millman, John T Screen analyses 344 

Mine, California 320 

Found by thieves 86 

Giant, Rhodesia Editorial 1 

Lost 67S 

Rescue apparatus, use and testing 234 

Russian, American control Editorial .... 37 

Sampling 301 

Taxation Editorial SS4 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co Editorial 813 

Mineral, definition of metalliferous 221 

For war Editorial .... 91S 

Metalliferous 55, 225 

Output of Idaho 350 

Output of Japan 432 

Production, Montana 2S2 

Minerals Separation Editorial 259, 373, 412, 632 

And Canadian patent law Editorial 778 

Blow to mining companies 396 

Criticisms at Cobalt Editorial 743 

Miners advance Editorial 670 

Regiment of 728 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Vol. 115 



Page 



Mining and smelting copper ore at Kalata. . 

F. W. 
Companies, and excess tax. 



Draper. 



309 
903 

Dividends and income tax 71S 

Engineers in French coal mines Editorial. . . . 670 

Engineers in the War Editorial.... 373 

In Utah L. O. Howard. .. .23. 189. 397 

Ditto Benjamin F. Tibby 895 

Laws CM. Eye 530 

Law decision in Sudbury district Editorial.... 73 

Law, exemption from assessment work 116, 46S 

Ditto Editorial 559, 631 

Law, extra-lateral right 303, S51 

Law. Philippine Islands 75S 

Methods 637, 852 

Practice in the Joplin district H. I. Young.... 506 

Simple head-frame 544 

Skip-changing devices at Butte 607 

Ventilation for metal mines 579 

Mining and Metallurgical Society Editorial 37, 526 

Misfires Editorial .... 77 

Ditto Miner .... 44 

Missed holes in a wet shaft J. F. Harrington. . . . 7S3 

Missouri, flotation concentration in south-east 689 

Joplin district, flotation of lead and zinc 575 

Joplin district mining practice 506 

Komspelter region Editorial .... 672 

Metallurgy of lead 315 

School of Mines Editorial 335 

Zinc and lead 1915-16 93 

Misuse of terms Editorial 223 

Modern milling methods applied to Californian gold ores. . 

Alex McLaren. .. . 31S 

Molybdenum, some of its uses 200 

Use in munitions Editorial 449 

Monazite 503 

Montana, first gold discovery 898 

Manganese 116 

Manganese deposits of Philipsburg 725 

Mineral production 282 

Motor-trucks relieving railroads Editorial.... S14 

Murray. G Formation of zinc ferrate .... 195 



N 



Nason, Frank L Principles governing zinc-ore 

deposits 

Near ore, a new term Editorial .... 

Need of chemical research 

Neill, James W. .Recovery of platinum in gold-dredging 

Nevada, Packard, development at Editorial 

Never again Editorial. . . . 

New Canadian mining district. . .Walter Karri-Davies 

Copper district Editorial 

Newhouse, Edgar L.. affidavit, American Smelting v 
Bunker Hill 

Ditto Editorial .... 

New York Engineering Co Editorial. . . . 

New Zealand quicksilver 

Nickel, Brazil 

For Germany 

Nicol, John Patents! ! '. ! 

Nissen, Peter N Editorial 

Nitrate, cave deposits 

Chilean 

Fizzle Editorial.!!! 

Ditto F. H. Mason. . . . 

Origin in cliffs and ledges 

Potassium 

Prices 

Nitre, origin of Editorial! ! ! ! 

Nitric acid, Sweden Editorial .... 

Nitrogen, active 

Non-ferrous metal exports 

Norris, G. L Properties of vanadium steel. . . . 

Norris. R. V Editorial.... 

Notes on flotation Paul T. Bruhl. 



647 
376 
124 
825 
88 
336 
534 
526 

797 
S47 
S13 
904 
718 
74 S 
153 
412 
340 
581 
152 
226 
676 
610 
231 
669 
1 
870 
343 
274 
670 
156 



Page 

Oil. Argentina 91 

Burning 654 

Hardwood, for flotation 763 

Legislation »eeded Editorial .... 151 

In Lower California Editorial. . . . 260 

Sands, protection by mud-laden fluid 238 

Sulphur in 85 

Supply Editorial 412 

Oklahoma, Komspelter region Editorial. . . . 672 

Ontario, Cobalt, flotation at 819 

Ore deposits, secondary enrichment 652 

Deposits, silver deposition 857 

Genesis, see magma 

Sampling Editorial .... 113 

Oregon mines in 1917 757 

Origin of nitrates in cliffs and ledges. . . .Hoyt S. Gale. . . . 676 

Oroville Dredging Co 221 

Oruro tin-silver district. Bolivia 

Francis Church Lincoln. 

Our oil-supply Editorial . 

Outlook for iron and steel on the Pacific Coast 

Ernest A. Hersam. 

Oxide of zinc George E. Stone. 

Ozokerite 



57 
413 



117 
759 



Obituary. W. H. Storms Editorial 261 

Occasional correspondent Labor troubles at Butte 305 

Official list of technical men 574 



Pacific Coast magnesite 203 

Paint materials 757 

And painting in the tropics 762 

Removal from iron 236, 543 

Panama manganese 233 

Paper, price of Editorial .... 744 

Paraffin with sulphur 238 

Parker, J. A Feeding the Mexicans. . . . 748 

Parmelee. James G Cyanidation of flotation 

concentrate 3S7 

Parsons, C. S Flotation tests with hardwood oils. . . . 763 

Parsons, L. A Editorial .... 777 

Ditto Mill-tests v. hand-sampling. . . . 781 

Patents John Nicol. ... 153 

Patton, Horace B..Cresson bonanzas at Cripple Creek.... 381 

Perils of inflation Editorial .... 920 

Perkins, C. L Soluble frothing-agents. . . . 351 

Pershing, General Editorial .... 449 

Peru, copper output S69 

Petroleum, Californian committee on 171 

Development in Louisiana 86 

In anticlines 243 

Report of committee on 433 

Philippine Island mine legislation 758 

Phillips, W. B Quicksilver industry of Texas 93 

Phosphate, double acid 617 

Lands in Idaho 314 

Outlook Editorial 708 

Rock 901 

Ditto R. W. Stone 8 

Photo-micrographs in color 610 

Physical research 24 

Physics of flotation Thos. M. Bains Jr 921 

Ditto Benjamin Rezas 225 

Ditto H. Hardy Smith 491 

Picric acid 282 

Pig-iron from scrap-steel 936 

Pilger. Theodore Government railroad of Alaska 925 

Ditto. . . .Skip-changing devices at the Butte mines. . . . 607 

Pine Mountain tunnel, methods of driving 

H. Devereux .... 16 

Pipe, cast-iron 764 

Pittsburgh, Mellon Institute Editorial. . . . 297 

Placer-mining 191 

Alaska 729 

Block-stoping, and timbering 378 

Platinum Editorial 259 

Colombia 675 

Consumption and uses 460 

From Russia Editorial 8S3 

On Pacific Coast Editorial 814 

Prospecting 894 

Ditto James M. Hill 474 

Recovery in gold-dredging 825 

Plea for labor Editorial S14 

Ditto J. F. Harrington. ... 712 

Ditto A Miner S17 

Pneumatic flotation J. M. Callow 492 



Vol. 115 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Page 

Political economy 492 

Portable electric hoist :'..">ii 

Potash 504, S98 

As a i "i cement Editorial.... 816 

Disposal of lands 221 

Exploration, text of acl authorising exploration 509 

Extraction L29 

From cement-kiln gases - I 

From Feldspar 200 

Market 238 

Production 503 

Refining 549 

Searles Lake 344, 902 

Ditto Editorial 487 

Potassium nitrate 610 

Power, Harold T. . . .Timbering in deep placer mining. . . . 191 

Precipitating gold from coppery cyanide solution 

Robert Lindsay ... . 355 

Preferential flotation W. Shellshear. . . . 613 

Presidio silver mine 172 

Price of graphite 468 

Regulator Editorial 300 

Rubber 5S2 

Principles governing zinc-ore deposits 

Frank L. Nason .... 647 

Principles of flotation — II T. A. Rickard 45 

Pro- American policy : Editorial .... 596 

Production of pyrite 536 

Properties of vanadium steel G. L. Norris. . . . 274 

Proportions for cement mortars and concretes 

J. A. Kitts 719 

Prospecting conditions in California 

Leonard G. Blakemore. . . . 7S3 

For platinum James M. Hill 474 

Publications, taxation of Editorial.... 335 

Purity of selected copper made in converters 

Henry F. Collins 3S6 

Pyrite 757 

Domestic 854 

Explosion on roasting 279 

For sulphuric acid 194 

In the Appalachians 894 

Production of 536 

Recovery from coal 3S5, 57S 



Quality of tungsten ores 

Quicksilver in New Zealand. 
Industry of Texas 



. ..W. B. Phillips. 



473 

904 

93 



R 



Railroad freight rates Editorial 336 

Freight service 460 

Government, in Alaska Theodore Pilger. . . . 925 

Ralston, O. C. and L. D. Yundt Chemicals used in 

flotation 545 

Rand mines Editorial .... Ill 

Randolph, Epes King of Arizona Company. . . . 674 

Rapid shaft-sinking 132 

Rau-Roesler, S. E Recruiting labor from the gold 

mines 747 

Raymond, R. E Mill-tests v. hand-sampling. . . . 636 

Ditto Sampling large low-grade orebodies. . . . 301 

Raymond, Robert M Editorial .... S47 

Recent vulcanism in Salvador C. Erb Wuensch 22 

Recollections of Mexico A refugee. . . . 531 

Recovery of converter-fume at Tooele, Utah 

L. S. Austin 611 

Of platinum in gold-dredging James W. Neill. . . . 825 

Recruiting labor Editorial .... 745 

Labor from the gold mines S. E. Rau-Roesler. . . . 747 

Red-beds, cause of dryness _ 156 

Refugee Recollections of Mexico .... 531 

Regiment of miners 728 

Report of committee on petroleum 433 

Research laboratory in Japan 354 

Retrospect Editorial .... 919 

Rezas, Benjamin Physics of flotation .... 225 

Rickard, T. A. . . .Flotation of gold and silver mineral. . . . 265 
Ditto .... Labor agitators, Mr. Roosevelt and others .... 239 

Ditto W. J. Loring; a Calif ornian engineer. . . . 639 

Ditto. .Anthony F. Lucas, and the Beaumont gusher. . . . 887 



Rickard, T A Miami. Arizona, the disrowrj I 

Ditto Miami, Arizona, minim.; of the ore — II 

I Hit,. Miami. Arizona, mining of the ore — III 

Ditto Miami, Arizona, milling Of the ore — IV 

Ditto Miami. Arizona, milling of the ore — V 

Ditto Miami, Arizona, smelt Ing Of the ore — VI 

Ditto Principles of llotaliou. . 

Ditto. . .D. M. Riordan and the school of experience 

Rice, George. .Mechanical ventilation for metal mines 

Riordan, D. M Editorial 

And the school of experience T. A. Rickard 

Road-building over wet soft ground 

Roasting zinc ore 

Roeber, E. F Editorial. 

Rogers. G. Sherburne Sources of sulphur in oils. 

Roosevelt, Theodore 

Ropes, L. S Do we need gold. 

Rubber prices 

Russia Editorial . 

Affairs Editorial . 

Copper at Kalata 

Crisis Editorial . 

Ditto Charles Janin . 

Disintegration Editorial . 

Exchange in Editorial . 

In war time L. A. Mekler. 

Ditto Horace V. Winchell . 

Political situation Editorial. 

Politics Editorial . 

Rusting of iron 



Page 

. . . 1 57 

... 417 

. . . 457 

. . . 565 

. , 679 

. . . 784 

.9, IE 

. .. 193 

. , 579 

. .. 488 

. .. 193 

. . . X24 

. .. 58 

. .. 705 

. . . S5 

... 239 

... 924 

... 582 

... 596 

. . . 149 

... 309 

. . . 706 

. . . 163 

... 919 

. . . 449 

... 710 

... 601 

... 449 
705 
S2S 



Safety-orders for explosives 730 

Sale, A. J Survey of inclines without auxiliaries S7 

Saltpetre, origin of Editorial .... 669 

Salvador, geology, San Sebastian mine 345 

Sampling large low-grade orebodies. .. .Albert Burch.... 115 

Ditto Edwin E. Chase 453 

Ditto Editorial 113, 451 

Ditto John B. Hastings 379 

Ditto T. H. Leggett 5 

Ditto R. E. Raymond 301 

Mill-tests v. hand 453, 563, 632, 63S, 673 

Scheelite 692 

School of experience Editorial .... 4SS 

Of experience, and D. M. Riordan. . . .T. A. Rickard. . . . 493 

Schwarz, Alfred Control of emulsions in flotation. . . . 853 

Scott, Walter A Editorial 884 

Ditto Argument in Butte & Superior case. . . . 130 

Ditto Flotation patent .... S99 

Screen-analyses 236 

Ditto John T. Millman 344 

Seale-Shellshear cascade process 44 

Flotation apparatus 353 

Searles Lake potash 344, 902 

Ditto Editorial 487 

Secondary enrichment 652 

Zinc deposits Clyde M. Becker 530 

Servia, copper mines 723 

Shaft-sinking, rapid 132 

Sharpless, F. F Mill-tests v. hand-sampling. . . . 63S 

Sharwood, W. J Editorial 411 

Ditto Zinc-dust as a precipitant in cyanidation. . . . 428 

Sheldon, G. L Estimating ore .... 674 

Shellshear, Seale, flotation apparatus 353 

Ship-plates, Japanese demand 24 

Silicon in steel, tensile strength ; 279 

Silver Editorial 374 

Average price in New York 1865-1916 472 

Deposition, microscopic features in 857 

Effect of prices in China 802 

Flotation 265 

Ditto Editorial .... S15 

International monetary system 935 

Price Editorial 73, 411, 778 

Price control Editorial .... 525 

Price of, Guggenheim on Editorial. ... 298 

Simple head-frame 544 

Methods of finding density and weight of solids in mill- 
pulp R. B. Kiliani 390 

Simpson, W. E Flotation at Cobalt S19 

Sizer, F. L Threat to gold mining. . . . 924 

Skip-changing devices at the Butte mines 

Theodore Pilger 607 



10 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Vol. 115 



Page 

Sleeman, H. R Mill-tests v. hand-sampling 563 

Smelting v. hydro-metallurgy A. B. Drucker. ... 44 

Smith, H. Hardy Physics of flotation 491 

Snyder, B. M Launder flotation machine 201 

Soda, nitrate of 231 

Siihnlein, M. G. F Avicaya mill 343 

Solubility and orientation of molecules in surface of 

liquids 357 

Of tungsten Newton B. Knox 81S 

Of tungsten minerals J. Coggin Brown 303 

Soluble frothing-agents C. L. Perkins 351 

Sources of sulphur in oils G. Sherburne Rogers.... 85 

South Dakota, Homestake mine 869 

Spain, coal development Editorial 84S 

Commerce with 317 

Government laboratories Editorial 559 

Spaulding, E. P Mill-tests v. hand-sampling 301 

Spelter, see zinc 

Purchases by Government SIS 

Replacing iron roofing-sheets 796 

Spoils of war Editorial 671 

Sponge iron in California 901 

Spurr, J. E Editorial 450 

Stadia-reduction chart Earl Glass 279 

Staley. H. D Freight-rates on drill-steel. . . . 711 

Steel, de-oxidizing by carbohydrates 72S 

Electric 238, 321 

Great Britain's output Editorial .... 559 

Pacific Coast 117 

Ditto Editorial 112 

Ditto W. H. Whittier.... 301 

Pig-iron from scrap 936 

Price fixing Editorial .... 449 

Tungsten Editorial S13 

Vanadium 274 

War production 652 

Stellite, uses of 651 

Stevens, Blarney Flotation physics. . . . 341 

Stokes, Ralph : Editorial 412 

St. Louis meeting Editorial 597 

Stone, George E Editorial 743 

Ditto Oxide of zinc. ... 759 

Storms, W. H Editorial 261 

Submarine Editorial. . . .111, 451 

And kindred problems 469 

Memoranda on 21 

Sullivan, Mark Editorial 111 

Sulphides, dissociation-pressures 210 

Sulphonic acid 612 

Sulphur 431 

As fertilizer Editorial 336 

Dioxide for precipitating copper 854 

Importations 1916 543 

In paraffin 238 

In Sicily 536 

In waste gas, utilization 783 

Reduction by petroleum Editorial .... 73 

Soluble in petroleum 210 

Sources in oils S5 

Thiogen process 273 

Sulphuric acid production 5S2 

Acid, pyrite 194 

Acid resources Editorial 596 

Supply of gasoline Milton A. Allen. . . . 511 

Survey of inclines without auxiliaries A. J. Sale. ... .87 

Sweden, see nitric acid 

Switch-tongue 317 

Synthetic making of sodium cyanide. .G. H. Clevenger. .. . 537 



Tax, excess on mining companies 903 

Excess-profit 933 

Income and mining dividends 718 

On Canadian mines * 729 

Taxation of mines Editorial .... 8S4 

Of publications Editorial. . . . 335 

On excess profits Editorial .... 374 

Technical hand-hooks Editorial .... 848 

Writing Editorial .... 260 

Telkwa. B.C., district 54 

Texas. Anthony F. Lucas and the Beaumont gusher 887 

Presidio silver mine 172 

Quicksilver industry 93 

Thanksgiving Editorial. ... 745 



Page 

Thiogen process 273 

Third anniversary Editorial. . . . 150 

Thomas, K. B Leaching and purification of zinc 

sulphate I 724 

Thomlinson, William. . . .Canadian mining regulations. ... 6 

Thomson, J. J. .Discharge of electricity through gases. ... 921 

Thomson. S. C Editorial 670 

Threat to gold mining Editorial. ... 849 

Ditto F. L. Sizer 924 

Tibby, Benjamin F Mining in Utah. . . . 895 

Timbering in deep placer mining. . . .Harold T. Power. . . . 191 

Tin, Alaska 206 

Bolivia 57 

Plate 684 

Tinned copper 932 

Tonopah Mining Co Editorial 450 

Tovote, W Detrital copper deposits. . . . 281 

Transvaal, deep-level mining Editorial 883 

Decpreciation in mining Editorial. . . . 743 

New financing Editorial. . . . 744 

Trinitro-toluene for mines Milton A. Allen.... 688 

Tripoli 612 

Tungsten Charles Hardy 712 

Brazil 688 

Burma 729 

Concentrate 134 

Determination of 389 

In outcrops 302 

Ditto Editorial 298 

In Rhodesia 617 

Minerals, solubility Editorial. . . . 813 

Mines of Inyo county, California 95 

Ores, quality of 473 

Prices Editorial ... . 449 

Scheelite 692 

Solubility of 818 

Surreptitious exportation Editorial.... 560 

Tunnel, methods of driving Pine Mountain 

H. Devereux. ... 16 

Turner, H. W Magnetite and copper 818 

u 

United Eastern Mining Co Philip Wiseman. . . . 917 

Use and testing of oxygen mine-rescue apparatus 234 

Of stellite 651 

Useful chart 395 

Utah copper profits Editorial .... 595 

Mining in 189, 397, 895 

Ditto L. O. Howard 23 

Utilizing pyrite in coal 578 



Vanadium 274, 564 

Vanderlip, F. A Editorial 525 

Velocity and discharge in ditches. .George Henry Ellis. . . . 280 

Ventilation for metal mines 579 

Volcano, harnessing a Editorial. . . . S50 

von Bernewitz, M. W Chemical exposition. . . . 582 

w 

Wagon tires, device for setting 194 

War, cost of Editorial 525 

Excess-profit tax Philip Wiseman. . . . 933 

Extension of commerce 221 

Food for Editorial 707 

Joffre and Viviani Editorial .... 259 

Minerals Editorial .... 91S 

Miners' regiment Editorial. . . . 670 

Official list of technical men 574 

Opportunities in Editorial. . . . 297 

Spoils of Editorial 671 

Steel production 652 

Tax on Canadian mines 729 

Third anniversary Editorial .... 152 

Wasting ore-values 802 

Water and mines in Paradise G. C. Bille. . . . S51 

Ditto Ivan E. Goodner 456 

Ditto J. D. Hubbard.... 636 

Flow, effect of mouthpieces on 727 

Velocity and discharge in ditches 2S0 

Ditto 395 

Watt, A. P Concentration practice in south-east 

Missouri 689 



Vol 115 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



11 



Webber, Morton. .. .Mill-testa v. hand-sampling in valuing 

mines 125. 453 

Weeks, Walter S Displacement-tanks.... 855 

Ditto Prop In pressure of compressed-air hose 504 

What is a metalliferous mineral. .Courtenay De Kalb.... 225 

Ditto L. 0. Howard 65 

Whittler. W. H Editorial 298 

Ditto Steel on the Pacific Coast 301 

Whv we fight Editorial 187 

Wilbur, R. L Editorial 488 

Williams. Henry D Flotation. Butte & Superior 

case— I II 207 

Winehell. Horace V Russia in war time 601 

Wire, corrosion of barbed 938 

Wiseman. Philip United Eastern Mining Co. . . . 917 

Ditto War excess-profit tax 933 

Wolf. Albert G Liberty Bell mercury-trap 206 

Ditto Method of filing drawings. . . . 426 

Wolframite 688, 692 

Ditto Editorial 298 

Work of the Council of National Defense 123 

Wright. C. A Flotation of lead and zinc in the 

Joplin district 575 

Wuensch, C. Erb Geology of the San Sebastian mine. 

Salvador 345 

Ditto Recent vulcanism in Salvador 22 



Young, George J Editorial.... 297 

Ditto Methods of mining 637 



Page 

Young. II. I Mining practice in the Joplin district. . 

Yundt. L. D. and O. C. Ralston Chemicals used in 

flotation 546 

Z 

Zinc, antimony and, globules in 473 

Blende, gallium si;-t 

Burning W. R. Ingalls 432 

Concentrate composition 474 

Curtailment of production , 544 

Decline in production 705 

Deposits, secondary 530 

Dust as a precipitant in cyanidation 

W. J. Sharwood 428 

Electrolytic 492 

Electrolytic, factors in production 685 

Exports from Atlantic ports Editorial 631 

Ferrate 195 

Flotation in the Joplin district 575 

From low-grade complex ores 827 

Missouri 93 

Ore deposits, principles governing 647 

Oxidation from brass 581 

Oxide of 759 

Prices Editorial 259 

Prices for July 190 

Production Editorial .... 37, 259 

Roasting ore 5S 

Situation in Australia 95 

Sulphate, leaching and purification 724 




Volume 115 
Number 1 



Edited by T. A. RICKARD 



SAN FRANCISCO, JULY 7, 1917 

AN INDEPENDENT PAPER OWNED, EDITED, AND MANAGED BY ENGINEERS 




15 Cents per Copy 
$4 per Year 



"KEWANEE" Flange Unions 




fj Brass-to-iron ground ball joint insures a non-leaking connection 
even when the pipe is out of alignment. 

^ Flange is loose on the collar — the bolts match the holes in 
any position of the flange. 

*I "KEWANEE" Flange Unions are tested with extreme 
compressed-air pressure under water and if not absolutely tight 
are rejected. 

1 The brass ground-in seat is not loosely inserted, but is made 
practically integral with the malleable part of the Union. 



Fig. J-335 — Sectional View 




«J THE WHOLE "KEWANEE" FAMILY booklet tells 

all about "KEWANEE" Flange Unions, "KEWANEE" ring 
type Unions and "KEWANEE" specialties. A copy will be 
sent free to anyone whose letterhead or position would indicate a 
legitimate use. 

NATIONAL TUBE COMPANY 

General Sales Offices, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

District Sales Offices in the Larger Cities 



Note Brass Seat Screwed In 



In This Issue: 

Principles of Flotation 

Methods of Driving Pine Mountain Tunnel 



Buyers' Guide, page 54 
Advertisers' Index, page 60 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1317 




THE OLIVER 

has never been replaced by another 

[L make of filter, but other filters are 

continually being replaced by Olivers. 



The OLIVER is made in sizes to 
meet any condition involving the 
separation of liquid from solid. 



The OLIVER can lower the percentage of 
moisture in your concentrate and at a 
lower cost than by any other method or 
apparatus. 

The OLIVER can elim- 
inate your soluble losses 
and reduce your cyanide 
^ and zinc consumption, 
whether or not you use 
count ercurrent 
decantation. 



m 



The OLIVER is the 
standard filter — 
universally known 
and universally 
used. 



Write us today and send 
5 gallons of pulp — we 
can solve your filtering 
problem. 



OLIVER CONTINUOUS 
FILTER COMPANY 

501 Market St. San Francisco 

No Royalties to Pay 





.Inly 7. 1!M7 MINING and Scientific PRESS :t 
1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIM 

f Why Trust to Luck to Save Gold I 

But take such pains to save the concentrates? 

In tests made by the Gen- 
ii eral Engineering Co. the 

Senn Batea Amalgamator, 
H Jr., amalgamated 97% of 

1 the gold from Neill Jig 

J concentrates. Of this gold 

g 55% passed 100 mesh. 

I Can You "Pan" Free Gold in Your Plate Tailings? | 

H The Victor recovered 14 ounces of amalgam on the Senn Batea H 

H Amalgamator from stationary plate tailings to 20 ounces on the §| 

M plates. H 

M An increase of 25 cents per ton means an increase of M 

M $375.00 per month for each Senn Batea. |§ 

| Why Not "Pan" the Gold into the Amalgam? | 

H In tests by Chas. Butters Co. on a silicified shale carrying free = 

H gold, the best of four laboratory bottle amalgamation tests |{ 

W gave 58.5% recovery. Two mill runs on the Senn Pan-Motion || 

H Batea Amalgamator gave 78% and 82.5% respectively. = 

H We are furnishing 4 Bateas for the first unit of the mill to M 

!§ handle this ore. M 

jj Why Not Grind Fine and Save All the Free Gold? J 

H 63% of the gold in the latter tests passed through 150 mesh, fl 

=| while 91% of it passed 40 mesh. H 

| Senn Pan -Motion Batea Amalgamators | 

M are made in two sizes — a 50-ton machine for general mill installations, = 

== and a 20 to 25-ton Batea (shown above) for test plants, small mills, clean- |§ 

§§ up plants, cleaning placer concentrates, etc. They are carefully and |= 

WL strongly built for continuous operation with a minimum of attention. = 

1 SENN CONCENTRATOR COMPANY 1 

| 615 FIRST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL, U. S. A. | 

z= Cor. Post and Montgomery Streets == 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Julv 7. 1917 



DUPLEX RESERVE POWER 
ASSURES Dl 

IN EXTREME 








miiiUBiiii 



THE tremendous reserve power of 
the Duplex — the original 4-Wheel 
Drive 3f-Ton Truck — is applied 
four times more effectively than is pos- 
sible with any other type of motor truck. 

That is why the Duplex is known through- 
out the country — in industrial centres, log- 
ging camps, gravel pits, mining districts, 
deserts and oil fields — as a super-strength 
motor truck that hauls capacity loads any- 
where. 

One source of Duplex dependability under 
most adverse road conditions is found in the 
Duplex-Adler self-locking differential, which 
automatically throws the power to the wheel 
or wheels having traction. 

Another source of Duplex effectiveness of 
reserve power lies in the range of gear reduc- 
tion made possible with the Duplex Chain Case 
— an exclusive Duplex truck feature. 

The Duplex Chain Case reduction gives the 
Duplex a draw-bar pull four times greater 
than that of any rear-wheel drive truck, and 



makes it practically impossible to stall the 
Duplex even when trailers are being pulled 
through hub-deep mud and up embankments. 

The Duplex Chain Case, by means of a silent 
chain belt, transmits the power from the main 
propeller shaft to the shafts driving the front 
and rear axles. A reserve chain provides an 
additional two to one gear reduction whenever 
needed. This chain case reduction practically 
doubles the power applied to the four wheels. 
It provides a tremendous leverage of G4 crank- 
shaft turns to every revolution of each of the 
four wheels, and makes it possible for the 
Duplex to haul three and one-half ton loads 
under up-grade conditions that any rear-wheel 
truck would find difficult to negotiate when 
unloaded. 

Our 1917 catalog explains in detail the many 
exclusive mechanical features of the Duplex, 
while our engineers will give you facts and 
figures for your particular business. If you 
would reduce your haulage costs to the abso- 
lute minimum, let us send you complete in- 
formation about the Duplex — the truck that 
hauls capacity loads anywhere. 



The Duplex Si-Ton Truck, shown above, hauled this large oil tank over country 
roads a distance of nearly SO miles. The tank, which is 7 feet in diameter and 28$ 
feet long, weighs Si tons. The Duplex hauled its burden through sand and mud and 
up steep hills, and clearly demonstrated that it is equal to any hauling emergency. 



Address All Communications to Department 139 

DUPLEX TRUCK COMPANY 



LANSING 



MICHIGAN 



.lulv 7. 1!U7 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



•X* 



♦♦♦V 

♦♦♦♦>♦♦♦ 

♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦ ♦"- 



MRS 
D T QU BPEffcRIM RED? 



♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ■ 



oc 



For Stamps 

■inn iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiu iiiiiiiiiiii 

Stamp-milling is the supreme test of stamina in a 
screen. Five stamps in a single mortar, weighing 1000 
pounds and more, dropping from a height of 6 inches 
at the rate of 100 times per minute, drive with great 
force particles of rock against the screens. Imagine 
this constant battering against the screens — the wear 
and tear and consequent short life. It is not surprising 
that punched metal was considered the only prac- 
ticable thing until the advent of 



PERFECT 



Double - Crimped Woven -Wire Cloth 



The double - crimping process not 
only produces a structure excep- 
tionally strong and stiff, but also 
gives a large percentage of effect- 



ive screening area, a point of great 
importance when the desirability 
of a quick discharge is consid- 
ered. 



Ludlow - Saylor 
Wire Company 

General Offices and Factory 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Branch Offices 

20 East Jackson Street, - Chicago 
Mills Building, - - El Paso, Texas 
Felt Building, - Salt Lake City, Utah 




Try the effect of PERFECT 
screens when you make your 
next replacement. 



Our data book is yours for 
the asking. Send for it. 



^m^^^^mm^m^ 



This illustration used by courtesy of Joshua Hendy Iron Works 
San Francisco 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 





COMPOUND HINGE 



MATTESON 



MATTESON CARS were introduced in 1908. Since 
then they have replaced practically all other 
makes in Pacific Coast and adjacent territory. They 
are 'investment' cars, the cars of exclusive design 
and workmanship. 



These are the 

that distirv^vjisK 

from All 



Thro^BTthis device, Jj^Kody of the ear may be 

tij^BFl to an angle o^Hrdegrees from a centre com- 

lably back of^^re centre of gravity when the 

Jaded body ^fln rest. The car may then be 

P&umped witi^Pase from any position, swiveling 

being poss^^without release of the door latch. 



STANDARD TRUCK 



is made of a one-piece steel channel frame, ac- 
rately formed. The Hendy dust-proof axle- 
Sousings are bolted on with U bolts. The live axles 
r float and are readily replaceable. 



TURNTABLE 




This is not like ordinary swivels. It revolves on 
roller bearings in a dust-proof housing, the upper 
and lower plates being made of steel. The mini- 
mum exertion thus required to swivel the loaded 
car is obvious. 




There is a HENDY -MADE mine-car 
to suit your requirements 

r MM OMt^^^ - l 



.lulv 7. KMT 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



NINE CARS 



HENDY-MADE means something. It means the com- 
bination of the latest manufacturing methods, 
modern, up-to-date shop equipment, superiority in 
design, and the best available material for the pur- 
pose used. 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



m 



i: K - 

|.r 

H 



if 






m 



-i^mmmm^^m m^^^m mm^mMm^mM 



S! 




TUNNELING COSTS REDUCED 40% 



tLEXO/D IUBINO, 

Trade Mark Registered 

Solves one of the biggest problems in tunnel driving — maximum results 
are now possible. 

No more expensive time losses. Men can return to the face imme- 
diately after blasting. Smoke and fumes removed in less than three 
minutes. Air conditions equal to those above ground — results more and 
better work — no bonuses necessary. Also used in shafts, raises and 
winzes. 

Flexoid Tubing is low in cost and easy to handle. One man can 
carry and install one or two hundred foot sections in three minutes. 
Suspended from timbering or laid along floor. 

Leading mine operators and superintendents proclaim it the greatest 
improvement in tunnel driving and mining equipment in years. 

60 Days FREE Trial. To any responsible mining concern we will 
furnish enough Flexoid Tubing to give it a thorough trial for 60 days, 
with the understanding that it may be returned and no charge will be 
made if it is not entirely satisfactory. 

Ask for further particulars. You will be under no obligations whatever. 

BEMIS BRO. BAG CO. 



371 Poplar St., 



Selling Agencies in Principal Cities and Mining 
Camps Tliroughouf the World. 



St. Louis, Mo. 









Kj 






^■■.^'■■ ' " ' :^ ' ^-' :^'^'-^^T 7^^T'>^' ;'%»-',- '.-.;:" "„>'■■> ?y^-£A [ 






I./,'' 



(■-'.', 



M 






July 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



HEADQUARTERS FOR MINE- MILL AND SMELTER EQUIPMENT 




Latest Mode] No.9 Wilfley 



Two Concentrators in One— 

Where floor-space is limited or where conditions seem to warrant 
doubling the capacity without increasing the number of tables, it 
is easy to meet conditions by simply installing the new No. 9 
DOUBLE DECK— 

FOR " 

CONCENTRATION product 



The actual result obtained from such instal- 
lation is two efficient concentrating tables in 
the space formerly occupied by one. 

And when we have told you that this new 
No. 9 Wilfley is, in reality, two number six 
Wilfleys — that it actually doubles the well- 
know advantages of this justly famous table 
— you will realize the importance of this new 
development. The No. 9 is rapidly finding 



its way, in large quantities, into the largest 
and most important concentrating plants. 

The same superior principles, great care, ex- 
cellent workmanship and materials that have 
made the Wilfley Table famous are embodied 
in the new No. 9 Double Decker. 

Of large capacity, depending upon the char- 
acter of the ore, it gives the service that 
mining men have learned to expect from all 
MASSCO products. 



Bulletin 30 explains in detail. "Successful Purchasing 1 " is the title 
of another booklet which means all that its name implies. Both 
booklets will be sent, without obligation, upon request. 



^THE MlrSTXlTsMELTER SUPPLY COMPANY 

A SERVICE STATION WITHIN REACH OF YOU 

DENVER, ■ SALT LAKE CITY - EL PASO 

NEW YORK OFFICE - 42 BROADWAY 






I 




HL-M.mjiMJ .»n.m.nw^gs 



■WILFLEY TABLE- 
MARCY MILL- ASSAY 
*KD LABORATORY EQUIP 
KENT AND SUPPLIES* 
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 
• GENERAL MINING 
MACHINERY- MILL 
EQUIPMENT 



10 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



MM 



^31 1 1 1 1 1 1 111 1 1 1 1 ! J I II IIIH^^^^^SIIU J J 1 II I II I 111 J 1 1 1 1 1 @^ 






m VULCAN STEAM HOIST = 




FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT = 

WE OFFER 

1 — 14 n xl6 n Vulcan Single Drum Geared Steam 
Hoist. Tangye Frame — Post Brakes — Balanced 
Valves— Load 8000 to 9000 pounds— Speed 700 
feet per minute. 

A low price will be made on this hoist. 



WE CAN ALSO MAKE QUICK DELIVERIES ON 
ELECTRIC HOISTS AT THIS TIME 



^henprie&bqlthoff 



MANUFACTURING fie SUPPLY CO. 

PIONEER MACHINERY AND SUPPLY HOUSE OF THE WE5T j 
DENVER* COLO- 



July 7, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



11 




"Calyx" Core DrilU— Catalog 9201 



"Little Twreer" Hoists— Bulletin 4 1 33 



The experience of thousands of users of 

Ingersoll-Rand Rock Drills 

shows that, because of superior design, selected metals and 
expert workmanship, more work is secured at a lower main- 
tenance cost — and the equipment lasts longer. 

Send for the Bulletin 

Ingersoll-Rand Company 



11 Broadway 
NEW YORK 



165 Q. Victoria St. 

LONDON 



Offices the World Over 
For Canada, address Canadian Ingersoll-Rand Co., Montreal 27-JtD 



12 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



Make Yours a "Safety* First" Mine 

By Using 




No. 5 MACHINE 




BLASTING 
MACHINES 



FIRING loaded bore holes with electrical currents de- 
creases the liability of accidents, increases the efficiency 
of explosives and reduces the cost of blasting operations. 

SIMPLICITY of design, compactness and dependability 
in operation make Du Pont Blasting Machines practical 
and popular with blasting crews. 

SAFEGUARD life and property by requiring the use of blasting 
machines for detonation of explosives. 

ASK FOR DESCRIPTIVE FOLDER 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 



Powder Makers Since 1802. 



WILMINGTON, 



DELAWARE 



Eccleston Periphery Discharge Ball Mill 



Concentrators, 

Tube Mill Linings 
and Balls, 

White Iron Castings, 
Screens, Etc. 



ADJUSTABLE 
STEEL LINERS 



Mining Men 




The mineral contents of your ore are hard to save if slimed. Why not crush your ore in the only 
Periphery Discharge Ball Mill on the market and save sliming? In this mill the product is discharged 
as soon as it is crushed fine enojigh. The discharge is in the natural place and for the full length of the 
mill. Wouldn't it be wise to at least investigate? 

Write for Bulletin TODAY 

ECCLESTON MACHINERY COMPANY 

162 SOUTH ANDERSON ST., LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 



•Inly 7. 1917 MINING and Scientific PRESS 1:>, 

nnnirmrmnniniiTiinntiniimir mitnnimnTmiiniriimiiMiTiinniMiMiMmiiiiiiriiniMniniMiiiniiiiiiinniinsiiiTiiMUMiiiiriinitiimiimniniiiiuii! iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



THE FLOTATION PROCESS 

All patent and other rights to this process 
in North America are now controlled by 

MINERALS SEPARATION NORTH AMERICAN CORPORATION 

On December 11, 1916, the SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES adjudged our 
basic patent for air-froth flotation to be valid, holding that this patent covers any process of froth 
flotation- wherein the results obtained are secured by the use of a fraction of one percent., on 
the ore, of an oily frothing agent in an ore-pulp, with agitation. Three of the thirteen claims 
which specified the use of "a small quantity of oil" and which the Court held to be invalid have 
since, by proper disclaimer, been brought within the scope of the Supreme Court's decision and, at 
a recent trial in the United States District Court at Butte, Montana, Judge Bourquin admitted 
these claims as amended. 

On May 24, 1917, the UNITED STATES CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS at Philadelphia, 
in the ease of Minerals Separation, Ltd., against Miami Copper Company, unanimously sustained 
the validity and broadly construed a second basic patent, owned by us, for the use of all "Soluble 
Frothing Agents." In the same opinion, the Court also validated a third patent for the use of 
cresols and phenols in the cold and without acid. The defendants, Miami Copper Company en- 
deavored to avoid infringement of these patents by using Callow pneumatic cells, but the Court 
held that the operations of the defendant company infringed all three patents. 

Prospective users of our flotation processes are earnestly requested not to be misled by the 
mistaken views disseminated by interested parties that any of these BASIC PROCESS PATENTS 
can be evaded by a mere variation of apparatus for agitating and aerating the pulp, or by the 
simple addition of oils or other materials in excess of a fraction of one percent, on the weight of 
the ore treated. 

NOTICE 

Notice is hereby given that we will enforce our patents and stop all infringements, 
but are prepared to grant licenses for the right to use all or any of our processes to 
those who wish to use them. 

To those who infringe or have infringed our patents, notice is given that A SET- 
TLEMENT FOR SUCH INFRINGEMENT MUST PRECEDE THE GRANTING OF 
LICENSES FOR THE FUTURE USE OF SAME. 

Notice is further given that no one is authorized to introduce our processes or 
apparatus into the United States, Canada, or Mexico. 

All applications should be made direct to 

MINERALS SEPARATION NORTH AMERICAN CORPORATION | 

■ Head Office Engineering Office ^ 

I 61 Broadway Merchants Exchange Building J 

I New York, N. Y. San Francisco, California ■ 



14 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 191T 



Single Friction Drum Gasoline Hoist 



Exceptional utility is presented in these 
light, compact, self-contained hoists for mine 
service. 

The drums are of the best quality of cast 
iron and fitted with renewable bronze bush- 
ings; they are controlled by the well known 
Cone Friction type of Clutch and Steel Band 
Brake, both lined with hard wood blocks. 

The gears are accurately cut from the 
solid on automatic machines, thus insuring 
smooth, quiet running and long life. Gear 
Guards (not illustrated) are furnished. 

The Motors are vertical, double cylinder, 
4 cycle, giving a steady stream of power. 
These engines are throttle governed. They 
are fully enclosed, all moving parts running 
in a bath of oil. Glass oil-gauge is fitted on 
side. 

Shebler carburetor, jump spark ignition, 
also high tension, gear driven magneto fur- 
nished. 

Water Pump is direct driven and non- 
chokable. A double screen cooling tank is 
furnished. 




Two Sizes 8 H. P. and 15 H.P. 



THE ENGLISH IRON WORKS COMPANY 

Kansas City, Mo., U. S. A. 



STEEL TANKS 

FOR MINES, CYANIDE PLANTS, OIL REFIN- 
ERIES, SUGAR REFINERIES, TANKS OF 
PACHUCA TYPE, FILTERS, ZINC BOXES, ETC. 





10,000 bbl. Storage Tank with Globe Root 



Top Rind and Submerged Root 25,000 bbl Gasoline Storage Tank. 



HAMMOND 

IRON WORKS 

WARREN, PENNA., U. S. A. 

CABLE ADDRESS: HAMONDTANIC 
WARREN, PA. 

NEW YORK: 

2728 Whitehall Building 

LOS ANGELES: 

414 Grosse Building 

LONDON REPRESENTATIVES : 

Wonhan, Bates & Goode, Inc. 

No. 3 London Wall Building!, London 



Jul 



1!U7 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



15 



Vordbi ra Vote 
Haiti wit/I General Nee 
trie Motor Generator Set 
and direct current motor 
/>»■ Mm Orht Minim 
Co., Butte, Wont, Load 

8»,000lb., depth 3600 /I, 




Typical Large Electric Hoist— 

Built by NORDBERG 

This hoist is of the large double drum, first motion type, driven by 
a direct current motor, operated by Ward-Leonard control in con- 
junction with a fly-wheel motor generator set 



The clutches are of the celebrated 
Nordberg balanced axial plate type, op- 
erated by the hydraulic engine shown 
clearly in the large photograph. These 
clutches have great power and once used 
by mining men, are always demanded. 

The brakes are of the Nordberg gravity 
operated, post brake design with levers 
and suspensions to give parallel motion 
and prevent binding. Brakes are applied 
or relieved evenly and gradually. With 
the oil operated hydraulic engine behind 



NORDBERG 



and to the right of the clutch engine, the 
degree of braking can be regulated with 
greater delicacy than by hand brakes. 

A feature of this installation is the ar- 
rangement of rods from operator's plat- 
form to brake and clutch engines, in 
trenches covered by floor plates. This 
makes the installation exceptionally neat 
of appearance. 

If you are not fully posted on these 
aud other features of Nordberg Hoists, 
ask for Bulletins 23 and 24. 



T 



MAOKNEQf 



Nordberg Manufacturing Company 

1449 Chicago Avenue - Milwaukee, Wis., U. S. A. 

Manufacturers of High Efficiency Corlis8 Engines: TJniflow Engines; Poppet Valve Engines; Oil 
Engines: Nordbergr-Carels Diesel Type Engines; Air Compressors; Blowing- Engines; Hoisting- Engines; 
Pumping- Engines and other machinery. 



NORDBERG 



T 



MACBJNM 



16 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 




HERE IS SOMETHING NEW— seamless aluminum 



The LITTLE GIANT c fS E 



A true JUSTRITE product in 
every sense of the word — It is 
called the "LITTLE GIANT" be- 
cause it is the lamp of LITTLE 
weight and trouble, and a GIANT 
for economy and efficiency. 

It weighs only 30 ounces — has the 
famous JUSTBITE Spiral Water 
Feed with the Removable Spiral 
Valve Stem — Fish-Tail Burner 
with Tip Protector (protects the 
flame from wind) and in fact 
everything that a perfect lamp 
ought to have. 



Come back from the dark age of candles and 
use the light of the JUSTRITE. We can 
help you save big money. AVrite us 



Vrw^og M/\KK , 



CARBIDE 

Mine Lamp 

A LAMP FOR EVERY 
MINING PURPOSE 

"When a better carbide lamp is 
made it will be a JUSTRITE" 

lllllilllllllllllll 




Justrite Manufacturing Company 

2075 Southport Ave. Dept. M Chicago, U. S. A. 



No. 110 



Made of %-inch Seamless Aluminum — 
6-hour capacity. Reflector is part of 
the lamp; cannot be broken off. Equip- 
ped with steel bail and hook and has 
large screw threads for fastening the 
top and bottom together. It is "wonder- 
fully simple, sturdily constructed and 
easy to operate. Has only a few extra 
parts which makes the maintenance 
cost much less than other large lamps. 





Krogh Sand Pumps are lower in first 
cost and in maintenance than others — 

Krogh Lined Band Pumps will give you greater satisfaction for the very good reason that, compared 
with any other pump of equal efficiency, they are much lower in first cost and in upkeep expense. 
Other pumps of equal price cannot equal Krogh Lined Sand Pumps in work or in low operating cost. 

Simple, sturdy, and with common sense 
built into every part, these pumps are de- 
signed by men who know mining and 
milling conditions. "*»*»«» 9 

Notice, in the illustration, how the liners 
are easily removed and replaced. They 
are made from special chilled car-wheel 
iron, harder than steel, yet less costly; 
no through bolts used to hold the liners 
in place. 

Regularly made in 2", 3", 4", 6", and 8" 
sizes; special types designed to meet ex- 
traordinary conditions. 

We shall be glad to mail you descriptive 
Bulletin No. M-79 or other bulletins de- 
scribing Krogh Sinking Pump, Krogh 
Horizontal and Vertical Automatic Cen- 
trifugal Pump, Horizontal Motor Driven 
Pump, Krogh Dredge Pump, Krogh High 
Pressure Centrifugal Pump — write. 

Krogh Pump Manufacturing Company 



K 



M O M E Y SAV I M G 

SandPumlDs 



159 Beale Street 



H 



San Francisco 



Julv 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



17 



Sullivan Drill Sharpeners 




FOR HOLLOW DRILL STEEL 



Sullivan Sharpeners are particularly adapted for 
working hollow steel — 

1. The heat required is short and does not close 
the hole. No danger of burning. 

2. The method of dollying keeps the hole well 
opened, making a long hole. No danger of splittin g. 

3. The gripping dies hold the bit or shank in 
perfect alignment with the dolly pin, so that the 
hole is in the exact center of the steel. 

4. The hammer process permits slow or fast, light 
or heavy blows to be delivered at will, assuring 
careful handling. 

Described in Bulletin 1372. 



The photo shows the Sul- 
livan Sharpener at the 
Republic Mine, Cleveland 
Cliffs Iron Co., Republic, 
Michigan. 

1% in. round hollow steel 
is used, with 4-point bits. 
A day's work is 500 bits, 
but on a consecutive run, 
400 bits have been made 
in 4 hrs. 15 min. by the 
smith and one helper, 
who did the heating. 

Hammer Your Drill Bits 



Sullivan Machinery Company 



123 S. Michigan Avenue, Chicago 



451 Market St., San Francisco 



Amsterdam 


Denver 


Juneau 


New York 


Salt Lake City 


Boston. Mass. 
Butte 


El Paso 


Knoxville 


Paris, France 


Seattle 


Ishpetning:, Mich. 


London, Eng\ 


Petrograd 


Shanghai 


Cobalt, Ont. 


Joplin, Mo. 


Nelson, B. C. 


Pittsburgh 


Spokane 



St. Louis 
Sydney, N. S. W. 
Toronto 
Turin, Italy 
Vancouver. B. C. 



18 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



The Sauerman Dragline Cableway Excavator 



During the past seven years it has been on the 
market has demonstrated its high efficiency and 
great economy of operation. 

Among the many uses of this machine in exca- 
vating work has been that of excavating and con- 
veying material in wet and dry placers, reclaiming 
mine tailings, reclaiming ore from storage piles, etc. 



Low cost «of operation has been made possible 
with this excavator by the elimination of interme- 
diate labor and machinery between pit and plant. 

The entire operation of Digging, Conveying, 
Elevating, and Pumping is accomplished by one 
machine operated by one man. 

Put your problem up to us and we will advise you. 
No obligations. Catalog on request. 




SAUERMAN BROS., 1141 Monadnock Blk., CHICAGO, ILL. 

Mfgrs. Cableway Excavators, Power Scrapers, and Cableway Accessories 



DEANE 

of Holyoke 
Gathering 
Pumps 




Pump, motor and controller compactly 
mounted on one bedplate. 

Valves, boxes and other parts readily accessible. 
Doesn't require expert attention — stands rough 
usage and hard knocks. 

Write lor Mine Pump Bulletin D218-32. 



Portable 

Simple 

Strong 

Compact 

Accessible 



WORTHINGTON PUMP AND MACHINERyCORPORATION 



115 Broadway, New York 



Deane Works : Holyoke, Mass. 



Branch Offices in all the Principal Cities 

■niiiNUiiiiii nillllllllllllll in i i i.'i.ii i ■ : i iiiiui nun 



D326.4 

hi 1. 1 1 mi i nil iiiiiiiiiiiiiniil 



July T. 191' 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



19 




225 Pages— 1400 Illustrations 



THIS book will be sent 
gratis to any truck user 
if the request is made on his 
business letter head and 
signed by a responsible 
official. 



White Trucks predominate in this country 

in total number of trucks in actual 

service — regardless of price. 



A GRAPHIC RECORD 

of 

WHITE TRUCK 

PREDOMINANCE 

^pHIS new White Truck Book is 
■*- the largest and most comprehen- 
sive catalogue of truck installations 
in this country — virtually an official 
Handbook or Directory of truck uses 
in all lines of industry and commerce. 

It illustrates over fourteen hundred separate 
truck units, with a wide variety of bodies classi- 
fied and grouped for each line of business 
represented. 

Body designs and equipment are shown for 
both standard and special uses, embracing the 
entire field of truck operation, from the massive 
dump body to the finest delivery vehicle. 

THE WHITE COMPANY 



816 EAST 79th STREET 



CLEVELAND, OHIO 



20 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7. 1917 





THE UNITED FILTERS is organized 
for the purpose of establishing selling 



purpose or estaonsning 
service. 

The United Filters is sole owner of all patents cov- 
ering the Kelly Filter Press, the Sweetland Filter Press, and 
the American Continuous Suction Filter. 

We maintain extensive laboratory equipment where 
filtration tests are made and will gladly assist you with 
your filtration problems. 

Our organization includes a complete consultation 
staff composed of engineers and chemists who have 
been for years successfully engaged in solving the many 
vexatious problems in filtration which are now confront- 
ing modern industries. 

Hundreds of United Filters are in use in large pro- 
gressive plants where economy counts. 



Special Filters 



We build lead-lined filters for acid solutions : copper and wood- 
lined filters and many other special types used in the Sugar. Chem- 
ical. Metallurgical. Color, and Oil Industries. 

Prices and Capacities upon application 



UNITED FILTERS 

CORPORATION 

Main Office: Felt Building, Salt Lake City, Utah, U. S. A. 



Brooklyn Office: 
36 FlatbusK Avenue Extension 




Chicago Office: 
Peoples Gas Building 

Export Trad*- Agents: The Allied Soger Machinery Corporation 
120 Broaa\aag> New York C:r,. U. S. A 







July 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



21 




Sweetland Self-Dumping Filter 

Because of special sluicing mechanism it is especially suited 
to handling materials which form a cake that is difficult to 
remove from the filter leaves. Can be readily constructed to 
permit handling acid or caustic solutions. Combines a maxi- 
mum of filter area with minimum of floor space. 



^s/vy/eet/ 



/1?/T*s far 

6//7f//?eret/ 
/n/x£cres 




American Continuous 
Vacuum Filter 

Type A 

The ultimate word in Contin- 
uous Vacuum Filtration. Rec- 
ommended for dewatering of 
concentrates, for filtration and 
washing of all cake building 
mixtures that are easy to filter 
and where heat losses do not 
have to be taken into considera- 
tion. Particularly adapted to 
filtration of saccharate cake in 
Steffens Houses. 



Particularly adapted to the filtration of all liquors and pulps that yield a cake 
that is difficult to wash. Positive pressure insured, thorough replacement wash, and 
by drying with compressed air remarkably low cake moistures can be obtained. ShellB 
can be readily insulated with asbestos, making it an ideal filter for hot solutions. 



22 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



'TIMBER FRAMING' 

By H. D. DEWELL, C. E. 

275 PAGES, FULLY ILLUSTRATED. PRICE POSTPAID, $2 

This book, just completed by one of the foremost structural engineers and designers, 
covers the subject of Timber Framing completely for the first time. 




Mine managers and engineers are 
frequently called upon to design and 
build surface-structures at mines, ore- 
bins, mills, head-frames, trestles, 
flumes, and other structures. It is 
desirable that the structures be as 
simple in design as possible, while 
meeting the demand for safety and 
efficiency. There is a very common 
lack of the appreciation of the strength 
of timber-structures properly framed, 
and this results in much unnecessary 
expense and waste of materials by 
building a structure in which the 
timbers are of far greater size than the 
condition demands. By knowing how, 
the designer builds neither too ex- 
pensively, nor is his structure weak. 
It is for the determination of these 
questions that 'Timber Framing' will 
be of great value. 

IT CONTAINS: Rules for Grading 
Lumber — Unit Stresses of Tension, 
Compression, Shear and Bending — Co- 
ordination of Tests — Truss Detail and 
End Connections — Nailed, Screwed 
and Bolted Joints — Intermediate 
Joints and Tension Splices — Founda- 
tion, and Columns and Connections — 
Design and Construction of Head- 
frames, Flumes, Ore-bins and Mill 
Buildings, Specifications for Timber 
Framing. 

Gel this book at a special reduced 
price with a year's subscription to the 
MINING and Scienfific PRESS. 



The Only Modern Timber Framing Book Published 

For a limited time 'Timber Framing' will be sent in combination with a year's subscription to 
MINING and Scientific PRESS, either on new subscriptions or renewals, for $5.00. Use the coupon. 



SPECIAL OFFER COUPON 



MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market St., San Francisco p - 

ENTER my subscription to MINING and Scientific PRESS beginning with the current issue. 

RENEW my subscription to MINING and Sceintific PRESS at the expiration of my present sub- 
scription. Also send the new book 'Timber Framing,' by H. D. Dewell. For this I enclose $5, to be 
divided as follows : $4 for the MINING and Scientific PRESS and $1 for the book. 

Name Vocation 

Address Employed by 



July 7, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



23 



Westinghouse 

Sherardized 
Mine Trolley Line Material 




Type FP Ear 



Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Altaota. Ga. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Eirming-ham, Ala. 
Bluefield. W. Va. 
Boston, Mass. 
Buffalo. N. T. 
Butte, Mont. 



•W. E. & M. Co. of Texas 



Charleston. W. Va. 
Charlotte. N. C. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, HI. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Columbus, Ohio 



"Dallas, Texas 
Dayton. Ohio 
Denver, Colo. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Duluth, Minn. 
•El Paso, Texas 
Indianapolis, Ind. 



Joplin, Mo. 
Kansas City. Mo. 
Louisville. Ky. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Memphis. Tenn. 
Milwaukee. Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



New Orleans, La. 
New York, N. T. 
Omaha, Net>. 
Philadelphia. Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Portland, Ore. 
Rochester, N. Y. 



St. Louis, Mo. 
Salt Lake City. Utah 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Seattle. Wash. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Toledo, Ohio 
Washing-ton, D. C. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 



24 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 




!;:-::.: iiu tin 



CRUSHING ROLL TYPE 

WOOD PULLEY 

(SPLIT) 

The resiliency of the wood 
structure successfully resists severe 
shock loads which quickly crys- 
tallize and destroy the best of 
metallic pulleys. 

Note the massive rim, arms 
and keyed hub. 

Worth remembering as a cure 
for troublesome drives. 

See your Dodge Catalog for 
details. 



Dodge dales and Engineering Company 

Distributor of the Products of Dodge Manufacturing Co. 

"Ecery''"'ng tor the Mechanical Transmission of Power" 
General Office and Works: Mishawaka, Ind. 

Sale? and Engineering Service Station: 
814 Newhouse Bldg. , Salt Lake. 




Saves from 15% to 25% of 
every letter- writing hour 

SELF STARTING 

REMINGTON 

TYPEWRITER 

"This new invention permits your 
A typist to keep her eyes on her 
copy. The machine doesn't have 
to be looked at, or the scale 
watched. The time saving is auto- 
matic. There is no other type- 
writer like this. Fully protected 
by Remington patents. 

The Self Starter, while adding 
to speed, adds nothing to the cost 
of the typewriter. It is part of 
the machine. 

Try the time saver on your own 
letters. We are constantly making 
demonstrations throughout the 
city — they involve no obligation 
on your part. Shall we put you 
on the list ? Write, or phone 
Garfield 2400. Descriptive folders 
also mailed on request. 

REMINGTON TYPEWRITER CO. 

\ Incorporate d ) 



Mills Bldg., 238-240 Bush St. 



San Francisco, Cal. 



July 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



26 




A Complete Mine Power Plant 



Engineer's Talk No. 4 

The inherent power in the water is applied in the Hill 
Air Compressor by using- the surge effect or semi-ram 
action. During- the first part of the stroke tlie water 
column gains speed and stores up energy, and during: 
the latter part of the compression stroke the moving- 
weig-ht of water is retarded and returns the energy 
stored up in the first part of the stroke. The velocity 
of the water in the pipe fine constantly changes, but the 
flow never stops entirely. The longer the pipe line used, 
the smaller the change of velocity of the water. The 
machine compresses a volume of free air equal to the 
amount of the water used. 



From a comparative initial and ultimate cost this 
compressor is the most economical manufactured. 



\p 



1AM. 
, COUPOH 

\ VJ-Ofcy\ 
INFORMATION 



Easy to install, light in weight, 
economical. Six sizes to fit all 
requirements, from small pros- 
pecting outfit, that may be mule- 
backed, to larger machines for 
the biggest properties. 



NATIONAL ENGINEERING & EQUIPMENT CO. 

25th Floor, L. C. Smith Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 

Dear Sirs: Please send free booklet descriptive of Hill 
Automatic Hydraulic Air Compressor. 

Name 

Address 



HILE=° AIR 

COMPRESSOR 

Delivers 50% more compressed 
air at the point of use than the 
ordinary combination of water 
wheel and compressor using same 
water power. 

This powerful automatic compressor is a complete 
mine power plant all in one machine — and it operates 
continuously, day and night, without watching. Re- 
quires no technical knowledge to operate. 



THE EXCELSIOR 
AIROMETER 




They make it easy for the modern miner to 
know the exact condition of each rock drill 
being used, also where air is sold ; they make 
settlements with your power users simple, 
equitable and satisfactory to both parties. 



We are manufacturing The Sentinel Auto- 
matic Valve for the conservation of com- 
pressed air. They are the bete noir of the 
fellow who wastes three or four times the 
requisite amount of air for ventilation. These 
Sentinels are sold under guarantee to please 
and often amuse the fair-minded superintend- 
ent or shift boss. They don't interfere with the 
legitimate use of air, but when they begin to 
buck— there is something wrong— look it up ! 



The Denver Hydro Company 



No. 1520 18th St., Denver, Colorado 



Cable Address : HYDRO DENVER 



Usual Codes 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

INFORMATION BULLETIN 

WESTERN DEPARTMENT 



July 7, 1917 



SECOND, OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMP, AUGUST 27 - NOVEMBER 26, 1917 
THE PRESIDIO, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 



GENERAL PLAN 

To provide officers for the drafted forces of the National 
Army the War Department has adopted the policy of commis- 
sioning all new officers of the line (Infantry, Cavalry, Field 
and Coast Artillery) purely on the basis of demonstrated 
ability after three months' observation and training in the 
Officers' Training Camps. 

A second series of Officers' Training Camps will be held 
beginning August 21th, 1917, with the definite mission of 
producing a body of line officers (Infantry, Cavalry, Field and 
Coast Artillery) capable of filling all places in the grades 
above lieutenant and many of the places in the grade of lieu- 
tenant in the second 500,000 troops. 

DATE AND LOCATION OF CAMP 

The second Camp for the Western Department will be held 
at the Presidio Reservation, San Francisco, Cal., and will 
open on August 27th, 1917, and close November 26th, 1917. 

QUALIFICATIONS 
Classes eligible to Apply. Age limits 

(a) Members of the Officers' Reserve Corps (line sections) 
who, through no fault of their own, were unable to attend the 
first series of camps; also Reserve Officers of Staff Corps un- 
der 50 years of age with at least two months' service in war 
and who have had experience in Infantry, Cavalry or Artillery. 

(b) Non-commissioned officers of the Regular Army recom- 
mended in March, 1917, for temporary appointment in case of 
war, and who, through no fault of their own, were unable to 
attend the training schools for Regular Army non-commis- 
sioned officers in April 1917. Maximum age limit 50 years. 

(c) Resigned officers of the Regular Army. Maximum age 
limit 50 years. 

(d) Men of proper qualifications made eligible for the 
Officers' Reserve Corps by the Army Appropriation of May 12, 
1917. Maximum age limit 50 years. 

(e) Men who have qualified for commissions under Gen- 
eral Orders No. 42, War Department, 1915. Maximum age 
limit 50 years. 

(f) Citizens of the United States who have had war service 
in the present war as officers or non-commissioned officers of 
the line in the armies of allied Powers. Maximum age limit 
44 years. 

(g) Men of exceptional qualifications who tendered their 
services to the Government prior to June 5, 1917, and who 
have been listed under G. O. 37, War Department. Maximum 
age limit 50 years. 

(h) Citizens with valuable military experience and adapta- 
bility for commissioned grade, or citizens who have demon- 
strated marked ability and capacity for leadership, and are 
clearly adapted for military service in commissioned grade. 
Maximum age limit 44 years. 

Employees of the United States must inclose the signed 
recommendation and consent of their chiefs. 

Note. — Men who applied for the first series of camps must 
re-apply whether or not certified as suitable for the first 
camps. They will have no preference in selection for these 
camps but will be on an equal basis with other applicants. 

The minimum age limit for all applicants is 20 years and 
9 months. However, in order to obtain the experienced class 
of men desired, preference will be given to men over 31 years 
of age, other things being equal. Because of the anticipated 
large number of applicants, it will probably be difficult for 
men under that age to qualify except in instances where the 
applicant has pre-eminent qualifications or unusual military 
experience. 

NO LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION 

Note particularly that letters of recommendation are not 
wanted, but only the names of three responsible citizens who 



know the applicant best. Each applicant must be examined 
physically at his own expense by a reputable physician who 
will fill out the physical report forming part of the official 
application blank. This preliminary examination is subject 
to review and the examining officer may require another ex- 
amination. Men who submitted physical examination on the 
Army blank for the first series of camps may submit these 
reports in lieu of a new examination. 

Applications will be received up to July 15, 1917. Under 
no circumstances will an application be considered if received 
after July 15. 

OBLIGATION 

Accepted applicants, unless they are reserve officers or mem- 
bers of the Regular Army or National Guard in Federal 
Service, will be required to enlist for a period of three months, 
under Section 54, National Defense Act, and will agree to 
accept such commission in the Army of the United States as 
may be tendered by the Secretary of War. The enlistment 
obligates one to service in the training camp only. 

PAY AND EXPENSES 

The Government will pay the men in training $100 per 
month during the three months' course and will provide 
transportation, uniforms and subsistence except that Reserve 
Officers in training will receive the pay of their grades and 
will provide uniforms and subsistence at their own expense. 

CHARACTER OF MEN DESIRED 

Since the special object of these camps is to train a body 
of men fitted to fill the more responsible positions of command 
in the new armies, every effort will be made to select men of 
exceptional character and proved ability in their various 
occupations. While it is desired to give full opportunity for 
all eligible citizens to apply, no man need make application 
whose record is not in all respects above reproach and who 
does not possess the fundamental characteristics necessary to 
inspire respect and confidence. 

HOW TO MAKE APPLICATION 

Every candidate must file his application in person 
with the Local Committee of the Military Training 
Camps Association in the town in which he resides. A 
Military Training Camps Association Committee will 
be appointed in every town having a population of 
not less than 2500 within the eight states from which 
candidates are to be drawn for the Presidio Camp. 
From these Committees application blanks can be se- 
cured. Information as to the identity and address of 
the above mentioned Local Committee can be had from 
the cashier of any bank. Do not mail your application. 

The headquarters of the Military Training Camps 
Association for the Western Department can be ad- 
dressed below. 

P. M. Lansdale, 
Executive Secretary, 
Military Training Camps Association of the 
United States. Western Department, 

201 Pine Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
June 25th, 1917. 



.Inly 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



27 




NEW YORK ENGINEERING CO., 




We Do Only One Thing, But We Do It Well— 



That is, we design and build placer mining machinery, 

specializing in 

Gold Dredges 

Prospecting Drills 

Hydraulic Tailing Elevators 

Bucket Tailing Elevators 

Pipe Lines, Sluices, Etc. 

and all and any Placer Equipment 



EMPIRE 




Empire Cold Dredge Operating in Siberia 



Empire catalogs on gold dredges and prospecting drills give interesting 
details of what we have done for others, and what we can do for you. 

Empire Placer Mining Apparatus is Successfully Used in All Parts of the World. 

NEW YORK ENGINEERING COMPANY 

2-RECTOR STREET,- NEW YORK 

V. A. Stout* Western Representative. Balboa Building, San Francisco, California 



KEEP THE WORK GOING 

Nothing is more important in min- 
ing than the prompt and certain 
movement of material. 

Delays affect the whole work. To 
avoid delays locomotives must be re- 
liable and always ready for service. 

Our standard mining locomotives are 

built to insure reliability and constant 

service. Only tested materials are 

used in their construction. All wearing parts are made to templates and gauges. 

Interchangeability of like parts is guaranteed, and long delays waiting for duplicate 

parts avoided, as duplicate parts are kept in stock at our works for prompt shipment. 

AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY 

30 CHURCH STREET, NEW YORK 

McCormick Building, Chicago, Illinois. A. Baldwin & Company, New Orleans, La. 

Dominion Express Building, Montreal, Canada, 
N. B. Livermore & Company, San Francisco and Los Angeles, California. 
Northwestern Equipment Company, Seattle, Wash., and Portland, Oregon. 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



ODUGT 



Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press 

will be interested in the view shown below. It represents a section 
of PACIFIC redwood-stave PIPE under construction for the United 
States Reclamation Service, Sun River Project, near Gilman, Mon- 
tana. It is part of a siphon, eight feet diameter, which crosses a 
steel bridge and then up a steep, rocky canyon. Inspection of this 
illustration will convey an idea of the construction difficulties 
encountered, and, at the same time, direct attention to the adapta- 
bility of PACIFIC PRODUCTS to meet any set of conditions, 
however severe. 

An experienced, competent engineering staff is at your disposal 
without obligation on your part. Your correspondence is solicited. 

PACIFIC TANK AND PIPE COMPANY 



SAN FRANCISCO, 302 Marlcel Streel. 



903 Savings and Trust Bdg., LOS ANGELES 








EDITORIAL STAFF: 
T. A. RICKARD - - Editor 
COURTENAY DE KALB. 

Aaociftte Editor 
W. H. STORMS - New. Editoi 



Mining *s. Press 



ESTAIiUSIIBD 1860 
PuMiltud .11 JJll M.irt.-i St.. San Francisco, In; tin- Dowry PuMilhinj Comi v 



Bl SINESS SI wi . 

C. T. HUTCHINSON. IVWger 

«/ 

E. H. LESLIE 

600 Ftiher Bdi.. Chic.no 

V 

A. S. BREAKEY 
1760 Woolworth Bda.. New York 



Science has no enemy save (he ignoranl 



Issued Every Suturday 



San Francisco, July 7, 1917 



$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



EDITORIAL 



Page. 
1 



Notes 

labob i'.nkkst 2 

Strikes at Butte, Bisbee. Globe, and Clifton; some just 
causes of dissatisfaction; error in method of paying 
bonus: difficulties of the managers; labor troubles 
must be settled in the interest of the country. M. & 
S. P., July 7, 1917. 

MISGOVERNED Mexico 3 

Confiscation of American-owned mines near the bor- 
der; motive behind these acts; may portend interfer- 
ence with the oil-shipments; need of drastic action by 
our Government. M, & S. P., July 7, 1917. 

DISCUSSION 
Sampling Large Low-Grade Orebodies. 

By Thos. H. Leggett 5 

Mill-tests v. moil-sampling; representative mill-tests. 
M. & S. P., July 7. 1917. 

Forest Reserve Again. 

By Henry F. Melville and C. E. Rachford 5 

Grazing permits on Forest Reserve; divergence in 

practice from principles of the Use Book. Troubles 

over cattle must be adjusted under the State law. 
M. & S. P., July 7, 1917. 

"Canadian Mining Regulations. 

By Wm. Thomlinson 6 

Order in Council restricting rights of aliens in holding 
Canadian mining property; Revised Order in Council 
No. 1268 curing such defects. M. & S. P., July 7, 1917. 

Magmatic Ore Segregation. 

By John A. Dresser 7 

Confirmation of statements of Dr. J. T. Singewald by 
observations on a chromite deposit in Quebec; mag- 
matic segregation retarded by solvent action of min- 
eralizers in the magma. M. & S. P., July 7, 1917. 

ARTICLES 
Phosphate Rock. 

By R. W. Stone S 

Distribution of phosphate rock; neglect of Western 
deposits; total available resources. M. & S. P., July 7, 
1917. 

Principles of Flotation — I. 

By T. A. Richard 9 

The soap-bubble and the floating needle; cause of 



Page, 
buoyancy of the needle; surface-tension defined and 
illustrated; attractive forces acting on a molecule; 
experiments to explain surface-tension; capillarity; 
effect of contaminants on surface-tension; oils and 
their influence in lowering surface-tension; simple 
qualitative test for presence of minute quantities of 
oil; phenomenon of wetting; relation of liquid cohe- 
sion to phenomena of wetting and flotation; functions 
of oil in floating metals and minerals. M. & S. P., 
July 7, 1917. 

Methods of Driving Pine Mountain Tunnel. 

By H. Devereux 16 

Details of Pine Mountain tunnel, Marin county, Cali- 
fornia; section S ft. by 8 ft.; average speed of driving 
11.5 ft. per diem; total cost per foot $16.12; compari- 
sons with other tunnels. M. & S. P., July 7, 1917. 

Memoranda on Submarines 21 

Maneuvering of the submarine; radius of action; lit- 
toral and submerged bases; sounds made by the sub- 
marines. M. & S. P., July 7, 1917. 

Recent Vulcanism in Salvador. 

By C. Ero Wuensch 22 

History of the volcano Izalco; prophecy of the erup- 
tion that has just occurred; cause of the eruption. 
M. & S. P., July 7, 1917. 

Mining in Utah. 

By L. 0. Howard 23 

Labor difficulties; details of activity in mining dis- 
tricts; tax assessment on tailing dumps; wash-out on 
D. & R. G. Ry. ; smelters may suspend for want of 
coke. M. & S. P., July 7, 1917. 



Government's Lead Purchase 
M. & S. P., July 7, 1917. 



24 



DEPARTMENTS 

Review of Mining 25 

Special Correspondence from Cripple Creek, Colorado; 
Treadwell, Alaska; Toronto, Ontario; Porcupine, On- 
tario; Cobalt, Ontario; Sudbury, Ontario; Eldora, 
Colorado; Kirkland Lake, Ontario; and Mexico. 

The Mining Summary 29 

Personai 33 

Obituary 33 

The Metal Market 34 

Eastern Metal Market 35 



Established May 24. I860, as The Scientific Press; name changed October 
'20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco poBt-office as second-class matter. Cable 
-■address: Pertusola. 



Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg\: New York. 1760 Woolworth 
Bdr.: London. 724 Salisbury House. B.C. 

Price. 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance: 
United States and Mexico, S4: Canada. $5: other countries in postal union. 
25s. or S6. 



30 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 191T 




Speed up withiElectric Power 



G-E Equipment is reliable and economical 



HERE are some of the ways in which modern 
industry has been speeded up by putting 
electric power to work in the right place. 

Metal mines have boosted output to meet world- 
wide demands. Great central power plants in 
place of small local plants in coal mining areas 
now supply cheaper electric power per ton out- 
put for each mine. All tonnage records have 
been smashed in the steel industry. Greater 
automobile output has lowered prices and given 
better road transportation. More and better 
cloth has been produced at lower power costs. 



The engineering problems solved in putting 
electric power to work in these and other indus- 
tries were many and intricate.' Production of 
electrical equipment suited to this work and in 
quantities required is an important part of this 
company's service to American industries. 

Any problem involving the use of power can 
be simplified by the application of electricity. The 
General Electric Company is well equipped to 
lend valuable assistance in working out* such 
problems and is glad to co-operate with manu- 
facturers and engineers in every possible way. 



C-E Motor Drive 

| General Electric Company] 



July 7. 1917 



MINING and Scienti6c PRESS 



E 


© 


11 


"J"" 





I& 


II 


^ 


J_l 




T . A 


a 


■i - 'J 


K A B 


D , 


3 il 


1 1 K 





A TTKNTION is directed to the sub-heading on our 
-**• cover-page. Some readers may not have noticed it. 
We are glad to be able to assert that this is "an inde- 
pendent paper, owned, edited, and managed by en- 
gineers. ' ' 

/~\UR British friend The Mining Magazine informs us 
^-* that the Board of Inland Revenue has been induced 
to regard a mine as a wasting asset, and in accordance 
with this decision some allowance for amortization of 
•capital will be made in connection with the assessment 
for the excess-profit tax. Thus the British tax-collector 
has learned a fundamental truth. War is an effective 
teacher of economics. 



IVTITRie ACID to the extent of 7000 tons per annum 
-*- ' will be manufactured at a new plant being erected 
at Trollhiittan, Sweden. The Birkeland-Eyde process 
will be employed. The new company is being financed in 
part by Germans, and the output, naturally, will be 
"utilized in the manufacture of explosives, some of which 
will likely be directed to the destruction of Americans. 
This brings home to us anew the impossible position of a 
nation pretending neutrality in a world-racking war. 



Tj^ROM New York it is reported that the Government 
-*- has placed an order for 60,000,000 pounds of copper 
at 25 cents per pound. Meanwhile arrangements are 
being made for a much larger contract at a price not 
yet determined. There is talk of higher market quota- 
tions owing to the curtailment of output at the mines due 
to labor troubles, but any rise at this time would only 
give aid to the labor agitator and draw attention to the 
artificial methods by which the high price of copper is 
maintained. 



"TVTEWS comes from London that the Giant mine, in 



H 



Rhodesia, has been closed because "there is no hope 



of running the property at a profit." This sepulchral 
announcement may be compared with the recklessly op- 
timistic statements that sent the shares of the Giant to 
$32.50 in 1909, giving the mine a valuation at that time 
of $8,500,000. Only $5 per share has been paid in 
dividends since then. This was one of the mines that 
brought discredit not so much on Rhodesia as upon 
Rhodesian finance, and more particularly on the stock- 
jobbing methods of the Consolidated Gold Fields of 
South Africa. 



nnUNNEL-DRIVING at Pine Mountain is the subject 

■*• of a highly informing article in this issue, written 

by Mr. H. Devereux. It will interest every engineer to 



follow the close analysis of detail given to show in what 
manner, during this period of high costs, Mr. M. M. 
O'Shaughnessy, the engineer in charge, succeeded in 
driving and lining an 8700-ft. tunnel, with a section of 
8 by 8 feet inside the timbers, at the average rate of 19 
feet per diem and at a total cost per foot of $16.12. In- 
teresting comparisons with adits driven by the Alaska- 
Gastineau Mining Company, the Arizona Copper Com- 
pany, and others form a measure of the successful work 
accomplished at Pine Mountain. 



Tj^ERRO-MANGANESE requirements in this country 
-*- for the remainder of the current year have been 
subjected to critical analysis by The Iron Age, which 
shows, first, that a steel output in 1917 of 45,000,000 
tons almost certainly will be realized. This would be an 
increase of 45% over the production in 1913. Of that 
total, 40,320,000 tons would require ferro-manganese at 
the average rate of 17 pounds per ton of steel, indicating 
306,000 long tons of ferro-manganese required. To meet 
that demand the calculated output of our own furnaces is 
240,000 tons, and the anticipated imports will add 70,000, 
making a total of 310,000 tons. Any decrease in the 
productivity of foreign mines would easily produce a 
shortage. It is important to investigate further the pos- 
sibilities of developing domestic deposits, in conjunction 
with concentration to meet the market standard. 



/"CIRCULARS have been issued from the head office of 
^ the American Institute of Mining Engineers for the 
purpose of eliciting opinions in regard to a new defini- 
tion of eligibility for membership. We note, with pleas- 
ure, that no attempt is to be made to disturb the status 
of those already members. Some years ago sundry reac- 
tionary members suggested the idea of creating a special 
class of superior persons to be called 'Fellows', who were 
to be placed on a plane above the run-of-mine 'Mem- 
bers'. That would, we hope, have provoked a riot, for 
once a man is a full member of a society he has a right to 
object to any later sorting and stratification. The plan 
now proposed is something quite different; it is to ren- 
der the election of members more selective and so auto- 
matically to improve the average of the whole member- 
ship, making the Institute more truly representative of 
the profession. 

T> ECENTLY one of our readers wrote to protest, vigor- 
•*-*- ously, against the use of pounds, shillings, and 
pence, instead of American currency, in an article on 
mining in South Africa. It annoyed him. We replied 
that the rate of exchange between pounds and dollars 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



had ranged from $7 to $4.60 during the last three years 
and that it might vary considerably between the date of 
writing an article and the date of publication. The same 
holds true for Mexican economics; who shall state the 
equivalent — in cents — of the peso at a given moment? 
Uniformity is admirable, but it may be the cause of eon- 
fusion. The article to which our protestant referred was 
written by an American mining engineer, Mr. H. Foster 
P.ain, and it was intended for the reading, among others, 
' of American engineers on the Rand. They would have 
been annoyed, at least as much as our kicker, if we had 
given them our criticisms, through Mr. Bain, in terms of 
dollars and cents. Gentlemen, think of the other fellow 
sometimes. 

WE publish a short statement issued by the National 
Research Council concerning submarines and their 
capabilities. This summary of facts is intended to guide 
inventors and engineers now at work in devising a means 
to overcome the assassin of the seas. Most of the ideas 
transmitted to Washington emanate from fanatics. Mr. 
Lawrence Addicks confessed recently that the Naval 
Consulting Board, of which he is a member, is "over- 
whelmed with people who have fantastic ideas of hang- 
ing nets and magnets on ships to stop torpedoes." We 
feel confident that an invitation for suggestions from our 
engineering friends will not add to the burdens of those 
at Washington, but that any ideas presented by them 
will be sane and scientific. The submarine is still a 
menace. We must find some way of circumventing it. 
Vice-Admiral Sims, now in command of our destroyer 
flotilla on the other side, has laid emphasis on the fact 
that the submarine must come to the surface at intervals 
to breathe, as it were, or, more technically, to recharge its 
batteries. That requires from three to five hours. It is then 
that the patrol-boats have a chance to hunt their quarry. 
The nets used to entrap a submarine when moving 
under water are made of steel wire a quarter of an inch 
thick in meshes 12 feet wide. Already the Germans have 
invented a tool to cut such nets ; therefore it remains for 
us to devise a kind of net that they cannot cut in the 
limited time available. Mr. Arthur H. Pollen, a British 
naval expert of high standing, advocates an active search 
for submarine bases and the destroying of them. Un- 
fortunately the Germans use neutral coasts, such as those 
of Spain and Norway, as a rendezvous, and until these 
neutrals join us it will be impossible to carry out such 
a policy with any degree of completeness. Rear- Admiral 
Goodrich, writing in The Nation., advocates this same 
idea of tracking the enemy to his lair. The stretching 
of a steel net from Scotland to Norway, across 240 miles 
of shallow water, has been suggested as a costly but 
feasible means of defence, the «dea being based on the 
successful use of similar netting for protecting traffic 
from England to France. Such fine and large schemes 
are less likely to prove effective than the research now 
being made into means for detecting the submarine by 
sound or exposing it to attack by light. Once the secrecy 
of the submarine's movements has been pierced its power 



for harm will he enormously decreased. The only idea 
that ever came to us on the subject was to use oil to 
cover the surface of the sea and thereby obscure vision 
through the periscope, but we decided that we would not 
bother our friends on the Naval Consulting Board with 
such a proposal, because the ocean is wide and oil is 
costly. At one time the aeroplane, more particularly the 
hydroplane, was expected to ferret the marine vermin, 
but apparently this method of hunting has proved dis- 
appointing. It is too much like looking for a needle in a 
haystack. A vigilant patrol by small boats supple- 
mented by destroyers appears to be the one sure method. 
It is a great and honorable sport in which thousands of 
gallant men are now engaged. Meanwhile it is incum- 
bent upon American ingenuity to devise something more 
directly effective. 

Labor Unrest 

Work is being stopped at the copper mines of Montana 
and Arizona. At Butte, a strike, started by the Metal 
Miners Union, has spread among the electrical workers, 
crippling the operation of the mines to a point where the 
entire local industry is paralyzed. In Arizona the strike 
at Jerome had no sooner been adjusted than demands 
were made upon the companies operating in the Clifton- 
Morenei district, where a bitter strike was ended only a 
year ago. Serious trouble has developed at Globe, Miami, 
and Bisbee. Apparently the labor population of a num- 
ber of important mining districts is seething with unrest, 
and unless some measure of patriotic spirit is shown on 
both sides the supply of copper will be seriously dimin- 
ished. We have received copies of the bulletins issued 
by the strikers at Butte. They are written intelligently 
and forcibly. We have also received a copy of the 
Arizona Labor Journal containing a statement by Mr. 
J. L. Donnelly, president of the Arizona State Federa- 
tion of Labor. This also is a clever brief for the workers. 
The demand for higher wages, despite the drop in the 
price of copper, is based upon the increased cost of living. 
For instance, Mr. Donnelly claims that "$3.50 per day 
eighteen months ago would purchase the equivalent of 
$5.50 today." Even if this be a slight exaggeration, it 
is more than likely that the taste for luxury excited by 
the sudden rise in wages has caused the miner to be so 
reckless in his purchasing that today he is saving less 
than lie did eighteen months ago. Our own recent ob- 
servations of life in several mining districts would tend 
to confirm this inference. The copper-mining companies 
made a great blunder, of course, in not paying the bonus 
separately from the wages: they should have given the 
regular pay in one cheek and the bonus, based on the rise 
in the price of copper, in another check. That would have 
reminded the men of the temporary nature of the big 
advance in their income. But, say the leaders of organ- 
ized labor, the increased pay, even with the bonus, is not 
enough, now that the cost of living has advanced faster 
that the bonus dependent upon the price of copper. 
Copper may have fallen in price, they say, but it is still 



July 7, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



S 



selling »t ii figure more than twice the cost of producing 
it: the companies are making enormous profits; we are 
doI profiting at all, owing to the high eosl of living; bo 
we demand another increase of wages. Nol content with 
thai the Arizonan unions insist thai the contracl system 
sliull be abandoned, and they even murmur something 
about a 6-hour day. Sere bad faith becomes manifest ; 
for these further demands have nothing to do with the 
high cost of living and are merely clubs shaken at the 
managers with the idea of intimidating them. At Butte 
the demand for higher wages, based on vital conditions, 
is tied to a protest against t he 'rustling card,' meaning 
the exercise of discrimination by the companies in giving 
employment. Protest is also made against the unsafe 
conditions underground, this last heing prompted by the 
recent Speculator disaster. If the loss of life was due, as 
is asserted, to the existence of concrete bulkheads that 
blocked the necessary exits, then the men have a legiti- 
mate grievance not only against the companies but 
against the State Mine Inspector ; but the charge of 
black-listing means merely that the employer tries to 
keep out men that are known to be trouble-makers. Of 
the secondary issues, the contract system is much the 
most important because it goes to the root of the question 
whether the employer is to have a fair deal ; whether he 
is to pay for what service he gets, or whether he must 
distribute uniformly high wages for a varying return 
in work, giving equal pay to the incompetent and the 
competent, the lazy and the energetic among his em- 
ployees. We believe that the contract system is fair to 
all concerned and the only system that upholds the self- 
respect of the working-man ; we recognize, however, that 
it is not always fairly applied and that it then becomes 
vicious. Here we come to the root of the whole matter : 
fair dealing as between men. "We sympathize sincerely 
with the managers of mines, for they are often, placed 
between the devil of the greedy capitalist and the deep 
sea. of the workman's ignorance; it needs — always — a 
man of strong character and high principle to safeguard 
the interests of a company and yet protect the welfare 
of the men on the pay-roll. The mining profession as a 
whole is more than willing to be fair to the toilers under- 
ground, and its keen interest in the welfare movement is 
an indication of that fact, so that the use of the high 
cost of living as an argument for higher pay would be 
received sympathetically if it did not come on top of a 
period of extravagance in the mining communities and 
if it were not made at such a time and in such a manner 
as to suggest a 'hold-up.' The strike bulletin at Butte 
exclaims joyously that the companies cannot furnish metal 
to fulfill their contracts now that so many men are idle. 
Who will suffer ? The companies ? No ! The Nation ; the 
Great Cause to which we are committed ; these are the 
ones to suffer, and when the public awakens to this fact we 
expect to see a popular demand for a speedy settlement of 
this sinister attempt to clog the wheels of industry at a 
period of great crisis. Thus we started with unconcealed 
sympathy for the predicament in which economic con- 
ditions, due to the War, had placed the miner and his 



comrades, hut we arrive fcevitabbj ;ii the conclusion thai 

sympathy must, lie withheld if advantage is in he taken 
<<( the Nation's necessity in order uol only to obtain a 
reasonable concession bul to enforce an unreasonable de- 
mand. One word more. We have referred In the propa- 
ganda of union labor. It is well prepared and likely to 
he effective. The labor element is organized and articu- 
late. The employers, namely, the mining companies and 
the resident, managers for the companies, are deficient in 
these two respects. Only too often pelly jealousies in- 
terfere with united action and the differences of policy 
prevent an outspoken statement of purpose. We believe 
that the companies should take the public into their con- 
fidence, for, in the end, public opinion is the arbiter, just 
as public opinion is the power behind the law. The 
propaganda of the labor agitators should be met with a 
frank explanation of the case as it seems to the mine 
managers, and the explanation ought to be put in printed 
form so that everybody in the mining community can 
read it. In some localities the companies control one or 
more local papers ; they should acknowledge the fact 
frankly so that the control may lose any sinister suggest- 
iveness. Nobody thinks it improper for the union to run 
a paper. Let both sides come into the open and argue 
their contentions at the bar of public opinion. This is a 
democracy. The methods of the Star Chamber and those 
of the Black Hand are equally repugnant to good citi- 
zens. Publicity is the anti-toxin of wrong. 



Misgoverned Mexico 

Mexico is testing our mettle. The wholesale confisca- 
tion of Mexican mines owned by citizens of this country 
may be regarded as a deliberate challenge. Abandon- 
ment of the copper mines and smelters at Cananea has 
been forced by executive orders with which it was im- 
possible for the owners to comply. At the same time the 
Department of Finance in Mexico City is proceeding to 
confiscate 7702 mining claims belonging to the Cananea 
company on the ground of its refusal to re-pay taxes that 
had been paid once to other officials, but which the Car- 
ranza administration insists must be forthcoming again, 
with extravagant penalties accrued under arbitrary de- 
crees skilfully contrived to work the ruin of alien in- 
vestors. The plain logic of the situation is ignored. For 
years no constitutional government has existed in Mexico. 
Carranza was not in line of succession to the presidency 
after the forced resignation of Madero. He had no legal 
status as a Federal officer under the constitution of 
1857. He took up arms ostensibly to re-instate a govern- 
ment that would adhere to the terms of that constitution, 
and he was entitled to the credit of good intentions while 
he continued to pursue that purpose. Nevertheless, this 
did not entitle him to revenue from such Mexican ter- 
ritory as he did not effectively hold and administer. 
Administration involves protection, and the Cananea 
company was not protected by Carranza while it was 
being robbed by Maytorena's looters. Moreover, May- 
torena had a sounder title to executive authority in 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



Sonora than Carranza, because he was actually there, 
aud he was likewise iu arms professedly for the re-es- 
tablishment of a stable government under the old con- 
stitution. He had declined to co-operate with the First 
Chief for reasons that were honorable. In the mean- 
time, the question of the right to rule and to collect 
duties and taxes was being rudely discussed on the 
battle-field. It is preposterous for Carranza to claim 
that he represents a government that has suffered by loss 
of the revenues wrested by officers in control before he 
had established his authority. The United States has 
treaties with the government created under the constitu- 
tion of 1857, and those treaties concede no right to penal- 
ize American property-owners for having paid moneys 
under duress to revolutionary upstarts. Carranza does 
not represent the Mexico of the old constitution with 
which we entered into treaty-relations, for he did not re- 
establish that constitution ; he evaded it while acting as 
dictator, and he ended by discarding it altogether and 
framing a new constitution, written with intent to win 
the adherence of the rabble by means of labor-clauses 
that express the principles of the I. W. W., while it re- 
serves powers to the executive that make him in effect 
an autocrat. Such an international situation has been 
created by these confiscatory acts of the Carranza govern- 
ment as to call for more astute diplomacy on our part 
than has characterized our previous dealings with revo- 
lutionary Mexico. 

Not only has Cananea suffered, but the El Tigre silver 
mine, belonging to the Lucky Tiger-Combination Com- 
pany, has been obliged to close, as well as the rich Ped- 
razzini silver property near Arizpe, at which point the 
manager, an Englishman, has been placed in confinement. 
It is not the mines alone that have suffered. The im- 
portant agricultural project in the Yaqui valley, belong- 
ing to the Richardson Construction Company, in which 
Messrs. John Hays Hammond and Harry Payne Whit- 
ney are the chief shareholders, has been seized by the 
Mexican officials for refusal to pay confiscatory taxes 
and to comply with impossible regulations. This form 
of Turkish justice is being administered to corporations 
belonging exclusively to non-Teutonic Americans whose 
properties lie comparatively near the border. While 
arbitrary proceedings have hampered aud oppressed 
foreign corporations operating elsewhere in the republic, 
the most conspicuous violations of alien rights have taken 
place where they would attract the most attention in the 
United States. This implies an ulterior motive. It is 
clearly meant to ascertain the strength and decision of 
the United States in the first instance ; to see whether in 
the face of the German peril we dare risk hostilities with 
Mexico. We know, and Carranza knows, that a war with 
him would ultimately absorb more soldiers than we 
now have trained and ready. If we hesitate, if we fail 
to send an ultimatum that would involve armed interven- 
tion in case of a diplomatic rebuff, he will be emboldened 
to increase the embarrassments and financial burdens of 
the oil-producers. Evidently he is feeling us out under 
the direction of his German advisors. Meanwhile he is 



preparing for aggressive action by rushing the construc- 
tion of new munition-plants furnished by the Japanese. 
The latest of these is being erected near the City of 
Mexico. If we continue our time-worn policy of reason- 
ing and coaxing»he may be indiscreet enough to under- 
take to prohibit the exportation of oil. That is what his 
new-found friends desire. It might wreck Mexico, but 
Mexico could also wreck the oilfields before the Allied 
fleets could take possession. It is even possible that the 
marines could not cope with the situation, and the inter- 
ruption of oil-deliveries for a few weeks might imperil 
the operation of the British fleet. We ought to take 
drastic action. We have on hand the business of crush- 
ing the Enemy, and he who is not with us is against us. 
Carranza is not only not with us. but by every act and 
word he has shown himself hostile ; nevertheless, he un- 
derstands plain English when spoken in no uncertain 
tone. He does not wish to be dealt with as we and his 
own people will deal with him if he falls from power in 
a clash with us. He is less loved even than Santa Ana, 
and would less easily resist the general opprobrium that 
would follow an unnecessary and calamitous conflict with 
the United States. Had he played fair with Villa he 
might have ridden into power with the support of all 
classes remaining in Mexico, and he would not at the 
present time be defied by Zapata in Morelos, by Felix 
Diaz in Puebla, by Meixueiro in Oaxaca, by Villa and 
Salazar in Chihuahua, and by the brothers Cedillo in San 
Luis Potosi. Had he played fair with the United States 
and respected the treaty-rights of our citizens such a 
flood of American capital would have poured across the 
Rio Grande to develop the resources of that marvelous 
store-house of mineral riches that he would not now be 
floundering in financial quagmires, nor would he have 
had to resort to the looting of the Mexican banks in a 
last desperate effort to retain the loyalty of his soldiers 
by paying them with specie that should have been jeal- 
ously guarded in the interest of the banking-credit of the 
country. Evidently the question now before him is 
whether he can borrow from the United States to keep 
himself going, or whether, failing in this, he can so cripple 
us and our Allies as to promote the triumph of Prussian- 
ism. Germany cannot finance him at the moment; we 
can if we will ; and, being a shrewd man, he is naturally 
weighing the chances of ready American coin against 
Teutonic promises to pay him if he turns the trick. If 
we finance him once we shall have to administer the same 
medicine repeatedly. It is for this country to decide 
whether to pay tribute to Carranza or, if he prove re- 
calcitrant, whether the hour be propitious for putting 
some worthy Mexican in power charged to maintain a 
respectable and self-respecting government. We do not 
want Mexico ; we merely desire a decent administration 
in Mexico, representative of the finer intelligence and 
spirit of the republic and true to its constitution. We 
believe there are men in Mexico as capable of bringing 
this about as were Mitre and Sarmiento in Argentina, 
whose courage and wisdom started that country on its 
triumphant career of genuinely democratic progress. 






1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



ID 






c u 



f f~J r- J 



a © m 



Our readers are incited to use this department for the diacussi/m of technical and other matters pertaining to 

mining and metallurgy. The Editor welcomes expressions of views contrary to his own, believing thai careful 

criticism is more mluublc titan casual compliment. 



Sampling Large Low-Grade Orebodies 

The Editor: 

Sir — This matter seems to have reduced itself to the 
question as to whether such bodies can be better sampled 
by mill-tests or by ordinary moil-sampling, and anent this 
you ask several pertinent questions in your issue of 
May 26. 

I believe Mr. L. A. Parsons has struck the keynote 
when he says: "representative — that is the crucial 
point." If mill-tests could be made representative of the 
ore-blocks or of the mine from which they are taken, I 
believe the results arrived at would in many cases be 
nearer the correct value than that obtained by moil- 
sampling, but this necessitates a large number of mill- 
tests from any given block of ore, in a wide deposit, and 
a great number of such tests from the various cross-cuts, 
drifts, and raises, that so frequently expose but two of 
three sides of a block. 

In order therefore to make a mill test 'representative' 
there must be at least several hundred, perhaps a thou- 
sand, of them, each a separate run with a separate clean- 
up. Has any one ever heard of such a thing having been 
done? Yet in the examination of large ore deposits by 
moil-sampling it is a common thing to take anywhere 
from 1500 to 3000 samples, while during the exploration 
and development of the low-grade copper deposits the 
number of small samples derived from both drilling and 
moiling runs into the tens of thousands. 

It is evident then that the small-sample method has and 
always will prevail over the mill-test, chiefly because it is 
far more 'representative' of the ore-mass. In either case 
when the deposit is a large one an enormous amount of 
development work is required, involving heavy cost. If 
to this be added the far greater expense, as compared 
with moil-sampling, of cutting hundreds of small stopes 
and making an individual test on each lot of ore the pre- 
liminary outlay is too great to be practicable. 

In some of the large deposits of low-grade gold ore even 
the development work necessary to expose enough faces to 
make moil-sampling fairly 'representative' has not been 
done, not only because of the great expense involved but 
because the resultant work cannot be used in the subse- 
quent ore extraction on account of the mine having to be 
worked in huge stopes of unusual height, in order to re- 
duce the cost of mining. 

In the case you refer to where 375,000 tons of ore were 
milled before the value of the ore was considered to be 
established, most of us, I think, would have considered 
the mining and milling of such a huge amount to have 



been a 'representative' test of the mine. But subsequent 
results have shown that it was not, and the natural con- 
clusion is that driving, cross-cutting, etc., on several 
levels and for long distances would have paid in the end. 
It is easy to be wise after the event, but I think this ex- 
perience should teach one the almost insuperable diffi- 
culties in sampling a large and very low-grade mass of 
gold ore. As Mr. Jackling has pointed out, the expense 
involved makes it impracticable financially. 

Again, we have all met the mine-owner who says, 
"This mine cannot be sampled ; only a mill-run will give 
you accurate and dependable values." Such a mine is 
almost sure to be a good mine — for the owner to keep. 

Moil-sampling, done with care and judgment, can and 
should be more 'representative' of the ore behind the 
sample, because of the greater number of samples that 
can- be taken, because of the greater elasticity of the 
method where the metal contents occur in streaks and 
patches, because the method is readily applicable to re- 
mote places and workings more difficult of access, and be- 
cause it is far cheaper than mill-tests made in sufficient 
numbers to make them 'representative.' 

After all, what is the sampling of a mine other than a 
means of obtaining "the best possible approximation" of 
its value. In the nature of the case it can only be an 
approximation due to several causes into which it is not 
necessary to enter here. Enough to say that no perfect 
sampling method has yet been advised. That moil-sam- 
pling comes closest to this "best possible approximation" 
has, I think, been definitely proved by practical experi- 
ence. 

New York, June 20. Thos. H. Leggett. 



Forest Reserve Again 

The Editor : 

Sir — I send you an open letter addressed to H. G. Mer- 
rill, supervisor of the Monterey National Forest Reserve. 
King City, California, revealing a situation that is detri- 
mental to operators of mines on Forest Reserves. , It is a 
subject that deserves attention. The letter follows : 
Mr. H. G. Merrill, King City, California. 

Dear Sir : I would respectfully call your attention to 
the following facts: Since 1906 annually the officers of 
the reserve have caused to be issued grazing permits for 
the section of country known as 'Gold Ridge', which is 
private property, being located as mineral land. The 
stock is turned loose without herders, fences, or corrals, 
with the result that they destroy the trails, roads, ditches, 
and reservoirs every year, that have been built at great 



6 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



expense. It is impossible to make headway without pro- 
tection against the above acts. We have protested in 
vain to the officers ; and the Government is practising the 
same method, in that they sued Messrs. Shannon and 
Little for the State of Montana and Colorado. The 
county of Monterey passed the 'no fence' law to check 
the very acts that the officers of the reserve are commit- 
ting. You leave us no feed upon our own ground for our 
stock to work our mine. The hue and cry now is, where 
has the prospector gone ? He is not in evidence upon the 
public domain any more. Get the records in the case of 
U. S. v. Copper Mountain Mining Co., and study them 
well, and you won't ask the reason why. Never a forest 
ranger comes around to ascertain what damage is being 
done. You say in your USE BOOKS "we foster the 
small home-builder, mining not interfered with", and 
the like. The records here and in the Pinnacles and 
National Monument Reserve do not show it ; it is the 
reverse. See the protest filed at Washington in the In- 
terior Department against the unlawful acts of the above 
officers ; ; it will show how business has been done in the 
above reserves, and so far there has not been any redress. 
The above protest was filed by Wm. D. MacPhie, of Sole- 
dad, on behalf of the above copper company some 34 
years ago. For full particulars apply to the under- 
signed, at Gold Ridge. 

Henry F. Melville. 
Jolon, California, March 31. 



The Editor: 

Sir — Upon examining the records of this office I find 
that a similar protest to the one transmitted by Mr. Mel- 
ville was filed on December 18, 1909, and that nearly 
each year since that date a similar protest has been 
submitted. Upon receipt of each one of these protests 
the local Forest officers have endeavored to make an 
adjustment between the mining claimants and the stock- 
men who grazed their stock under permit in that par- 
ticular locality of the Monterey National Forest. From 
the records it appears that there are between 25 and 30 
head of stock under permit in this locality, the owners of 
which own ranch property and grazing-land near the 
Forest. These permittees have occupied the Forest ever 
since its establishment and have gained what we term a 
preference in the use of National Forest range ; how- 
ever, our regulations provide specifically that subsisting 
mining locations are not taken into consideration when 
grazing permits are granted for National Forest land. 
I quote from our instructions to local Forest officers the 
followipg: "Mining claims — Persons holding unpat- 
ented mining claims within a National Forest have the 
right to the grass or other forage upon such claim needed 
for stock used in connection with the development of the 
claims, but they have no right to dispose of the forage to 
any other person or to collect rental for the use of the 
claims for grazing purposes. Such unperfected mining 
claims, therefore, cannot be accepted as the basis for a 
permit under this regulation." In view of the fact that 
we have no jurisdiction over these claims, and, further, 



from the fact that the permit issued to each stock-man 
states specifically that it does not grant the right to the 
use of any other than National Forest lands, you will see, 
I believe, that we have no jurisdiction in this matter, and 
if the damage done by the grazing of this stock actually 
occurs it is a matter that must be handled under the 
State law between the mining claimants and the owners 
of the stock. In the past we have endeavored to have all 
parties interested come to some agreement so that the 
proper drift-fences could be constructed, or other means 
devised by which this complaint would not be continually 
coming up. Our efforts along this line have been unsuc- 
cessful, and the only course left open for us to pursue is 
to withdraw from the controversy entirely and let the 
mining claimants and the owners of the stock adjust 
their differences. 

C. E. Rachford, 
Assistant District Forester. 
San Francisco, California, June 13. 

Canadian Mining Regulations 

The Editor: 

Sir — on March 5, 1917, under the provisions of the 
War Measures Act, 1914, the Canadian Government en- 
acted, by order-in-council, certain regulations restricting 
the rights of aliens as to holding or acquiring, directly or 
indirectly, mining and other property in Canada ; where 
such rights, lands, and so on, were vested in or admin- 
istered by the Federal Government. As aliens who were 
not enemies of Canada were also included, mining men 
and others deemed the regulations too severe ; therefore 
they induced the Government to rescind the objection- 
able clauses and substitute others bearing only on alien 
enemies, companies and corporations. 

The revised order-in-council, No. 1268, is dated May 
8, 1917, and a copy of the same is herewith enclosed. 

As you published a summary of the regulations dated 
March 5, 1917, I hope you will be agreeable to give the 
same publicity to the revised copy now enclosed. 



Wm. Thomlinson. 



New Denver, B. C, June 20. 



Clauses 3, 4. and 5 of the Regulations established by Order 
in Council ot the 5th of March, 1917, (P.C. 572), are hereby 
rescinded and the following Clauses are hereby made and en- 
acted In lieu thereof: 

"3. No company shall acquire or hold any of the rights, 
powers or benefits hereinbefore referred to if such company 
be an alien enemy company, or registered in an alien enemy 
country, or having its principal place of business within such 
country, or if the chairman of such company or any of the 
directors are subjects of an alien enemy country, or if such 
company is controlled, either directly or indirectly, by an 
alien enemy or alien enemies, or by an alien enemy corpora- 
tion or alien enemy corporations. 

"4. Any alteration in the Memorandum of Articles of Asso- 
ciation, or in the constitution, or in the laws of any company 
holding any rights, powers or benefits hereinafter referred to 
shall be reported by the proper officer of the company to the 
Minister of the Interior, and two months previous notice in 
writing shall be given to the Minister of the Interior of the 



.lulv 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



intention to make any alteration which might conceivably, 
either directly or Indirectly, affect the character or control of 
any such company, and if, In the opinion of the Minister of the 
Interior, the said alteration shall he contrary to the cardinal 
principal that the said company shall be and remain a company 
not of alien enemy origin or control, the Minister of the 
Interior may refuse his consent to such alteration, and if his 
refusal Is not obeyed, may declare such company to be an alien 
enemy company and may cancel the said rights, powers and 
benefits under the provisions of the next following regulation. 
"5. If any company which has acquired any right, power or 
benefit hereinbefore referred to shall, at any time, become 
subject to the control of an alien enemy, or alien enemies, or 
an alien enemy corporation or corporations, or shall assign any 
of the rights, powers or benefits aforesaid, without the con- 
sent in writing of the Minister of the Interior being first had 
and obtained, or if the said right, power and benefit has been 
acquired through error, misrepresentation or fraud, the Min- 
ister of the Interior may cancel the grant of such right, power 
or benefit and thereupon the same shall ipso facto be can- 
celled and any moneys or fees paid to or deposited with His 
Majesty shall be ipso facto forfeited to His Majesty. 



Magmatic Ore Segregation 

The Editor: 

Sir — In view of a suggestive article by Dr. J. T. Singe- 
wald in the Mining & Scientific Press for May 26, 
where the mode of occurrence of chromite is referred to, 
a review of the conditions under which chromite occurs 
in southern Quebec may be of interest. The examination 
of the Quebec chromite deposits has not yet been com- 
pleted, and further investigation may throw new light 
on their origin. A preliminary report (Memoir 22, 
Geological Survey of Canada) covering this area was 
prepared by myself in 1911 and published in 1913. 
Since that date a topographic map of the district has 
been drawn and Dr. R. Harvie of the Geological Survey 
staff is preparing to make a final report. It is therefore 
suitable to confine this communication to an interim 
description, mainly of the features bearing on the sub- 
ject of Singewald's article. The ehromite-producing 
district of Quebec lies south-east of the St. Lawrence 
river, and is distant by rail about 80 miles from the 
City of Quebec and 160 miles from Montreal. The main 
production has been from a small area about 6 by 12 
miles in extent, but other occurrences have been found 
outside of this area which, in the present favorable mar- 
ket, are being developed with good prospects of success. 
The production since 1886 has been somewhat more than 
100,000 tons. 

The ore occurs in a complex of basic igneous rocks, 
intrusive into folded and altered sediments consisting of 
slates and quartzites of Cambrian and Ordovician age. 
The principal types of igneous rock are peridotite partly 
altered to serpentine, pyroxenite, and diabase. Other 
allied rock-varieties appear in places as gabbro and por- 
phyrite. Granite, also, is present in the form of dikes 
and small bosses. The basic rocks are plainly differen- 
tiates from a single intrusion, while the granite has been 
intruded later, though probably while the wall-rocks 
were still heated. The basic rocks occur in the form of 
stocks and of sills that in places show laccolithic thicken- 



ing. The different rocks are arranged in the sills in the 
order of decreasing basftity and density, that is, perido 
lite, pyroxenite, and diabase, with the peridotite Oil the 
bottom, while iii the stocks the order of basicity is from 
the centre outwards. 

Chromite occurs widely, almost universally, dissem- 
inated throughout the peridotite and the pyroxenite as 
an accessory constituent. Microscopic evidence shows 
that it is a primary mineral and has been one of the 
earliest to crystallize in these rocks. It also occurs in 
masses, often forming single orebodies containing sev- 
eral thousand tons. These occur usually, if not only, in 
the transition-rock between the peridotite and pyroxen- 
ite. Without recounting the evidences at length, it may 
safely be said that the field-relations indicate thai the 
orebodies are primary members of the igneous complex. 
The walls are frequently ill defined, irregular, and not 
bounded by structural features. There is no evidence 
adequate to prove either solution and re-deposition in 
masses of this difficultly soluble mineral, nor its injection 
in its present position after the solidification of the coun- 
try-rock. Certain minerals denoting pneumatolytie ac- 
tion, such as garnet, vesuvianite, and molybdenite are 
found at some of the deposits, but they are associated 
with later granite dikes. In brief, the ore deposits seem 
to be phases of the rock in which they occur. 

The place in the igneous complex in which the chromite 
occurs in mass, between peridotite and pyroxenite, is the 
principal point of interest. It neither agrees with the 
arrangement of the rocks of the complex in order of 
density, nor with its own place where disseminated as an 
accessory mineral in these rocks, in which it was one of 
the first minerals to crystallize. While chromite shows 
a strong tendency toward early crystallization, its maxi- 
mum development seems to have taken place near the 
close of the period of crystallization of the olivine. 
This seems to imply a retarded crystallization of the 
chromite in mass, such as Singewald has noted in ilmen- 
ite and magnetite deposits, and which, with apparent 
good reason, he ascribes to the physical action of the 
mineralization agents of the French petrologists. Broadly 
speaking, the chromite-concentrations in Quebec seem to 
be best described as products of magmatic segregation 
occupying a position in the series of differentiates that 
has been influenced by the action of the mineralizers. 

Montreal, June 9. John A. Dresser. 

Magnetic-iron ores often contain large amounts of 
manganese ; also many manganese deposits are mixtures 
of iron sequi-oxide, or of limonite, with manganese di- 
oxide. The iron in these can be removed, when not pres- 
ent in a pulverulent form, by various types of magnetic 
separators, such as the Wetherill. The residue contain- 
ing the manganese can then be further concentrated, if 
necessary, to eliminate silicious minerals so as to bring 
the manganese product within the limits set by the mak- 
ers of ferro-manganese, which are a minimum of 40% 
metallic manganese, and a maximum of 12% silica. Also 
the maximum permissible phosphorus content is 0.225%. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



Phosphate Rock 



By R. W. STONE 

*Prior to 1914 the United States was producing an- tucky lie between Frankfort and Lexington, and consid- 

nually close to 3,000,000 tons of phosphate rock, of erable quantities of rock have been mined near Wallace, 

which over 99% came from Florida, Tennessee, and Deposits occur interruptedly for a distance of SO miles 

South Carolina. With the beginning of the war the in the north-central part of Arkansas, and a small quan- 

facilities for shipping phosphate rock to Europe were tity is produced at Anderson, Independence county, 

greatly decreased. Many Florida plants were shut down, Four of the Western States possess vast deposits of 

and they have not resumed operations. In 1916 the in- high-grade rock phosphate, but the western production 

dustry was in some areas practically demoralized, but amounts to less than 5000 tons per year. Idaho, Utah, 

there was nevertheless a gain over 1915. The total out- and Wyoming are the producers. Montana is not yet a 

put in 1916 was 1,980,000 tons, valued at $5,897,000. producer, although at Blliston, Garrison, Philipsburg, 

Tennessee, in spite of decreased production, has yielded and Melfose are extensive deposits easy of access and 

a larger proportion of the country's output since the close to rail transportation. In the southeastern part of 

War began. It would seem that the Tennessee industry, Idaho an extensive supply of high-grade phosphate 

not having been so related to the export trade, and being occurs along both sides of Blackfoot river, in Fort Hall 

equipped in part with modern 7nachinery, should develop Indian Reservation, near Montpelier, and north of Bear 

while the European trade is restricted and while the lake. The Utah deposits are east of Great Salt lake, in 

industry in Florida and South Carolina is more dormant, the Wasatch and Uinta ranges, and east of Bear lake. 

The deposits of phosphate rock in the United States are These deposits are extensive, but the material averages 

confined very definitely to the southeastern part of the only about 60% tricalcium phosphate. Western Wyom- 

country and to the Rocky mountain region from the lati- ing also is rich in rock phosphate, the deposits being 

tude of Salt Lake City. Utah, to that of Helena, Mon- mostly in the Owl creek, Wind river, Gros Ventre, and 

tana. Although by far the largest deposits are in the Salt river ranges. Some of them are thick beds carrying 

Western States, the production from that region is less 80% tricalcium phosphate and extending for many miles, 

than 1% of the whole, owing to the lack of a nearby large and they constitute a reserve supply that is almost inex- 

market at present and to high freight rates on the crude haustible. 

rock. The western rock-phosphate deposits are so ex- Estimated quantity of phosphate rock in the United 

tensive that, even if the entire world depended on them States: 

for its supply, they would not be exhausted in many Eastern States: Long tons 

generations. The Florida phosphate deposits comprise Florida 227,000,000 

three classes— hard rock, land pebble, and river pebble. Tennessee 88,000,000 

The hard rock is the highest grade, the land pebble is South Carolina 9.000,000 

-,-,.,,, , j . , , , , Kentucky 1,000,000 

produced in the largest quantity, and the river pebble is Arkansas ..*... 20 000 000 

not mined at present. The area of hard-rock deposits ' 

forms a narrow strip along the western part of the . 345,000.000 

Florida Peninsula from Suwannee county to Pasco Western States (Montana, Idaho, Utah, 

county, a distance of approximately 100 miles. The and Wyoming) 5,367.000,000 

land-pebble phosphate area lies east of Tampa and is noonoo 
about 30 miles long and 10 miles wide. The South Caro- 
lina output consists of land-rock phosphate mined in the Although the total reserves as shown by this estimate 
vicinity of Charleston. River-pebble phosphate occurs are ex * r emely large, the supply of high-grade rock is 
in the same area but is not mined. The Tennessee de- mueh less and sh °"M not be considered inexhaustible, 
posits of rock phosphate are in the west-central part and While t]w War eo "t in ues phosphate rock cannot be 
extreme northeast corner of the State. The latter have sent to the la rgest consumer, Germany, and high cceau- 
not been mined. Three types are recognized and known frei g ht rates practically stop shipments to other Euro- 
by their colors as brown, blue, and white rock. The P ean eouutries - Th e demand for sulphuric acid for 
brown rock comes from Maury. Giles. Hickman, Le\vis. maki "g munitions has raised the prices of acid so that 
and Sumner counties and is sold under a guaranty of 70 manufacturers of acid-phosphate have been obliged to 
to 80% tricalcium phosphate. The blue rock is mined in purtail production. It seems reasonable to believe that 
Lewis and Maury counties and varies considerably in its at the end of the War European nations will need in- 
phosphatic content. The phosphate deposits of Ken- erea sed quantities of phosphate, as their stores of food- 

stuffs will be low. and intensive cultivation of the soil 

*U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 666-J. will be necessary. 



July 7. 1!H7 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Principles of Flotation 



By T. A. RICKARD 



•Introduction. The understanding of the principles 
governing notation has been delayed mainly because the 
explanation of the phenomena — or appearances — char- 
acteristic of the process is to be found in physics rather 
than in chemistry. Modern metallurgy has been in the 
hands of men primarily chemists, rather than physicists. 
Cyanidation and chlorinatkm, for example, may be ex- 
plained by chemical formulas, even if the)' cannot be 
expressed in their entirety by the language of elemental 
symbols; but flotation is not to be interpreted in that 
way; it is controlled by physical laws that are obscure 
and that hardly came within the cognizance of the 
metallurgist until the need for study was felt by him 
within a period so recent that the full results of scientific 
research are not yet available. 

To understand the rationale of the flotation process we 
must return to the amusements of our boyhood ; in the 
soap-bubble and in the greased needle we shall find an 
inkling of the forces at play in the flotation machine. 
Everybody knows the trick of the greased needle. If a 
needle be greased and then placed carefully on the sur- 
face of tap-water in a bowl it will float, despite the fact 
that steel is eight times heavier than water. Even the 
natural oil on the fingers, or that obtainable by passing 
the fingers through the hair, will suffice for the purpose 
of assisting the needle to float. 

The first idea is that the buoyant effect of the oil ad- 
hering to the needle prevents it from being drowned. 
However, the quantity of oil thus attached to the needle 
is not enough to buoy it; the specific gravity of the oil 
is, say, 0.9 as compared with water, which is the unit of 
specific gravity; therefore the flotative margin is only 
one-tenth, and for the oil to float a piece of steel, having 
a specific gravity of 8, its volume would have to be more 
than 80 times that of the steel. So the buoyancy of the 
oil does not do it. Moreover, an ungreased needle also 
will float. This experiment must be conducted carefully. 
To be certain that the needle was free from grease 1 I held 
it in metallic pincers, dipped it in a solution of washing- 
soda (sodium carbonate, which is a solvent for grease), 
and then dried it, taking care to use a clean cloth and 
not to touch it with my fingers. Then T placed a piece 
of tissue-paper on the water in a cup and laid the needle, 
held in the pincers, upon the paper, which was depressed 
gently into the water by the point of a wooden match, 
until the paper became soggy and finally sank, leaving 

This is an attempt to re-state the fundamental principles 
of notation. The author will welcome corrections or criticisms. 

'New needles are slightly greasy, as I ascertained by means 
of the camphor test, described later. The grease protects the 
needles from rusting. 



the needle floating. It lay in a depression of the water- 
surface, which appeared to he bent under it. 

The needle that will float after being greased is larger 
than the one that floats without being greased, 2 so the 
oil seems to aid flotation ; but when the needle is too 
large it cannot be made to float, greased or not. It is too 



SURFACE , 


* > 


. 




— 








V 



Fig. 1 

heavy ; that is, the force of gravity multiplied by mass 
is sufficient to overcome the peculiar resistance offered by 
the surface of the water. What causes that resistance? 
Surface-Tension. The force responsible for the float- 
ing of the needle is called 'surface-tension.' It is a man- 



iURFlCE 




Fig. 2 

ifestation of cohesion, which is the attraction that binds 
molecules of like kind to each other. Each molecule 
within the interior of the liquid is imagined as surround- 
ed by molecules like itself to which it is attracted and 
which it attracts equally in every direction, whereas the 
molecules at the free surface of the liquid are attracted 
only by those internal to themselves, the result being to 
constrict the free surface of the liquid. In consequence, 
the surface acts as if it were a stretched membrance or 
an elastic film. These molecular conditions may be rep- 
resented graphically. See Fig. 1. The attractive forces 
acting on a molecule (A) in the body of the liquid may 
be represented by four resultant axial components, which 
are equal, so that the molecule is perfectly free to move, 

2 1 tried five large greased needles, all of which floated: then 
I tried the same needles after they had been washed in the soda 
solution and wiped dry on a clean cloth. One time all five 
sank; the other time four sank. 



10 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



except for viscous resistance. At the surface itself the 
upward component disappears and the pull downward 
on the molecule (B) is uncompensated, any extension of 
the surface being opposed by a force the horizontal com- 
ponent of which is 'surface-tension'. 

This can be illustrated in another way. Each particle 
of water is attracted by all the particles that lie within 
its range, which is definitely small, about 0.00000015 cm., 
therefore the scope of molecular attraction may be con- 
sidered as a sphere of influence. Thus A in Fig. 2 is 
attracted, and attracts, within a definite sphere, while B, 
which is close to the surface, is more attracted inward 
than outward, since a part of its sphere of attraction lies 
outside the water. 

Such a hypothesis is largely an abstraction ; a concrete 
idea of the nature of surface-tension can be obtained by 
noting some of its various manifestations. 

1. The drawing, or 'soaking up', of water by a sponge. 

2. The penetration of wood by varnish. 

3. The rising of oil in a lamp-wick. 

4. The clinging of ink to a pen. 

5. The running of the ink from the pen to the paper. 

6. The absorption of the excess of ink by blotting- 
paper. 

7. The cohesion between two plates that have been 
wetted. 

8. Dip a camel's hair brush in water, remove it from 
the water, and observe how the hairs cling together. Im- 
merse the brush in the water and note how the hairs sep- 
arate. 

9. Watch the water-spiders running over a pool, like 
boys skating on thin ice. H. H. Dixon actually measured 
the pressure exerted by the spider's feet on the water. 
He photographed the shadow of the dimple, then mount- 
ed one of the spider's feet on a delicate balance, and 
made it press on the water until it made a dimple of the 
same depth as that previously recorded. 

10. Pour colored water in a thin layer over the bottom 
of a white dish ; then touch a part of its surface with a 
glass rod that has been dipped in alcohol. The colored 
water shrinks from the part touched, leaving an irregular 
patch of white bottom dry. This is due to the tension of 
the pure water being greater than that of the alcoholized 
water, so that the liquid is pulled away from the place 
where the tension is weak to the place where it is strong. 3 
The lively movements of the particles of dye in the water 
indicate the conflict between the forces of diffusion and 
surface-tension. 

11. The formation of a drop at the end of a tube or 
from the small mouth of a bottle is another example of 
surface-tension. Note how the drop grows slowly until it 
has attained a definite size, and then breaks away sud- 
denly. The size of the drop is always the same for the 
same liquid coming through the same orifice. It hangs as 
if suspended in an elastic bag that ruptures when the 
weight becomes excessive. The contractile character of 

3This simple experiment is a fascinating exhibition of sur- 
face-tension and it should be made by every student of flota- 
tion. 



surface-tension is manifested in the formation of the 
drop,. the force tending to draw the fragment of liquid 
into the most compact form, that presenting the least 
surface in relation to volume, namely, a sphere. 

Similarly, if Ve admit air through a glass tube of 
given size into various liquids, we shall obtain the big- 
gest bubble in the liquid with the highest surface-tension. 
If various liquids in succession are allowed to run out 
of an opening of given size, the largest drop will be that 
of the liquid having the highest surface-tension. 

12. When an iron ring is dipped into a solution of soap 




'_"?^- Rl«& 



and then taken out, it will be seen that a film of solution 
stretches across the ring, covering the whole interior cir- 
cular space. If a small loop of cotton, previously moist- 
ened in the soapy solution, is placed on the film stretched 
across the circle of the ring, this loop can be made to 




Fig. 4 

assume, and to retain, any form, such as is shown at A 
in Fig. 3. If, however, this film within the. loop is 
broken, the loop immediately assumes the form of a per- 
fect circle, as shown at B ; and if it is now deformed in 
any way, it springs back at once to a circle as soon as it 
is released. Evidently the surface of the solution as- 
sumes the shape covering the smallest area. The surface- 
tension of the liquid acts equally on both sides of the 
cotton so long as it is wholly immersed, but when the film 
of liquid inside the loop is broken, the tension acts on one 
side only — on the open side, where it is in contact with 
air — and hence draws the loop into a circle, which in- 
volves the minimum of extension. 

13. The contractile force of surface-tension is shown 



.lulv 



1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



11 



in a simple way by blowing a Boap-bubble on the large 
end of a pipe and then holding the other end of the pipe 
to a candle, whereupon the air escaping Erom the shrink- 
ing bag of the bubble will extinguish the flame, as in 
Pig. 4/ 

14. When water is sprinkled on a dusty floor, the dust 
prevents the wetting of the floor by obstructing the coal- 
escence of the drops, that is. the spreading of the water 
over the floor. The water draws itself into rolling 
spherules that become armored by particles of dust. 
They are nearly round, the larger ones showing a flatten- 
ing, because the gravitational stress overcomes the con- 
traetibility or sphericity of the film. This flattening is 
shown by a drop of mercury on glass or by the beads of 
gold on an assayer's cupel. 

15. The globular form assumed by water when spilled 
on a hot stove is another manifestation of these forces. 
The water is protected from the hot iron by a film of 
steam, which, as it is formed, decreases the size of the 
globule until it disappears. If the iron is not sufficiently 
hot, it becomes cooler and therefore wetted, by spreading 
of the water, which is instantly converted into steam. 

16. Some of the physics of flotation can be illustrated 
at the dinner-table. 

A. Fill a tumbler little over full of water and note the 
convex surface, indicating the play of a force that pre- 
vents the liquid from spilling. It is a contractile force. 

B. Fill a wine-glass half-full with port and observe 
how the wine climbs up the side of the glass, forming a 
meniscus around the circumference of the surface. This 
liquid consists of alcohol and water, both of which evap- 
orate, the alcohol faster than the water, so that the sur- 
ficial layer becomes watery. In the middle of the glass 
the surficial layer recovers its strength by diffusion from 
below, but the film adhering to the glass, being more 
exposed to the air, loses its alcohol by evaporation more 
quickly and therefore acquires a surface-tension higher 
than that of the undiluted wine. It creeps up the side 
of the glass dragging the strong wine after it, and this 
continues until the quantity of fluid pulled upward col- 
lects into drops — called the 'tears of wine' — that run 
back into the glass. 

C. Fill a glass two-thirds full from a 'siphon' contain- 
ing water that is effervescent because it contains gas in 
solution. Take three or four small grapes, preferably of 
the Californian seedless variety. The grapes will sink 
to the bottom of the glass, but soon they become restless 
and rise to the surface, one after the other. They do not 
remain there long; first one and then the other sinks. 
They will continue the performance for half an hour, 
bobbing up and down ; their activities slowly diminish, 
and eventually they are left inert at the bottom of the 
glass. What happens is simple enough. The siphon has 
come from the refrigerator ; the warmth of the room and 
the lowering of pressure release the carbonic-acid gas, 
which, in the form of minute bubbles, attaches itself to 
the grapes, buoying them to the surface as mineral par- 
ticles are raised to the surface of a pulp in the Potter 

*C. V. Boys in 'Soap Bubbles'. 



pro. 'ess. There the bubbles burst, causing the grapes to 
fall back. If a couple of grapes collide, the bubbles he- 
come detached, dropping their freight, and themselves 
rising to the surface. At first the grapes rise rapidly 
and rebound from the surface of the water as if it were 
an elastic membrane. This is a remarkable effect and 
should he noted carefully. After the evolution of gas 
has diminished the bubbles become too few to buoy the 
grapes, and the performance ends. 

Surface-tension is identified with ' capillarity ', because 
it is so marked in a tube the bore of which is only large 
enough to admit a capiUus, or hair. When the lower end 
of a wide tube is held in w-ater, the water inside rises to 
about the same level as that outside the tube, in accord- 
ance with the law of hydrostatic pressure ; but when the 
lower end of a glass tube of small bore, say, 1 mm., open 
at both ends, is inserted into water, the water rises within 
the tube and stands at a level higher than the water out- 
side. If, again, the tube be held vertically with its lower 
end immersed in mercury, the liquid metal inside the 
tube sinks to a level below that of the mercury outside. 
See Fig. 5. This is explained by saying that the molecu- 



Fig. 5 



GLASS TUBE IN WATER 



GLASS TUBE IX MERCURY 



lar attraction of water to glass is greater than that of 
water to water; whereas the attraction of mercury to 
glass is less than that of mercury to mercury. The forces 
of cohesion in a substance and of adhesion between vari- 
ous substances have been measured. Quincke and others 
have ascertained by experiment that the effect is sensible 
within a range of one thousandth and one twenty-thou- 
sandth of a millimetre. Such is the scope of molecular 
attraction. The liquid rises in a capillary tube until the 
weight of the vertical column between the free surface 
and the level of the liquid in the tube balances the result- 
ant of the surface-tension. 

The surface-tension of liquids can be modified. It is 
decreased by a rise of temperature. For example, place 
two matches an inch apart on the surface of pure water 
in a bowl and then touch the water between them with a 
hot wire. They draw apart promptly, because the sur- 
face-tension of the water between them has been lowered 
relatively to that of the rest of the liquid in the bowl, so 
that the pull of the water-surface under normal tension 
is stronger than that of the surface of the warm water 
between the matches. 

The addition of an impurity or contaminant will lower 
the surface-tension of water. We have seen how this 
effect is caused both by alcohol and soap. Distilled water 
has a maximum surface-tension, which is lowered by 



12 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



almost any substance that is soluble or miscible in it. 
The soluble substance, or solute, modifies the tension 
directly, whereas the minutely divisible substance, form- 
ing an emulsion, creates a great number of interfaces, or 
surfaces of contact, each having a lower tension. The 
particular contaminant, or modifj'ing agent, associated 
with the early history of flotation was oil, which is partly 
soluble and readily dispersible. The oil generally used 
at first was a heavy oil, like oleic acid. e By the addition 
of sufficient oil the surface-tension of water is lowered 
from 73 to 14 dynes per linear centimetre. The follow- 
ing experiment illustrates this fact. If a wooden match 
be laid on the surface of tap-water in a pan, so that it 
remains at rest, and if then a drop of olive-oil be placed 
on the surface of the water near the match, the match 
will draw away smartly, because the oil has reduced the 
tension of part of the water-surface and caused the un- 
contaminated water to pull away. This modification of 
the surface-tension of water by a contaminant is one of 
the fundamental factors in flotation, as we shall see. 

Let us now go back to the floating needle. If it is 
greased, does the grease lower the surface-tension of the 
water? That can be ascertained by a pretty experiment. 
If camphor is whittled with a knife above a bowl of 
water the shavings, dropping on the water, will dance on 
the surface in a life-like manner suggesting insects in a 
fit. This phenomenon, as shown by Marangoni, is due to 
the dissolving of the camphor — a crystalline vegetal dis- 
tillate — preferably at the pointed end, where the largest 
area per unit of volume is presented for solution. The 
dissolving of the camphor lowers the surface-tension of 
the water in contact and thereby causes the uncontam- 
inated water, with its stronger tension, to pull away from 
the spot affected by the camphor — as in the colored water 
and alcohol experiment, No. 10. This causes the chips of 
camphor to turn and move spasmodically. In order to 
incite such activity the surface-tension of the water must 
be greater than that of the camphor solution. As soon 
as enough camphor has dissolved to modify the whole 
surface of the water in the bowl or cup, the chips become 
inert. Likewise if the surface-tension be lowered by the 
addition of grease the camphor remains quiet. For ex- 
ample, if, while the chips of camphor are lively, the 
water be touched by a greasy finger — all fingers are 
slightly greasy — the camphor is quieted immediately. 
No ordinary 'clean' cooking-utensil is sufficiently free 
from grease to allow an exhibition of the camphor dance. 

Here we have a simple means of detecting the presence 
of grease or oil in the water upon which the needle is 
floating. I introduced some camphor chips into the 
water on which the ungreased needle was floating and 
they became lively. Then I repeated the experiment with 
a needle that was slightly greased, by rubbing it with the 
fingers that had touched my hair, «nd the camphor ap- 
peared unaffected thereby ; it was lively. Finally, I 
smeared the needle with olive-oil ; an iridescence on the 

=No wonder the judges were puzzled by the technical terms 
used in flotation lawsuits. 'Oleic acid' is called an oil, whereas 
'oil of vitriol' is an acid. 



surface of the water indicated diffusion of the oil. This 
time the chips of camphor fell dead as a door-nail and 
remained wholly inert on .the water. Apparently, there- 
fore, the needle will hold to itself a limited proportion of 
oil, which adhejes so selectively as not to contaminate the 
water ; but an excess of oil, more than the needle can 
hold, will be set free at once to modify the water and 
lower its surface-tension. 

This is a classic experiment, as I ascertained after- 
ward. Raleigh showed that the decrease of surface- 
tension begins as soon as the quantity of oil is about half 
that required to stop the camphor movements, and he 
suggested that this stage may synchronize with a com- 
plete coating of the surface with a single layer of mole- 
cules. 6 

A reference has been made already to the measuring 
of surface-tension. It can be done in several ways. For 
example, a framework, such as is shown in Fig. 6, is con- 
structed 7 out of a transverse bar AB and two grooved 
slips CD and EF, so as to allow a piece of wire CHIJ to 
slip freely up and down. The wire HI is pushed against 
AB and some of the liquid is applied between them. The 
little pan X is loaded with sand so that the wire HI is 
pulled gently from AB. The minimum force required to 
do this is mg, the weight of M grammes. This weight 
suspended on the film of liquid between AB and HI 
equals the tension of the film on the wire. If the film 
stretches until the wire HI is at p, then the film has an 
area CE, CP. The total weight mg is distributed over 
the breadth CE, whence if T represents the surficial 
tension across the unit of length CE, then 

mg 
mg = T.CE,OT T=^ 

Another simple way of measuring surface-tension is to 
make a wire-frame of which one side is movable ; thus 
(Fig. 7) let ABC represent a bent wire and DE a straight 
piece. If a film of liquid is spread over the space DBE 
then the surface-tension acting on DE will support not 
only the weight of the wire DE but also a small weight X. 
If W be the mass of the cross-wire DE and its attached 
weight, then the surface-tension of the film supports W 
and exerts a force Wg. The surface-tension acts all along 
that part (I) of the wire DE that lies in contact with the 
film, and it acts at right angles to DE. Since the film 
has two surfaces, if the force exerted on a unit length of 
DE and on one side of the film be T, then the upward 
force on DE due to surface-tension is 277. Hence 5 if 

Wg 
there is equilibrium 277 = Wg, or T= — 

This method was suggested by Clerk Maxwell. An 
ingenious mechanical model for illustrating the definition 
of surface-tension has been devised by Frank B. Kenrick, 
of the University of Toronto. He gives the definition as 
"the maximum quantity of work that can be gained 
when a surface is decreased in area by one square cen- 
timetre", and describes his device as follows: "A pro- 

■sThe Encyclopaedia Britannica. 11th Edition. Page 267. 
'Alfred Danniell. 'A Text Book of the Principles of Physics'. 
«W. Watson. 'A Text-book of Physics', p. 182. 



.Ink 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



18 



jeotion cell 40 mm, by 10 nun. and 60 nun, high, the 
upper edges of which have been coated with a film of 
paraffine -wax. is tilled almost, to overflowing with water. 
On the surface is floated a thin shaving of cork 30 mm. 
by ") mm. by 1 mm., to which is attached a fine cotton 



H 




X 

Fig. 6 



ing Of the upper edge of the glass cell allows the water, 
which docs not wet paraffine, to rise slightly higher than 
the level of the >;lass without overflowing. 

By such experiments the force of surface-tension be- 
tween water and air has been determined to be 3.14 
grammes per linear inch or 72.62 dynes per centimetre 
at 20°C. 10 Many disturbing factors enter into the meas- 




thread about 40 mm. long terminating in a little glass 
hook. The thread passes over a small pulley made from 
a pill-box and a pin resting in a double Y-shaped glass 
bearing. Three weights of glass or bent wire weighing 




J)— I 



urement of this force, so that divers figures, ranging from 
70.6 to 81 have been announced at various times. 11 

This force may seem small, yet the actual tensile 
strength per unit-area of cross-section of the film is about 
one-fourth that of the iron or mild steel used in the 
shells of steam-boilers, although its density is not much 
more than one-eighth as great as that of the iron. 12 

The surface-tension of a liquid must be stated with 
reference to the fluid — gas or liquid— in contact, for it is 
modified by the nature of the substance on either side of 
the interface. An interfacial tension exists at any sur- 
face separating two substances and it has a particular 
value for each pair of substances. For example, the 
tension separating mercury from water is 418 dynes per 
centimetre whereas that separating olive-oil from air is 
only 36.9 dynes. A drop of water will not spread over 



Z6 




SOAPY WAT£P 
/Z 




Fig. 9 



about 0.1 gramme, 0.07 gm., and 0.04 gm. may be hung 
on the hook. The middle weight approximately balances 
the surface-tension, while the lighter one on being pulled 
-down with a pair of tweezers is lifted again by the sur- 
face-tension. A fall of 1 cc. produces one square centi- 
metre of surface, namely, 0.5 cm 2 on the forward under 
side of the cork that is wet with water and 0.5 em 2 on 
the upper surface of the liquid in the cell." For the 
accompanying sketch (Fig. 8) I am indebted to Profes- 
sor Kenrick, who sent it to me on request. The wax- 

«Jour. of Phys. Chem., Vol. XVI, page 513. 



the surface of mercury but oil will spread over water. The 
balance of forces is different in the two cases. When a 
globule of oil is placed on water, the tension of the water- 

"Theodore W. Richards and Leslie B. Coombs. 'The Surface- 
Tension of Water, Alcohols, etc' Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, July 
1915. One dyne is equal to 1.02 milligrammes. 

nT. J. Hoover in his valuable book 'Concentrating Ores by 
Flotation' quotes from Clerk Maxwell's article on 'Capillarity' 
in the Encyclopaedia Britannica and gives the figure as 81, but 
he makes the mistake of saying that it is 81 dynes "per square 
centimetre." It is a tension, not a pressure. 

12M. M. Garver. Jour. Phys. Chem., Vol. XVI, page 243. 



14 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



air surface exerts a pull of 73 dynes as against the joint 
pull (37 plus 14) of the air-oil and oil-water surfaces. 
Thus 14 -f 37 < 73. (Fig. 9) The oil spreads. If soap, 
in the form of \% sodium oleate, be added to the water 
its surface-tension will be lowered to 26 and the oil-water 
tension will also be decreased, how much I do not know, 
but certainly decreased, say, to 12 ; therefore 37 + 12 
> 26, and the oil will not spread over the water. On the 
other hand, the tension of the mercury-air surface has 
been given as 436 dynes and that of the mercury-water 
surface as 418. If this be so, then a drop of water will 
not spread, because 418 + 73 > 456. But Quincke 
showed long ago that pure water will spread on pure 
mercury, although the presence of an impurity, such as 
a slight greasiness, on the surface of the mercury will 
prevent spreading. According to later determinations 
of the interfacial tensions, by Freundlich, that of mer- 
cury-air is 445 dynes and that of mercury-water 370, so 
that 73 + 370 < 445, and the pure water ought to 
spread on the pure mercury, as Quincke stated. If the 
water be contaminated, so as to lower its surface-tension, 
it will spread readily even on ordinary mercury, which is 
not chemically pure and on which pure water will not 
spread. 

Wetting. A steel needle floats on water, but a glass 
rod of the same size sinks immediately; yet the specific 
gravity of steel is to that of glass as 8 to 2.75. The sur- 
face of the water resists rupture by the steel but it is 
readily broken by the glass ; in other words, the glass is 
readily 'wetted,.' while the steel is not. Again, if the 
glass rod be greased it will float ; it ceases to be easily 
wetted. Here we face one of the underlying phenomena 
of flotation. The understanding of what constitutes 
'wetting' is essential to the subject. 

If a drop of pure water be placed on a clean piece of 
glass, it will flatten itself out so as to increase the space 
it first touched. If a similar drop of water be placed 
on a cabbage-leaf, it will not spread, but will retain its 
spherical form. We say that water 'wets' a glassy sur- 
face and does not 'wet' a waxy vegetal surface. A drop 
of mercury spreads eagerly over gold, but does not 
spread on glass; mercury wets gold but not glass. The 
statement is not absolute ; it is a question of degree. 

If I press the surface of water with a piece of glass 
the water rises to meet the glass, forming a mound, 
whereas if I make the same test with a piece of steel the 
water shrinks away from it, forming a depression. The 
tendency is for the water to lap the glass but to avoid 
the steel; the one substance is easily 'wetted.' the other 
not. The glass and the steel typify the gangue and the 
sulphide respectively in an ore treated by flotation. If 
we look carefully at the steel and glass, at the instant of 
touching the water, we see the conditions sketched in 
Fig. 10. 

Note how ink from a pen will not run on paper that is 
at all greasy. The paper refuses to be wetted where it is 
greased. That is why new pens are refractory : the 
steel has been greased to prevent rusting, like the needles. 
I used to burn the point of a new pen by aid of a match 



in order to cause it to deliver the ink to the paper com- 
fortably. That burned the grease, but spoiled the temper 
of the pen-point. 

The free surface of a liquid is horizontal, but at the 
contact with a solid the surface is curved, the direction 
and amount of curvature varying as between different 
liquids and solids. The water curves upward against 
glass, whereas it curves downward against steel ; it tends 
to drown the one, but to float the other until gravity 



GLASS ON WATEE 



STEEL OX WATER 



Fig. 10 



overmasters surface-tension. The way in which a liquid 
impinges on a solid is called the ' angle of contact. ' For 
example, in Fig. 11 water is shown in contact with glass. 
Consider the conditions at the point 0. The gravita- 
tional pull on a minute quantity of the water is negli- 
gible in comparison with its own cohesive force; so we 
can disregard the effect of gravity. The force of ad- 
hesion exerted by the surface of the glass is represented 
by A, the force of cohesion in the water is represented 
by B, and the resultant of these two forces is C. If 
the adhesive force of the liquid to the solid exceeds the 
cohesive force of the liquid, the resultant will lie to the 
left of the vertical, E D, that is, within the solid; and 



4 



A )R 



0/, 




/^srEEi.^ 




7 s 

A IP. 




_v c 


~—EZ— W^TER 



Fig. 11 



Fig. 12 



since the surface of a liquid assumes a position at right 
angles to this resultant force, the water rises on the face 
of the glass. If, on the other hand, as in Fig. 12, where 
steel is shown in water, the cohesion of the liquid is 
greater than the adhesion of the liquid to the solid, then 
the resultant force lies to the right of the vertical, or 
within the liquid, which accordingly is depressed at the 
face of the solid. 

In Fig. 11 and 12 the contact-angle is DOB. Since the 
surface of the liquid always assumes a position at right 
angles to the resultant force, the water will tend to rise 
on the glass and to sink on the steel. This angle of con- 
tact between a liquid surface and a solid is usually the 
same for the same pair of substances, but there is a subtle 
variation, which is called 'hysteresis' and it is said to 
play an important part in flotation. The variation is 



.lulv 



1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



15 



oo icted with the ability of a soli.i to condense a film 

of gas upon its surface. This gas-condensing power, or 
adsorption, can be modified, by aoidulation, lot example. 
Salman has Btated thai "whereas the angular hysteresis 
of silica in plain water may exceed 30°, thus indicating 
thai substance to have a definite power to occlude gas 
and to float, it .Imps Erom 4 to nil in water acidulated 
with sulphuric acid. Galena, on the other hand, retains 
its full measure of angular variation, or is but slightly 
affected." 1 This effect of the surface-energy of solids is 
apparently an important factor in flotation, and it is a 
pity that the exigencies of patent litigation have pre- 
vented Mr. Sulman from contributing more to the tech- 
nology of the subject. 

The angle of contact between water arid glass is so 
acute as to he more nearly zero the purer the water and 
the cleaner the glass; between turpentine and glass it is 
17 ; between mercury and glass it is 148°. In a general 
way, subject to the variation already noted, the size of 
the contact-angle measures the capacity for 'wetting.' 
This angle can be changed by modifying the surface- 
tension of the water by means of a contaminant, such as 
oil. or the angle can be altered by modifying the surface 
of the solid, also by oiling. The oiling of the steel needle 
increased the angle of contact with the water so that it 
did not impinge as directly on the needle, and it did the 
same to the glass rod, but the effect was relatively less on 
the steel than on the glass because of the higher specific 
gravity of the former. The force tending to prevent 
sinking depends upon the radius of the needle, its den- 
sity relative to that of the water, the surface-tension of 
the water, and the cosine of the contact-angle. 14 In 
metallurgical practice the pull of gravity is decisive in 
so far as it limits the size of particle that can be floated 
in water. If our needle is too large, it sinks, no matter 
how favorable the other conditions may be. So the flota- 
tion of a particle of mineral is conditioned on the size to 
which it has been reduced by crushing in the mill. The 
oiling of the needle increased the upward component of 
the surface-tension by enlarging the angle of contact, 
but the use of an excess of oil, that is, more than the 
needle could hold of itself, served to lower the surface- 
tension of the water and therefore to diminish the re- 
sultant force operating against wetting and in favor of 
flotation. Thus the oil used in flotation has two possible 
functions, and they may interfere with each other. 

If to the water in which a needle is floating I add a 
drop of pine-oil, the needle sinks at once because the 
lowering of the surface-tension enables the water to wet 
the needle, that is, to diminish the angle of contact so 
that the water envelopes the steel. Let us make some 
other simple experiments. Take a piece of chalcocite 
that presents a smooth surface. A drop of water will not 
spread over it as it will on glass; the globule of water 
flattens itself on the glass but tends to retain its spher- 

isH. L. Sulman. Presidential address. Trans. I. M. & M„ 
Vol. XX, p. XLVII. 

"Joel H. Hildebrand. 'Principles Underlying Flotation.' 
M. & S. P., July 29, 1916. 



ioal I'onii on the chal die. The glass may typify quartz 

or some other gangue-mineral. A drop of flotation-oil, 
such as coal-tar creosote, flattens on the chalcocite, where- 
as water maintains its sphericity. Coal-tar spreads less 

on glass than on water, but water spreads more on glass 
than on chalcocite. Thus water wets mineral less easily 
than gangue, whereas oil coats mineral more readily than 
gangue. So we say that gangue has a greater affinity Eor 
water than mineral, which, on the contrary, lias a greater 
affinity for oil. 

Water drips off oiled copper more quickly than off the 
unoiled ; there is more adhesion between the water and 
the unoiled metal ; the oil prevents wetting by the water. 
The effect of the density of the surrounding medium is 
shown by placing a piece of glass under water, dropping 
a globule of coal-tar upon the glass, and then raising it 
out of the water. The globule of oil spreads when lifted 
out of the denser medium and shrinks when returned to 
the water, although not quite to its first shape, on ac- 
count of the adhesive surface. The oil on the galena 
replaces the water on its surface, but the oil on the 
quartz is unable to prevent the water from pushing 
itself underneath and over the surface of the quartz. 
Thus we have "an instance of the selective action of 
oil on a metallic sulphide in the presence of water, and 
the selective action of water on a gangue-mineral in 
the presence of oil." 10 On this phenomenon largely de- 
pends the process for separating valuable mineral from 
worthless gangue by flotation. 

If a piece of galena and a piece of quartz are placed 
under water on the bottom of a beaker and if a few 
drops of oil, such as wood-ereosote, are dropped upon 
the water, they will descend through the water owing 
"to their momentum and the releasing of the surface 
tension of the water" 17 until one may fall on the galena, 
en which the oil will spread, while another falls on the 
quartz, on which it tends to draw into globular form, in- 
stead of spreading. Flotation is essentially a selective 
process. If I throw powdered ore on water, the par- 
ticles of gangue sink and the particles of mineral float, 
in accord with our expectation, based on the foregoing 
experiments and the deductions therefrom, but some of 
the small particles of gangue will float and some of the 
larger particles of mineral will sink, because the play 
of forces is so complex that any single one of them is not 
uniformly decisive. Flotation is preferential, not abso- 
lute. 

(To be continued) 



Flotation depends upon the presence of substances 
that will lower the surface-tension of water and are 
adsorbed by the mineral particles that it is desired to 
float. 



Sulphuric acid and other electrolytes increase the 
surface-tension of water, but this increase is negligible 
unless acid is added in strong proportions. 

i«A. F. Taggart, as witness in the recent trial, at Butte. 
"Taggart. Op. cit. 



16 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



Methods of Driving Pine Mountain Tunnel 



By H. DEVEREUX 



The Pine Mountain tunnel is being driven in Marin 
county, California, at a point about three miles west 
of Fairfax. The tunnel is part of the proposed system 
for the Marin Municipal Water District, connecting 
the Lagunitas water-shed with the water supply system 
for the eastern part of Marin county. It is of horse- 
shoe section, 8 by 8 ft. net, inside the concrete lining. 
The total length is 8700 ft., of which about 600 ft. near 
the two portals will have a 12-in. concrete lining, and 
the remaining 8100 ft., a 6-in. lining. The quantities 
per lineal foot are as follows : excavation, 3 eu. yd., 
theoretical amount of concrete in 12-in. lining, 1.2 eu. 
yd. ; . concrete in 6-in. lining, 0.6 cu. yd. The actual 
quantities of concrete will be about 35% greater, on 
account of overbreakage. The work is being done 
under the direction of M. M. O'Shaughnessy, consult- 
ing engineer for the district, A. R. Baker, engineer for 
the district, and C. T. Broughton, resident engineer on 
the work. The contract was awarded early in De- 
cember 1916 to McLeran & Peterson, of San Francisco, 
at $257,400 for the entire work, or $29.70 per lin. ft. 
for driving and lining the tunnel. Work was com- 
menced in the middle of December. Hand-drills were 
used until about February 1, machine-drills since that 
time. The actual cost of driving has been about the 
same for both methods, but the machine work is much 
more rapid. Up to May 15 about 2000 ft. of progress 
was made on the east end, and 1000 ft. on the west end. 
Concreting commenced about June 1. The maximum 
progress in driving for any one month has been 568 ft. in 
the east heading, or 19 ft. per day. The average 
progress since the machine drills were installed has 
been 13 ft. per day in the east end, and 10 ft. in the 
west end. 

It will prove of interest to compare records of 
other American tunnels having nearly equal sections. 
On the Sheep Creek tunnel in greenstone and slate the 
maximum progress was 661 ft. per month and the 
average for a period of six months. 596 ft. per month. 
At the Alaska-Gastineau mine, an 8 by 10-ft. tunnel 
was driven 8800 ft. at a rate of 544 ft. per month. The 
maximum monthly progress in the Roosevelt tunnel, 
which had a 6 by 10-ft. section and was driven in Pikes 
Peak granite, was 435 ft., and the average was 292 ft. 
The Elizabeth Lake tunnel on trie Los Angeles Aque- 
duct was driven 604 ft. in one month through black 
shale. The section was 12 by 13 ft. The Red Rock 
tunnel, also on the Aqueduct was driven 1061 ft. in one 
month through cemented sandstone. An 8 by 8-ft. tun- 
nel for the Arizona Copper Co. was driven 799 ft. in 



one month through porphyry. The average monthly 
progress was 669 ft. The Gunnison tunnel, 6 by 10^ 
ft., was driven 824 ft. in one month through soft lime- 
stone. The Mt. Ro.yal tunnel, 8 by 12 ft., was driven 
810 ft. in one month through limestone. An 8J by 9J- 
ft. tunnel at Mammoth, California, was driven 395 ft. 
in one month. The average progress was 316 ft. The- 




EAST POBTAL OF TUNNEL 



Laramie-Poudre tunnel, 7£ by 9^ ft., was driven 653 
ft. in one month through granite. The average was 
525 feet. 

The power-plant for the Pine Mountain tunnel is on 
the Bolinas road about three miles west of Fairfax. 
The east portal is about 1000 ft. from the power-house. 
The west portal is nearly two miles southwest from the 
power-plant. Until recently the west portal could be 
reached only by pack-train, but the trail has recently 
been improved so that light loads can be hauled over 
the mountain. 

The compressor-plant consists of three 25-hp. Fair- 
banks-Morse Y-type semi-diesel engines, and three 8 
by 8-in. Sullivan compressors. The pressure main- 
tained at the compressor is 100 lb. per sq. in. A study 
of records on 25 other long tunnels shows that this is 
the average pressure maintained. The lowest was 85 
lb., on the Strawberry tunnel, and the highest. 120 lb. 
on the Laramie-Poudre. Six tunnels used 100 pounds. 



illllv 



1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



17 



Angeles Aqueduct recommends a 25-lb. rail where con- 
crete is to be hauled. Where heavy cars are used, a 
mechanical damping-system is required. 

Considerable trouble bus been experienced at the wesl 
end of tbe Pino Mountain tunnel on account of water. 
There are 'pockets' of water thai give a large flow for a 
few days and then run dry. making pumping a difficult 
matter. This lias been remedied by catting a ditch to 
■drain the water back from the face of the tunnel. This 
matter of drainage is frequently a considerable item of 
•expense in long tunnels. The cost of pumping at the 
Mile Rock tunnel was $1.30 per lin. ft. At the east end 
•of the Strawberry tunnel, the wet end, the cost of punip- 




WEST PORT.VL OF TUNNEL 

Ing was $1.36 per lin. ft. At the Roosevelt tunnel a 
drainage ditch 4 by 6 ft. was excavated at a cost of $1.10 
per ft. If an 8 by S-in. ditch is carried under the track 
in the middle of the heading, lined on the sides and cov- 
ered with a 2-in. plank at an elevation of 18-in. below 
grade at the same time as the rest of the drilling is done, 
the water-problem at the lower end of a tunnel will be 
easily and economically handled. A similar arrangement 
is advisable at the tipper end of the tunnel, whenever the 
grade is such that the ditch need not be over 4 or 5 ft. 
deep at the portal. 

So far. but little timbering has been required. About 
10% of the tunnel has been side and top-lagged, while 
for about 5%, timber sets in the arch only have been 
used with the top-segments lagged. In the first 2000 ft. 
of tunnel 20.000 ft. B.M. of timber has been use d, or 
10 ft. B.M. per foot of tunnel. The cost of placing 
timber full-lagged is about $15 per M.B.M. Where arch- 
sets and crown-bars are used the cost will be greater, 
.about $25 per M.B.M. "Where timber is cut in the woods 



nearby a man can cut and frame 1000 ft. B.M. in -ii 
days. 

The overbreakage thus far has been small, not exceed- 
ing 35% of the net area of the concrete section. On the 
east end. the ground is being drilled to the full section, 
on the west end to about 80% of the full section, requir- 
ing trimming along the entire length in the latter case. 
On the Los Angeles Aqueduct some tunnels were driven 
and trimmed so closely that the excess yardage did not 
exceed 15 or 20% of the theoretical yardage of concrete, 
but the cost of trimming amounted to as much as $2 per 
lin. ft. of tunnel. The conclusion with regard to hard- 
rock tunnels was that the excess yardage of concrete 
lining should not be over 30 to 40%. When a cubic yard 
of concrete in the net section was required per lin. ft. of 
tunnel, a 100% excess was valued at $6 to $7 and n 30% 
excess at $1.S0 per lin. ft. It was found to be the best 
practice to excavate the sub-grade at the start so that the 
top of ties is at the bottom of the theoretical sub-grade, 
so as to avoid expensive trimming and delays when the 
concrete lining is placed. In the Mile Rock tunnel the 
theoretical quantity of concrete per lin. ft. of tunnel was 
1.6 cu. yd., and the actual 2 cu. yd., or a 25% excess. 

The cost of driving the Mile Rock tunnel was $4.75 per 
cu. yd. or $27 per lin. ft. of tunnel. The cost of lining 
was $9 per cu. yd. of concrete, or $18 per lin. ft. of tun- 
nel. In general the cost of lining small-section tunnels 
where compressed air is used to make and place the con- 
crete, and wooden forms are employed, is $1.60 per lin. 
ft. for forms and $1.40 per cu. yd. for labor and royalty 
in placing concrete, plus the cost of materials, aggregate, 
and power, and the distributed general expense and 
liability insurance. On the Mile Rock tunnel the over- 
head for general expense and insurance was 15% of the 
total cost to the contractor. On the Pine Mountain tun- 
nel the liability insurance and bond are carried by the 
water district and do not appear in the contract price. 

The following is the scale of wages paid on the Pine 
Mountain tunnel : 



Drillers $3.75 

Helpers 3.00 

Shovelers 3.25 

Teamsters 3.00 

Blacksmiths 4.00 

Helpers 3.00 



Dump-men $3.00 

Foremen 6.00 

Compressor-engineers . . 3.50 

Pipe-men 3.00 

Packers 3.00 

Common labor 2.50 



The maximum monthly progress has been 568 ft. or 
19 ft. per day. For this rate of progress, which was at 
the east end, the cost per lin. ft. to the contractor is as 
follows : 

Drilling $1.67 

Shoveling 1.90 

Hauling 0.67 

Dumping 0.4S 

Blacksmith 0.37 

Pipe-men 0.16 

Powder 1.S0 

Power 0.65 

Bonus 2.00 

Constr'n and maint'nce 

roads and trails 0.23 Total cost per foot $16.12 

A bonus of $0.25 per man per ft. is paid for each ad- 



Teaming $0.30 

Packing 0.25 

Miscellaneous plant, pipe- 
line, track 2.00 

Heavy plant, engines and 

compressors 1.00 

Drill steel, repairs 0.30 

Timbering, material .... 0.20 
Timbering, labor 0.12 



18 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Julv 7. 1917 



ttOVSIt- 




































































































/~s 






































































1300 
































































































/' 










































































1200 


















































































































\ 


s 


























































1100 






















































































































\ 


\ 




















































mo 








































/ 


'\ 
































































































































900 


























1 






















"~' 


























































































































BOO 


























I 
























































































































\ 




























700 














1 


f 






































































































































^ 




















600 










/ 


' 


' 
































































































































































550 
525 




































































































































Stu 86*31. 84 Endoftunncl and inside - 
face of End Wall of Outlet Sp^xtury?. 








500 
475 










% 




=rr= 


^E 


--!--- L - 


^^ 












m 


— 








-508.C = 


nevofhvertatStn O'OObt 


pminQ of tunnel.-' — tH — 












: 1 ■ ' 


_ i i I | i , I | 


= 


- 


































— 








































- 


- 






- 




- 


- 






- 


- 


- 














^— 



35 40 45 50 

PROFILE OF TUNNEL 



Air is conveyed through a 31-in pipe, 1000 ft. to the 
east portal, and 10,000 ft. to the west portal. Three 
hundred cubic feet of free air per minute is supplied, 
which is sufficient to run three drills and also the forges. 
The loss of pressure at the west end does not exceed 2 lb. 
Records on nine long tunnels show capacities of plant 
ranging from 247 to 868 cu. ft. of free air per minute, 
with an average of 550 pounds. 

The D'Arcy-Cox formula for the conveyance of com- 
pressed air in pipes is 

Where 

D = volume of compressed air in cubic feet per 

minute discharged at final pressure, 
c = a coefficient, ranging from 45 for a 1-in. to 60 

for a 6-in. pipe. 
d = diameter of pipe in inches. 
L = length of pipe in feet. 

P, = initial gauge-pressure in pounds per square inch. 
P 2 = final gauge-pressure in pounds per square inch. 
W 1 = density of the air or its weight in pounds per 
cubic foot. 

Diameter of Table j Value ot 

pipe, inches cV d* 

1 45 

1J 105 

1* 155 

2 300 

2* 530 

3 S75 

3J 1300 

4 1860 

5 3300 

6 5270 

Table II 

V P, - P, 
Values of — *== — '- 

Final pressure, Losses of pressure P, - P. in pounds 

lb. per sq. in. 123456S10 

70 1.5 2.1 2.6 3.0 3.3 3.6 4.1 4.5 

80 1.4 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.1 4.0 3.9 4.3 

90 1.3 1.9 2.3 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.7 4.1 

100 1.8 2.2 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.6 3.9 



Example: Given a 3|-in. pipe, 10,000 ft. long, how 
many cubic feet of air per minute at an initial pressure 
of 90 lb. can be transmitted, with a loss of pressure of 
not more than 2 pounds ? 

Prom Table I, opposite a 3i-in. pipe, find 1300. 
Square root of 10,000 = 100. 
1300/100 = 13 
Prom Table II, for drop of 2 lb. at 90 lb. final pres- 
sure, find 1.9. 

13 X 1.9 = 23.7 
90 lb. + 14.7 (atmospheric) = 104.7 

— 14 „ — — = 170 cu. ft. (approx. ) of free air per minute. 

In using Table II, it will be noted that the initial and 
final pressures are taken as the same. Should greater 





STANDARD SECTIONS FOR TUNNEL 

refinement be required, interpolate for the difference, re- 
membering, however, that a slight leak in the line may 
change the results. 

Three No. 18 Leyner drills with a lj-in. chuck, 24-in. 
feed, and six sets of 1^-in. hollow steel from 24 to 96 in. 
long, are used. There is an 18-gal. water-tank and an 
air-line manifold. The drills are mounted on horizontal 
bars. Jackhamers are used for trimming. On other 
long tunels, preference was about equally divided be- 
tween vertical columns and horizontal bars. 

The duty of a No. 18 Leyner drill in this tunnel is 5 
ft. of hole per hour, using 1000 eu. ft. of free air at 100 
lb. pressure per lin. ft. of hole drilled. The cost of 



July 



1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



19 



drilling, including bonus is $(>.•_'<> per ft. This estimate 
allows for delays. 
The I'ost of fuel ami lubricating oil for a 135-day run 

was as follows: 11,000 gal. fuel-oil. 24 Baumo gravity, 
at $0,032 per gallon = $352; 250 gal. valvoline, strained 
and used twice, at $1.35 = $324; hauling, three miles 
from railroad, at $0,005 per gallon, = $55; total, $731. 

The plant was run continuously and 62A hp. was de- 
veloped. This gives a cost of 0.36c. per hp. hour for 
fuel and lubricating-oil. This amount of power is suf- 
ficient for three drills and two forges. The cost of labor 
at the power-house is $320 per month. During March 
the total progress in both headings was 854 ft., and the 
cost for power was $0.65 per ft., $0.29 for fuel and $0.36 
for labor. A 25-hp. Fairbanks-Morse Y-type engine has 
just been installed to operate a 220-volt, 25 kilowatt gen- 
erator, which will be used to run a plant for lighting the 
tunnel and a rock-erusher for crushing aggregate for the 
concrete lining. 

Purchased electric power on four other long tunnels 
cost from $1.65 to $2.15 per lin. ft. or an average of 
$1.90. Electric power generated on the work for the 
Elizabeth Lake tunnel on the Los Angeles Aqueduct cost 
$5.25 per ft., and on the Strawberry tunnel, where it was 
transmitted a distance of 23 miles, $5.50 per ft. On an- 
other tunnel, where steam was used, with wood for fuel, 
the cost for power was $2.50 per ft. "Where steam was 



time that should be allowed for delays after blasting, 
requires a capacity of 4000 cu. ft. of air per minute. 
For respiration allow 75 cu. ft. per man per minute, 
and 150 cu. ft. per animal. The average rated capacity 
of ventilating apparatus used on 16 long tunnels was 
3400 cu. ft. per minute. The size of the ventilating- 
pipe ranged from 10 in. for the Carter and Mission tun- 
nels, to 18 in. for the Elizabeth Lake and 19 in. for the 
Central tunnel. Where light-gauge sheet-metal pipes 
are used for ventilation, it is advisable to build a small 
bulkhead of track-ties in front of the pipe before blast- 
ing in order to prevent collapse of the pipe. 

Table III gives the diameter of pipe in inches re- 
quired to deliver 4000 cu. ft. of free air per minute for 
lengths of pipe from 1000 to 14,000 ft., and for pressures 
from 1 to 6 pounds. 

TABLE III 



Length of ,- 

pipe, ft. 1 

1,000 12 

2,000 14 

3,000 15 

4,000 16 

5,000 17 

6,000 

8,000 

10,000 

12,000 

14,000 



Pressure, lb. , 

2 3 4 6 
10 

12 11 10 

13 12 11 10 

14 13 12 11 

15 13} 12* 11} 
15} 14 13 12 

16 15 14 12} 

17 15} 14} 13 
16 15 13$ 

14. 



1 

' : 

i 


1 

j ! 

'f • 

1 


• 1 

Si fi 



INTEEIOB OF COMPBESSOR PLANT 

used with crude-oil for fuel, the cost was $2.28 for 
fuel, and $0.80 for labor. 

For ventilation, 1000 ft. of 10-in. pipe has been laid 
at each heading, reducing to 8-in. for the remainder of 
the distance. This pipe has been found to be too small, 
and is to be replaced with a 12-in. pipe, using a blower 
working at a pressure of 4.5 lb. per sq. in. To clear a 
tunnel of foul air in 15 minutes, which is the maximum 



For illumination, acetylene lamps 
on the men's caps and candles have 
been used, but as already noted, an 
electric-lighting plant has now been 
installed. Acetylene lamps have been 
used on several long tunnels, small 
lamps being used on the men's caps 
and larger stationary lights being 
placed 150 ft. apart along the tunnel. 
This is an economical method of light- 
ing. Electric lights are usually em- 
ployed where electric hauling is done. 
The cost of lighting the Mile Rock 
tunnel with electricity was $0.50 per 
ft. of tunnel. In wet tunnels, electric 
lights are uncertain. 

The rock penetrated so far in the 
east end of the tunnel is sedimentary 
with intrusive igneous rock. On the 
west end there is Franciscan sand- 
stone, black serpentine, and hard 
boulders, with some diabase. The 
rock at the west end is harder than at 
the east end. The number of holes 
per round at the east end is 9 to 14, and 14 to 16 
at the west end. Six feet of hole is drilled per round, 
the wedge-cut system of arrangement being used. Forty 
per cent L. F. gelatine powder is used, supplied by 
the Hercules Powder Co. In the east end, 9 lb. of 
powder, 19 ft. of fuse, and 4 caps are used per lin. ft. of 
progress. In the west end, 15 lb. of powder, 26 ft. of 
fuse and 4 caps are required. 



20 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



Records of other long tunnels show that the wedge-cut 
was used in 19 instances, the pyramid-cut in 4, and the 
bottom cut in 7. An analysis of the depth of holes gener- 
ally used in American practice, would lead one to infer 
that the most successful driving was secured when the 
average depth of the holes was from 60 to 80% of the 




WEDGE-CUT, PYRAMID-CUT, AND BOTTOM-CUT SYSTEMS 

(From Brunton and Davis, Modern Tunneling) 

width of the heading for wedge and pyramid cuts, and 
60 to 80% of the height for the bottom cut. Tn cases 
where deeper holes had been used, "and the depth of holes 
was later reduced according to the above rule, there was 
an increase of speed of as much as 20% and a decrease 
of powder used of as much as 25%. The number of holes 
per round is dependent upon the character of the rock. 
An approximate rule for sedimentary formations is one 



hole to 5 or 6 sq. ft. of face of heading, and in igneous 
formations, one hole to 2.5 to 4 sq. ft. of face. 

The amount of explosive used in small tunnels ranges 
from 3.5 to 10 lb. per cu. yd. of material removed. Bot- 
tom-cut holes appear to require more powder than pyr- 
amid or wedge-cut holes. As regards percentage of 
gelatine powder used, practice has ranged from 40% in 
six tunnels to 100% in the Roosevelt tunnel, which was 
driven through Pikes Peak granite. Loading the bot- 
tom of the hole with 80 to 100% powder and the rest 
with 40 to 60% has given good results in a number of 
cases. On the Grapevine division of the Los Angeles 
Aqueduct 40 and 60% ammonia powder was used. 
There was comparatively little difference in the effect of 
the two grades. Ammonia powders are affected by mois- 
ture and are not suited to wet tunnels. The gases from 
the ammonia are disliked by the workmen. 

It is best to- place the cap near the top of the charge 
and tamped with powder, although many powder-men 
prefer placing the cap at the bottom of the hole. A cap 
has recently been placed on the market that acts like a 
time-fuse, enabling the cut-holes, relievers, back-holes, 
and lifters to be fired at intervals and in rotation by an 
electric battery. 

On the east end there are two drillers and one helper 
per shift, and one driller and one helper per shift on the 
west end. Three shifts are worked and as many as five 
rounds or 30 ft. of progress has been made in 24 hours, 
requiring 150 ft. of drill-hole per drill for each 24 hours. 
Four shovelers are employed on a shift in each end, two 
working at any one time and two resting. They handle 
from 10 to 15 cu. yd. per man per shift. The shovelers 
use square-pointed shovels, and shovel from steel floor- 
plates, i in. by 4 by 6 feet. 

The material is transported by mules in turn-table 
end-dump cars of 25 cu. ft. capacity. When the work has 
progressed so far that mules cannot handle the material 
economically, it is proposed to remodel White or Stanley 
steam-automobiles to do the hauling. Such remodeled 
machines are now being used successfully on the Twin 
Peaks tunned. At the east end the material is dumped 
close to the portal. On the west end it has to be hauled 
for some distance. The track has an 18-in. gauge and is 
laid with 27 lb.-rails. The original intention was to use 
25-lb. rail, but it happened that a quantity of 27-lb. rail 
was available. 

There seems to be no established practice regarding 
types of cars or track for this class of work. On 7 tun- 
nels, turn-table end-dump cars were used, on 4 common 
end-dump cars, on 7 side-dump cars, and on 4 rocker- 
dump cars. On the Los Angeles Aqueduct, rocker-dump 
cars with a capacity of 32 eu. ft. were used, while on the 
Catskill Aqueduct side-dump cars with a capacity of 40 
cu. ft. were employed. Sizes of cars varied from 1 ton 
up to 40 cu. ft. The smaller cars are more convenient 
since in narrow tunnels the empty cars can be made to 
pass the loaded ones by simply tipping the former off the 
track. Weights of rails have ranged from 12 to 36 lb., 
and gauges from 18 to 36 in. The final report of the Los 



July 



1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



2] 



ditional fool over 14 ft. pet day. to all men who remain 
daring the month. The oosl at the west end is abonl the 

same as al the cast end. The rate of progress is less, 
but on the other hand there is no bonus. Assuming that 
the excavation runs 3 on. yd. per tin. ft. of tunnel, the 
0081 per in. yd. is approximately $5.40. 

Other miscellaneous items are as follows: Cost of 
camp-buildings, etc., $25 per man for a 70-man camp. 
The cost of laying the 3i-in. pipe for the compressed-air 
line over the mountain was $0.08 per ft. for distribution, 
and $0.04 for laying, a total of $0.12. The cook-house, 
caring for 40 men, uses 1 bbl. fuel-oil in 8 days. 

Memoranda on Submarines 

The Engineering Committee of the National Research 
( 'on m-it issues the following data to guide those desirous 
of helping to circumvent the Enemy's submarine cam- 
paign by means of invention and suggestion. Any 
communication on the subject should be addressed to W. 
F. Durand. Vice-Chairman of the Committee, at Wash- 
ington. 

Submarines operate singly or in groups as may seem 
best suited to local or special conditions. 

They are supposed, where circumstances favor, to lie 
on the bottom at rest and with listening devices attempt 
to detect the approach of vessels. On receipt of evidence 
that a vessel is approaching, they rise to a level per- 
mitting observation with periscope, and then manosuver 
accordingly. "When in water too deep to permit lying on 
bottom, the submarine must maintain steerage way in 
order to hold its level of submergence. The minimum 
speed at which this can be done will range with circum- 
stances from 2 to 4 knots. The maximum depth of sub- 
mergence is about 200 ft. The usual depth of running 
is from 50 to 100 feet. 

They have been supposed to return to the home base 
at intervals of 30 to 35 days. The total radius of action 
will presumably range from 5000 to 8000 miles at a 
moderate cruising speed of 10 or 11 knots. The high 
speed emerged will range from 14 to 18 knots, or possibly 
more in latest designs. The maximum submerged speed 
is about 10 knots. 

Hidden bases have been presumably used off the Irish 
and other coasts. There have also been suspicions of 
bases on the coasts of Greenland and Iceland. Sub- 
merged bases for oil and supplies have also been em- 
ployed. 

The time required from emergence to submergence will 
range from 1 to 3 or 4 minutes, according to circum- 
stances. When submerged near the surface, the time re- 
quired to raise the periscope, take a quick observation 
and lower it again, may range from 15 to 30 seconds. If 
desired, the submarine can follow an undulating path, 
rising and submerging alternately, at frequent intervals, 
at will. Or otherwise it may run fulty submerged but 
near the surface and take frequent observation through 
the periscope. Modern submarines are provided with 



two or three periscopes. The loss or destruction Of our. 
therefore, will not necessarily disable the boat. 

Torpedoes tired from submarines are presumably 
aimed by changing the direction of the boat. This. 
however, is not assured in all cases. The torpedo, in 
order to run true, must travel at an immersion of about 
10 ft. In smooth water it may be run at a shallowet 
depth than in rough water. 

Submarines may operate at night with less liability of 
detection, but with, of course, greater difficulty in pick- 
ing up their target. 

Submarines use the gyroscopic compass. 

Sounds produced by the movement of a submarine 
through the water, including those traceable to the pro- 
peller, to movements of the rudder, etc., should permit 
of detection by the use of modern refined sound detecting 
devices. 

The distance at which a protecting net, plate, or shield 
or other means of exploding the torpedo before reaching 
the side of the ship must be located in order that such 
distance will render the effect of the torpedo harmless, 
will depend primarily upon (1) Weight of explosive 
charge, (2) Depth of torpedo when exploded, (3) 
Strength of the ship 's structure. With modern torpedoes 
and a depth of 10 or 12 ft. and with the structure of 
modern merchant ships, distances of 20 or 30 ft. would 
perhaps be required in order to give good assurance 
against injury. With rough water and possibly much 
less submergence at the time of explosion, reduced dis- 
tances of 15 or 20 ft. might prove sufficient. Experi- 
mental investigations on this subject show a very wide 
divergence among the results and no precise rule can be 
given. It may be added, however, that naval constructors 
generally are satisfied that the distance at which pro- 
tecting plates or shields would have to be placed in order 
to secure immunity is so great as to render their use of 
very doubtful practicability. 

British export prohibitions indicate the relative im- 
portance of many of the minerals and metals in the 
conduct of war as revealed by the experience of our 
Allies. The prohibited articles are classified under three 
heads, in the order of their importance. Class A are the 
most necessary, and their exportation is absolutely for- 
bidden ; class B may be exported to other parts of the 
British Empire ; while class C may be sent to the Allies 
. of Great Britain but not to neutral countries. Under 
class A are the following : lead compounds ; manganese 
compounds ; mercury nitrate ; nickel nitrate ; sulphur and 
preparations containing that element ; compounds of 
titanium and zirconium ; all articles manufactured wholly 
or in part of copper; galvanized sheets; iron and iron 
alloys containing chrome, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, 
tungsten, or vanadium ; magnesite ; magnesium and its 
alloys; mercury, platinum and alloys of platinum; rail- 
way materials ; silicon-manganese ; special steels contain- 
ing tungsten, vanadium, or molybdenum ; uranium ir 
any form ; iron wire ; zinc ashes, zinc and its alloys 
aluminum in any form ; and zirconium and its alloys. 



22 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7. 1917 



Recent Vulcanism in Salvador 

By C. ERB WUENSCH 

San Salvador, the capital of El Salvador, the diminu- 
tive republic of Central America, is situated in a region 
of unusual vulcanism. It was the volcano San Sal- 
vador, five miles west of the capital, that was responsible 
for the recent disaster. This volcano has been quiet since 
its terrible eruption late in the 16th century. In the 
year 1625, Thomas Sage, the celebrated English traveler, 
mentions the appearance of a new volcanic vent in the 
place now occupied by the volcano Izalco, 35 miles west 
of the capital and 15 miles north-east from the Pacific 
seaport of Acajutla. It was, however, not until 1770 
that this new vent assumed the status of a volcano. 
It has, until a year ago, been continuously active. Where 
the volcano now stands was formerly a large level plain, 
upon which was situated one of the richest and largest 
cattle estates of the old Spanish days. During this short 
period of activity it has built its cone from practically 
sea-level to its present altitude, which, according to 
Sonnensternst, is 4973 ft. above tide. Ever since its 
beginning, great columns of smoke, accompanied by fre- 
quent irregular eruptions of small magnitude, continu- 
ally rose from its crater. It was a marvelous spectacle 
for the passengers on Pacific steamers as they passed the 
port of Acajutla, especially at night, when the heavens 
were illuminated periodically with weird red reflections 
accompanied by deep heavy rumbling sounds. Often the 
molten lava could be seen pouring out of the crater and 
running down the slopes of the volcano. Izalco was well 
named 'the safety valve of Salvador.' During its period 
of activity no great eruptions have taken- place in Sal- 
vador, but slight earthquakes were frequently felt and 
small amounts of smoke were occasionally seen arising 
from some of the older volcanoes in the Republic. 

About eight months ago, shortly after Izalco ceased its 
activity, the old San Miguel volcano 70 miles east of San 
Salvador, situated near the city of San Miguel, com- 
menced to emit unusual volumes of smoke from its huge 
crater. This renewed activity gave the inhabitants con- 
siderable fear, but as the appearance of the smoke waned 
they ceased to be uneasy. In this connection it might be 
of interest to relate a strange bit of prophesy on the part 
of a geologic friend of mine in San Francisco. On -Tune 
7 I called upon him, and in the course of conversation 
he inquired particular!}' about the volcanoes of Sal- 
vador. When informed that Izalco had become quiescent 
he asked "Is there any new volcanic activity?" Upon 
being told no, he shook his head and said, "That means 
trouble." The very next morning cablegrams were re- 
ceived telling of the volcanic eruption and earthquake at 
San Salvador. This eruption took place through its vent 
on the western side of the volcano, on the side distant 
from the city. It was because of the position of the vent 
that the capital was not more severely damaged. Quezal- 
tepeque, a town nine miles north-west of the city of San 
Salvador, suffered the most damage. 



In this region calcareous and argillaceous formations, 
derived from the weathering of the volcanic tuffs and 
ashes, predominate. They possess features character- 
istic of sedimentary rocks for which they might easily be 
mistaken. Ift the immediate vicinity of San Salvador 
volcano is a large granite porphyry intrusion through 
the basaltic lava of which the cone is composed. In the 
lava-beds of Izalco is found a mineral salt, chloride of 
ammonia associated with sulphur. The lava is stained a 
variety of colors; yellow, green, red, and purple, due to 
the oxidation of small amounts of various metallic sul- 
phides. 

A possible explanation of the transference of the ac- 
tivity from volcano Izalco to that of San Salvador may 
be found in the sealing up of the vent of Izalco, the 
molten magma then stoping its way laterally until it 
made a connection with the older vent in the volcano of 
San Salvador, which had been occupied by a crater-lake. 
The heat from the magma coming in contact with the 
water seepage from the lake generated sufficient steam to 
shatter the rocks, relieve the pressure of the superin- 
cumbent column of rock, and start the eruption. 

It might be of interest to recall the unusual volcanic 
activity that occurred in 1880 in Lake Illopango, a crater- 
lake eight miles long and five miles wide and from 500 to 
1500 ft. deep, situated six miles east of the capital. The 
surface of the water is 1200 ft. below the mean level of 
the surrounding plain. This suggests that here was once 
a volcano of great size. In that year two volcanic cones 
rose from the depths of the lake and extended about 200 
ft. above the surface, and ejected smoke and ashes. The 
water subsided 40 ft. and found an outlet into the Jiboa 
river and flooded the surrounding country. Goodyear 
estimated that 635,000,000 cubic metres of water was re- 
leased from the volcano. Other famous volcanoes in Sal- 
vador are Santa Ana, with an elevation of 6615 ft., very 
slightly active at the present time ; San Miguel, elevation 
6500 ft., also slightly active ; and San Vicente, elevation 
7793 ft., long extinct. Along the slopes of many of the 
volcanoes are situated the richest coffee plantations in the 
country. The volcanic ashes make an exceedingly rich 
soil. A cablegram received from President Melendez 
of Salvador stated that the ashes from the present erup- 
tion would prove beneficial to the soil and offset some of 
the damage done by the earthquake. 



Co-operation of American and French and English 
physicists has been sought by the National Research 
Council in an effort to find means to combat the sub- 
marine. A conference for this purpose has been held in 
Washington, at which Charles Fabry, Henri Abraham. 
M. le Due de Guiche, Sir Ernest Rutherford, and Com- 
mander Cyprian Bridge were present, along with a 
number of American physicists. It is hoped to obtain 
the co-operation of experimenters throughout the coun- 
try having laboratory facilities at command. It is 
pointed out that the best laboratory equipment now 
available for work of this kind is found at the Uni- 
versities in the United States. 



•lulv 



1!>17 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



23 



Mining in Utah 

By L. O. HOWARD 

Several problems are being faced by local operators. 
At a time when metal prioes stimulate intensified pro« 
duction, numerous strikes have served to interfere seri: 
nuslv with operations. Tintic and I'ark City have both 
been handicapped by labor troubles that were ultimately 
settled through the agency of a member of the new State 
Industrial Commission. Some annoyance was also caused 
at the plants of the Utah Copper Co. through small 
strikes of men engaged not directly in operation but in 
construction, repair, and maintenance. Finally came the 
st like at the International smelter that resulted in clos- 
ing the works. Although the Federal Department of 
Labor has a representative on the ground, a settlement 
has not been effected at the time of this writing. The 
principal point of difference is an increase in wages of 
50 cents per day. There has been no violence, but it is 
to be feared that when the furnaces are again blown-in 
the scarcity of labor will be felt severely, inasmuch as 
many of the men have left for other parts. 

There is considerable inquiry for lead mines. Bing- 
ham, Park City, and Tintic are pushing production to the 
limit. Transportation in Big Cottonwood is still difficult, 
and maximum shipments have not yet been attained. 
The Cardiff has several hundred tons of ore scattered 
up and down the canyon during the winter, but is adding 
to its fleet of motor-trucks and expects to clean-up the 
accumulation soon. The Maxfield, which has been the 
only other persistent shipper, has been closed pending 
an investigation of its affairs. A new faction in the 
directorate has obtained control and has stopped all 
work. The ore has been coming from points several 
hundred feet below the adit-level, and incidentally be- 
low the level of the creek; therefore the excessive cost 
of pumping has prevented a profit. While the ore was 
rich, it occurred in small lenses so irregularly distributed 
as to cause development to bear an undue share of ex- 
pense. It is probable that work will be continued on the 
1200-ft. or adit-level in an effort to find other ore-shoots 
above that horizon, similar to those that proved profitable 
in the earlier history of the mine. 

The Kennebec Mining Co., owning property adjoining 
the Cardiff, proposes to begin development with funds 
loaned to it pro rata by the stockholders, at 8%. This 
method of financing has been adopted owing to the non- 
assessable character of the stock. Development in many 
other properties in the canyon is said to be encouraging, 
notably on the Big Cottonwood Coalition and the Amer- 
ican Consolidated Copper. 

Little Cottonwood is active as never before in recent 
times. In the first three weeks of June the Michigan- 
Utah Consolidated Mines Co. made settlements on 36 
cars of ore, averaging for the most part $25 per ton. 
One or two cars netted over $70 per ton and two cars 
$38. The company is able to ship $20 ore at a profit. It 
reports the beginning of shipments of copper-silver ore 



from the Copper Prime tunnel. Tl v is said to be 

of greater extenl than elsewhere in this locality. While 
the limits of the deposit have not been determined, it 

has been found that over a w j.llh of :!ll It. there is a uni- 
form high iron content and that tin- copper varies from 
traces to as high as 20%, and much shipping ore lias 
been blocked out. This development is daily gaining 
greater importance, and it is distinctly possible thai a 
fair-sized copper deposit is to be opened in the Cotton- 
woods at last. Many engineers have been confident thai 
excellent copper deposits would be found at the east en,] 
of both the Big and Little Cottonwood districts. The 
Michigan-Utah development tends to confirm this opinion 
as to Little Cottonwood, and showings recently made in 
the Big Cottonwood Coalition are likewise favorable. 

The Copper Prince tunnel has been connected to the 
aerial tramway of the Michigan-Utah company. This 
conveys much Alta ore to Tanner's Flat, about four 
miles down the canyon, where it is loaded into narrow- 
gauge ears and dropped down to Wasatch, another four 
miles, on the tracks of the Little Cottonwood Transporta- 
tion Co. At Wasatch it is again transferred into cars of 
the Salt Lake & Alta railroad, a branch of the D. & R. 
G., which carries it to the smelters at Midvale and 
Murray. Eighty-five men are now on the company's 
ray-roll, and it is intended to keep a force of 100 men at 
work during the year. 

During the first quarter the Emma Consolidated ship- 
ped 33 cars of ore from Alta that netted nearly $30 per 
ton. This company is shipping 60 to 70 tons per day at 
present, and expects to go on a 100-ton basis soon. 
There has been some dissatisfaction with the facilities 
afforded by the Salt Lake & Alta railroad, and some ore 
is being hauled to the smelters from Wasatch in auto- 
trucks. The railroad company is preparing to lay 
heavier rail, after which better service is anticipated. 
The Alta Consolidated has started the shipment of some 
rich ore taken out during the winter. The Sells is at the 
point of shipping and is expected to make a steady out- 
put during the shipping season. The South Hecla main- 
tains a regular production. 

At Bingham mining is on a larger scale than ever. The 
Utah Copper Co. is milling 38,000 tons per day. The 
completion of the leaehing-plant has been again delayed 
by poor deliveries of structural material and is now ex- 
pected about the first of September. The work is 75% 
finished. The initial capacity is set at 4000 tons, al- 
though it is planned to increase to 10,000 tons per day 
as soon as possible. There is about 40,000,000 tons of 
oxidized material that should yield close to 13 lb. copper 
per ton. A short time ago the County Assessor an- 
nounced his intention of taxing the tailing-dumps of the 
company, estimating that there is $68,000,000 worth of 
available copper in 57.000.000 tons of tailing, repre- 
senting 35 to 40% of the original content of the ore, most 
of which could be recovered by flotation. If this policy 
of taxation is carried out it will affect many other com- 
panies in the State that have treated sulphide ores and 
accumulated tailing-piles containing recoverable metals. 



24 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7. 1917 



If the County officials seek to enforce their ruling it will 
doubtless mean another legal battle. If the tax-gatherer 
is successful, what is to prevent his applying the same 
logic to oxidized tailing, or practically any kind of tail- 
ing that may contain economic minerals? 

Further troubles are imminent in connection with the 
insurance rate, which the State Industrial Commission 
is seeking to establish under the provisions of the Work- 
men's Compensation Act. This act has been declared 
obligatory on workmen and on employers of more than 
four men. Some of the premiums per $100 of pay-roll 
are: assaying, $1.68; ore concentration, $4.04; smelting, 
$6.11: metalliferous mines, $5.59; and coal mines, $9. 
These rates are said to have been adopted from figures 
furnished by the Workmen's Compensation Service 
Bureau of New York, which, incidentally, is also en- 
gaged in an attempt to boost the Colorado rates another 
25%. Colorado rates furnish an interesting commentary. 
They are $3.85 per $100 of pay-roll for metalliferous 
mines and mill operators. These rates enabled the State 
Insurance Fund to provide for all expenses, losses, 
compensation, and surplus, besides paying a dividend of 
23% of the amount paid in. The local chapter of the 
American Mining Congress, in collaboration with the 
mine operators, has been conducting an exhaustive in- 
vestigation into the matter and is making an earnest at- 
tempt to obtain a fair rate. The casualty expert engaged 
by these interests has recommended that the rates for 
metalliferous mines be reduced to $4.25, coal mines to 
$6.04. and that mill-rates be also reduced. 

Reports of last month's ore shipments show that Tintic 
mines shipped 889 cars, bringing the total for five months 
lo 4337 ears, and that Park City mines produced 8447 
tons. The Judge Mining & Smelting Co. held second 
place with 2376 tons, leading the Silver King Consoli- 
dated, which reported 1595 tons, and trailing the Silver 
King Coalition, which shipped 2506 tons. It is expected 
that the large increase in shipments by the Judge com- 
pany in June will place it at the head of the list. The 
Tintic 'ear' seems to be as precise a measure as the Joplin 
'can.' No close estimate of tonnage is possible from 
Tintic reports. 

Among the Bingham mines. Ohio Copper reports a 
monthly profit of $70,000. A break in a reservoir on the 
Price river has resulted in the destruction of several 
miles of the main line of the Denver & Rio Grande track, 
and lias completely isolated the Carbon County coal 
mines, aggravating the usual coal shortage in Utah. 
Several thousand men are thrown out of work. All 
through service on the railroad between Denver and 
Salt Lake City has been suspended. Several steel bridges 
went out and it is estimated that temporary repairs 
cannot be made in less than two wseks. According to 
later news the wash-out on thp Denver & Rio Grande 
railroad will cause suspension of traffic for probably 
three weeks, and it is feared that this may result in the 
closing of the smelters for want of coke, the supply on 
hand being small. The district is completely isolated, so 
that normal conditions will not be restored for six weeks. 



Government's Lead Purchase 

The following communication has been sent by the 
Lead Committee to the mine operators, smelters, and re- 
finers of lead throughout the country : The Committee on 
Lead appointed by the Advisory Commission of the 
Council of National Defense has agreed on behalf of the 
domestic producers of lead to furnish 8000 tons of pig 
lead between now and August 1, to meet the require- 
ments of the United States Government. The price set 
for this tonnage is 8c. per lb. East St. Louis. As the 
probable production for the month of July will be about 
48,000 tons of pig lead, this represents one-sixth of the 
total production for that month. If every producer 
agrees to furnish his share of this sale, it means that each 
will sell one-sixth of his July production on the basis of 
8c. per lb. Are you willing to participate in this sale? 
If so, please advise the chairman of the Committee on 
Lead promptly. If you own a smelter you will receive 
shipping instructions from the committee for the amount 
which you agree to furnish. If you do not own a smelter, 
may we ask that you instruct the smelter which smelts 
your ores to furnish one-sixth of the lead-content of the 
ore which it accepts from you in July on this government 
order and notify them that you will accept in settlement 
for that amount of lead in your ore the price that the 
Government is paying. If you give such notice to your 
smelter, please inform the chairman of the Committee on 
Lead so that the Committee can make their plans ac- 
cordingly and can see that your smelter is required to 
furnish that amount of lead to the Government at the 
8-cent price. An early reply will be greatly appreciated. 

Clinton H. Crane, 
Chairman, Committee on Lead. 



Japanese buyers are paying any price demanded in a 
scramble to purchase ship-plates. Recently 9.9 cents per 
pound was paid in order to switch 1000 tons of such 
material to the new ship-building Empire that evidently 
has dreams of becoming the world's carrier after the 
War. It is plain that control of supplies required in our 
preparations for effective warfare must come speedily 
if we are to do our part in resisting the common enemy. 
There is a serious defect in our organization when we 
cannot build ships to meet our own urgent needs, yet 
allow Japan to ship out of the country 1000 tons of 
ready-made ship-plate. It is important to recall in this 
connection, the suggestion of Great Britain that Japa- 
nese merchant vessels might relieve the pressure in the 
trans-Atlantic movement of supplies, which brought the 
soft reply that Japan would be pleased to supplant the 
British ships plying in Eastern waters so as to relieve 
them for service in the submarine zone. 

Barytes is being mined on a large scale near Pulan- 
tien, in the Kwangtung leased territory in Manchuria, by 
a company of Japanese resident at Pulantien. The cor- 
poration is called the Manchuria Barium Co., and is cap- 
italized at $25,000. 



.lulv 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



35 



iiii!iiiiiii:!:uiitiimiiii!iiyiiiiiini)uini;i;ii 



REVIEW OF MINING 

As seen at the world't great mining centred by our own correspondent*. 



CRIPPLE CHEEK. COLORADO 
Lessees Throughout the District Co.ntinue to Make a Labor 
and Profitable Production. — New Strikes Reported from 
Vabious Parts of the District. — Important Development 
from the Roosevelt Tunnel. 

Block 8 of School Section 16. on the north-east slope of Bull 
Cliffs, is again in the producing list. Charles Eaton and 
associates are operating a sub-lease from the Co-operative 
Mining & Development Co., that holds the original lease on the 
school lands from the State. Eaton & Co. loaded out their 
initial shipment of milling ore last week. This property, the 
only one in the Cripple Creek district, located on school lands 
that is paying royalties to the State, was operated for 15 years 
consecutively by the late Alfred La Montaigne, a French 
Canadian. La Montaigne, it is estimated, took out about 
$250,000 gross from above the 600-ft. level. 

The Millasier Mines Corporation, operating and owning the 
Clyde property on the north-east slope of Battle mountain, has 
unwatered the Clyde shaft 800 ft. deep, with about 3000 ft. of 
laterals at the bottom level. The shaft is to be sunk an addi- 
tional 1500 ft. G. F. Lasier of Detroit, Michigan, one of the 
owners, is at the mine. 

The Dante mine on Bull hill, owned by the Dante Gold 
Mining Co. is to resume activity. The lease held by the Con- 
solidated Mines & Development Co. is to be transferred to a 
new company being organized to operate the mine. 

The Hahnewald brothers, Olsen & Co., operating the prop- 
erty of the Gold Sovereign Mining & Tunnel Co. on the south- 
west slope of Bull hill, are cutting a station at the 1500-ft. 
level. Extensive development both north and south of the 
shaft has been planned. The workings on the property are 
1350 ft. deep. 

A shipment of milling-grade ore was loaued out last week 
from the Coriolanus mine on Battle and Squaw mountains, by 
Matt Edr and Aitken of Victor, lessees, operating under lease 
from the Aloha Gold Mining Co., T. B. Burbridge, of Denver, 
president. The ore shipped was of milling grade. 

The Catherine Gold Mining Co., Charles Walden, of Victor, 
general manager, holding a lease and option on the properties 
of the Last Dollar Gold Mining Co. on Bull hill, is extending 
a drift south-east at a depth of 1500-ft. toward the Modoc mine 
and on the extension of the Modoc-Last Dollar vein. The 
ground under development is virgin and with the value of the 
ore improving it is expected an orebody is near. The hreast 
of the drift is about 600 ft. from the line so that there is ample 
ground ahead. 

The Acacia Gold Mining Co. is cutting a station at 1350 ft. 
preparatory to beginning lateral work at this depth. In the 
meantime the company continues production from the 1250-ft. 
level, and lessees are operating in the levels above. About 
350 tons of milling ore has been loaded out from the mine 
this month. 

Last week a strike was reported from the 400-ft. level of 
the Jerry Johnson mine and during the past few days, the 
Cripple Creek Deep Leasing Co., operating below the 650-ft. 
level of the mine, has entered the downward extension of the 
Caley shoot at the 650-ft. level, hy a raise from the 950-ft. 
level. Two feet of the 4-ft. vein is sampling 5 oz. gold per 
ton and the ore broken 3* to 4 ft. wide will ship at 2 oz. gold 
per ton. 



A carload settlement, under date of June 25, on 63,0"u It), 
net of ore from the Caley lease, was at a rate of $46.90 per 
ton. The check to the lessee after deduction of freight, treat- 
ment, and royalty amounted to $1233.19. 

The Beacon & Raven Hill Gold Mining Co., owning 17 acres 
patented, at the Arequa townsite on the southern slope of 
Raven hill, has contracted 250-ft. of driving from the line of 
the Roosevelt tunnel, of the Cripple Creek Deep Drainage & 
Tunnel Co., to get under the orebody developed to a depth of 
700 ft. by the Elkton Mining & Milling Co. The Beacon & 
Raven Hill property adjoins the Elkton mine, and that com- 
pany mined a good grade of milling-ore to that depth. The 
work from the drainage-tunnel level, at an elevation of ap- 
proximately S100 ft. above sea-level, is being followed with 
interest by mining men. The lateral will cut under the ore- 
shoot 900 ft. deeper than any previous development in this 
part of the district. Low assays are already obtained from 
the drift, and there remains about 30 ft. to drive before the 
objective point under the shoot developed above is reached. 

A reported strike on the 20th level of the Golden Cycle mine 
of the Vindicator Consolidated Gold Mining Co. was practically 
confirmed last week by a visit of Guildford S. Wood, president: 
Adolph Zank, the treasurer; George Stahl, the secretary; and 
Mr. Sigel, a director of the mine. From a local source it is 
learned that a strong orebody has been opened at a depth 
slightly exceeding 2000 ft. in the main shaft of the Golden 
Cycle mine, on one of the main veins, and the ore exposed as 
broken from 6 to 8 ft. wide, is all of a good milling grade, with 
a central strip several inches wide that may be classed as of 
smelting grade. 



TREADWELL, ALASKA 

Miners at Kennecott Strike on Being Refused an Increase 
in Wages. — The Treadwell Company Takes an Option 
on the Red Diamond Group of Mines. — Extensive Prep- 
aeations Being Maoe to Equip and Operate This Prop- 
erty. 

Two hundred miners working in the Bonanza and Jumbo 
mines of the Kennecott Corporation have walked out. They 
demanded an increase of wages of 15 to 50%, according to the 
price of copper. An oiler of arbitration was made in behalf 
of the company, but it was refused and the strike followed. 
About half of the men have refused to strike, however, and 
these include the men in the shops, mills, and Ieaching-plant, 
and the construction men. 

The threat to strike came several days ago and at that time 
the United States marshal took the situation in hand and as a 
precautionary measure closed the saloons at McCarthy. 

The Treadwell company has taken an option on the Red 
Diamond group of claims adjoining its holdings on the west 
and will begin prospecting at once. This enterprise will create 
a greater demand for labor than now exists and just how that 
demand will be satisfied is a problem. Any kind of labor is 
very scarce in this part of the country, hundreds of men 
having left for the West and the interior within the past few 
weeks. Employers of labor, however, expect better conditions 
in the near future. 

The Red Diamond property is the first to be bonded on 
Douglas island by the Treadwell companies with over $1,000,- 
000 development fund available. The property is situated 



26 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



south by west of the Nevada Creek group fronting toward 
Stephens passage. Engineers have surveyed an outlet from 
back of the Ready Bullion property, which would give a 
passage for the ore by tram or surface railway to the com- 
pany's mills at Treadwell. The Red Diamond group com- 
prises 12 claims. Work has been carried on at various times 
for the past ten years, development consisting of a shaft and 
drifts on the orebody at several levels. A summer-camp is to 
be established next week at the property. In the meantime, 
provisions, tools, and other necessities are being delivered to 
the property. 

P. R. Bradley, general manager, has announced that his 
engineers are ready and willing to investigate any property 
presented. 

A new compressor has recently been installed at the Mineral 
King Mining Co.'s property at Bettles bay. 

Articles of incorporation have been filed at Valdez for the 
Q & Q Gold Mining Co., the capital stock being $50,000. The 
incorporators are Frank Cockrell, Dr. H. Cockrell, and Robert 
L. Hawkins. The company is organized for the purpose of 
owning and operating property near Port Wells. 

TORONTO, ONTARIO 

Heavy Shipments of Silver Ore and Bullion from Cobalt. — 
Old Mines Re-opened Producing High-Grade Ore. — Hol- 
i.inger Passes a Dividend. — Serious Coal Shortage 
Feared in Canada and Official Steps Taken to Provide 
Against It. 

The silver mining industry of Cobalt was never more active 
than at present, operators being desirous of maintaining pro- 
duction at the highest point in order to take advantage of a 
favorable market. Some 2000 men and about 200 machines 
are steadily employed, and despite the talk of strikes the 
majority of the workers are well satisfied with existing con- 
ditions. They are receiving in addition to wages a bonus of 
50c. per clay so long as the price of silver remains above 70c. 
per oz., and should it rise above SOc. the bonus will be in- 
creased to 75c. per day. 

Shipments of both ore and bullion have recently been heavy. 
During the week ended June 10 approximately 956,404 lb. of 
ore was sent out with 517,666 oz. of bullion, being the largest 
aggregate for several months. The Nipissing maintains its 
lead as the largest producer. During May the company mined 
ore of an estimated value of $261, 66S and shipped bullion from 
its own and custom-ores of an estimated net value of $405,000. 
Driving on the Cobalt Lake fault has been nearly completed 
and about 1500 ft. of the vein developed at the 425 and 520-ft. 
levels. With the payment of its regular o% dividend, due in 
July, the total returns to shareholders made by the company 
will amount to $16,240,000, being 2649c on the issued capital. 
The production of the Mining Corporation of Canada for the 
present year, up to April 22, aggregated 1,400,123 oz. of silver, 
the output showing a steady increase. 

Development work at the Ophir has resulted in the discovery 
of a promising 6-in. vein, carrying a small silver content, south 
of shaft No. 2. It will be cross-cut and developed on the 
keewatin-diabase contact. 

The report of the Beaver Consolidated for the quarter ended 
May 31 shows silver in bullion, due from smelters, and in ore 
bagged aggregating 252.94S oz. and $49,915 cash in hand. High- 
grade ore and mill-rock are being recovered from orebodies on 
the 400 and 600-ft. levels. A raise has been driven for 100 ft. 
on the vein at the 1600-ft. level. The demand for mining ma- 
chinery for new prospects in Northern Ontario, which cannot 
always be filled promptly by the manufacturers, has created a 
market for the disused equipment of many of the closed-down 
properties of Cobalt and some of these small plants, which 
were considered as of little value, have been sold at good 
prices. 



The Gowganda silver area has been attracting a good deal 
of attention, largely on account of the size and richness of 
the vein found on the Miller Lake-0 Brien. The Reeves-Dobie 
property has been re-opened with encouraging results, and 
high-grade ore is fceing sacked. The T. C. 177 company is de- 
veloping a property adjacent to the Miller Lake-O'Brien and 
will sink to the 300-ft. level. At the Silverado machinery is 
being installed. Power for this district will be obtained from 
Hanging Stone Falls, but construction has been considerably 
retarded on account of labor shortage. 

Though the labor situation in Porcupine and the outlying 
gold district is not yet altogether satisfactory, some improve- 
ment has been effected by bringing in laborers from other 
points. The Dome Mines is continuing operations as well as 
its reduced forces will permit, attention being principally 
centred upon the cross-cut at the 700-ft. level to open up a 
large high-grade orebody discovered at that depth by diamond- 
drilling. It is stated to be 120 ft. wide with an average of 
$17 per ton, and is expected to be reached early in July. 
Hitherto the average grade of the mine has been below $6 per 
ton. 

The Hollinger Consolidated has passed the dividend due 
this month. President Timmins states that this action was 
taken owing to the uncertainty of labor conditions and the 
difficulty of securing enough men for underground work to 
mine sufficient ore to keep the mill in operation. The di- 
rectors are considering the advisability of devoting all efforts 
to development so long as present conditions continue and to 
put the mine into a position to considerably increase the out- 
put as soon as an adequate supply of labor becomes available. 
The suspension of the dividend will enable the company to wipe 
out the deficit of $174, 1S4 and establish a cash surplus. Con- 
struction work on the new mill has been suspended except so 
far as contracts already let are concerned. 

During May the Mclntyre milled 15,064 tons of ore of an 
average value of $9. S3 with a total production of $142,476. 
The West Dome Consolidated has completed 1200 ft. of work- 
ings on the 300-ft. level and it is estimated that between 
60,000 and 70,000 tons of ore of an average grade of $9 per 
ton has been blocked out. The policy of the management is 
to confine operations to this level and create a large ore re- 
serve for the proposed mill. 

At the 200-ft. level of the Kirkland Lake mine a 4-ft. vein 
carrying high-grade ore has been discovered. It is believed 
to be the vein of the Wright-Hargreaves and the Teck-Hughes. 
The Lake Shore mine lying between these two will also benefit 
by the find. Construction work on the new Lake Shore mill 
is being pushed. 

The question of providing against a serious coal shortage 
during the coming winter is receiving much attention from 
the Canadian government and the municipal authorities. The 
situation has become much more threatening since the United 
States declared war, as, owing to the increased home demand 
with a diminished supply of labor and a lack of adequate 
transportation facilities, a great shortage of the importa- 
tions from the American coal mines, on which Ontario and a 
large part of the West are dependent for food, apears in- 
evitable. Many municipal bodies are endeavoring to arrange 
for supplies to be stored as a provision against a winter coal- 
famine, but so far with little success. The Canadian govern- 
ment has appointed C. A. Magrath, of Lethbridge, Alberta, a 
prominent Western man, as fuel controller with full powers 
to regulate the price and distribution of coal, encourage in- 
creased home production, and arrange for importations. It 
is hoped that at least he will be able to prevent undue accumu- 
lations of coal stocks, and to check extortionate prices. Dr. 
Ruttan, of the Advisory Council of Industrial and Scientific 
Research, announces that their investigations have resulted 
in a discovery which will solve the problem as regards Western 
Canada. The extensive lignite deposits of Saskatchewan, he 
claims, may be made commercially valuable by a process of 



July 



1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



27 



brlquetting, which will prodaoe ■ tuel nearly cinml In heating 
power to anthracite at about two-thirds the cost of coal in the 
West The Advisory Council has asked the Government to 
devote $400,000 for the construction of a plant in which the 
brlquettlng process can be carried on. 

PORCUPINE, ONTARIO 

Labob Troubles Abi Being Gkmu ally bdt Quietly Adjusted 
Though All or THE Operating Mines Are in Need hi 
Moke Men. 

Within the past week much of the uncertainty that for many 
weeks has characterized the labor situation in the Porcupine 
district has been cleared up. It is rumored that the strike vote 
taken Sunday, June 14, resulted in a majority of more than 
300 against going out on strike. However, the officials of the 
union are keeping the returns to themselves. As yet, no 
definite arrangement has been reached at any of the producing 
mines, except the Mclntyre-Porcupine and Dome Lake. The 
former company has granted a 50-cent increase to meet the high 
cost of living, and appears to have clear sailing. Dome Lake 
has granted an increase almost equal to that of the Mclntyre, 
but it is understood the increase does not cover every branch 
of labor at the mine. At practically every mine but the Hol- 
linger Consolidated, the employees have taken action, inde- 
pendent of the Miner's Union, and by forming themselves into 
■committees representative of the particular mine at which 
they are employed, have approached the management, that in 
turn has in every instance given consideration to these re- 
quests. 

It is the opinion that within a few days most of the pro- 
ducing mines will have taken action similar to that of the 
Mclntyre-Porcupine. 

The most peculiar fact about the situation is that at Tim- 
mins ana South Porcupine reports are current that certain 
companies have granted an increase. These reports sometimes 
are convincing, but when investigated appear to have as yet 
no foundation in fact. 

Hollinger Consolidated, although with only about half 
enough men available, is operating as aggressively as circum- 
stances will permit. Outwardly there would appear to he no 
difference about the mine from a few months ago, when opera- 
tions were at the maximum, but the tonnage coming from be- 
low speaks plainly, and convinces one that inwardly present 
working forces are not anywhere near the requirements. How- 
ever, despite the fact that the regular disbursement of divi- 
dends at the Hollinger have been discontinued, it does not by 
any means signify that this mine has taken second place to 
any other gold mine in the Dominion. In fact, with present 
reduced forces, the net profit-earning power of this company is 
still greater than any other gold or silver mine in the country. 
April figures showed net profits of $194,000 for the four-week 
period. 

Mclntyre-Porcupine is perhaps in the most enviable position 
of all the Porcupine producers, in that the company has very 
little construction work pending, and at present has a full 
complement of men. Operations at this property are going 
with greater speed than ever before. The tonnage treated 
sometimes rises to 550 tons per day, and the monthly average is 
well above 500 tons per day. Mill-heads range from $7 to $15. 
This is due to the fact that the management is not endeavor- 
ing to establish an average grade, but is taking run-of-mine 
ore, and anything containing $2 per ton and upward is being 
sent to the mill. The average grade of ore treated within 
the past 12 months has approximated $10, while the average 
throughout the mine is about $12.50. Preparations to carry de- 
velopment work first to the 1300 and then to the 1600-ft. level 
are now under way. The most interesting development at the 
mine recently is that the main orebody at the 1000-ft. level has 
now widened out to 52 ft. and is high-grade milling ore. The 



face of the main drive is now within Si r the Jupiter line, 

Mill-construction at the Bcb.umacb.er is proceeding, About 
80 men are now on the pny-roll as compared with a desired 
force of 120. The old mill Is running at a capacity of about 
100 tons daily and mill-beads are now up to around $10 per ton. 
Porcupine V. N. T. is working about !)0 men and here also 
the mill Is treating about 100 tons of ore per day. Develop- 
ments underground are proceeding satisfactor'ly. At the 600- 
ft. level the main vein is 22 ft. wide of a good milling grade 
of ore. 

Porcupine-Crown now has about 90 men employed, and is 
maintaining production satisfactorily. 



COBALT, ONTARIO 

Pkouuction Being Forced Under the Stimulus of the High 
Price of Silver. — Labor Agitators Continue Their 
Efforts to Bring About a Strike, Though the Majority 
of the Workers Are Satisfied. 

Operations at the producing mines of Cobalt were never 
conducted more vigorously than at present. Over 2000 men 
and about 200 machines are employed. The high quotation for 
bar-silver is undoubtedly the main reason for the keen desire 
to force production to the maximum. The mine-workers are 
all receiving a bonus of 50c. per day when the price of silver 
remains above 70c. an ounce. This, in itself, has, to a certain 
extent, won the good-will of the workers. However, should 
silver rise to over SOc. an ounce the bonus will be increased to 
75c. per day. With a 75c. bonus the workers would be re- 
ceiving considerably more per day than that outlined under 
the wage-scale now demanded. Under the present system the 
workers are able to share the prosperity of the mine operators, 
and the married men, together with the efficient workers, 
would apparently not welcome any change in the present form 
of pay. The agitators in the union are largely unmarried 
men with little responsibility. 

During the first week of June a total of nine cars of ore 
containing approximately 682,210 lb. of ore was sent from 
Cobalt. Bullion shipments for the corresponding period 
totalled $114,063. 

The report of the Mining Corporation of Canada for the first 
16 weeks of the current year shows that a total of 1,400,123.96 
oz. of silver was produced having a value of $1,000,000. Total 
dividends paid to date by this company are $1,711,875. 

The usual quarterly dividend of 5% has been declared pay- 
able July 20 by Nipissing Mining Company, a disbursement of 
$300,000, and the third dividend of this amount to be paid 
during the current year. The total paid by Nipissing to date 
is $16,240,000, or equal to 264% on the issued capital of the 
company. The financial statement of June 2 shows cash in 
bank $1,255,034; ore and bullion in transit, $351,860; ore and 
bullion on hand, at the mine, $S53,614; making a total of 
$2,460,508.64. 

The Temiskaming has also declared a dividend of 3%, pay- 
able July 16 to shareholders of record June 30. This disburse- 
ment amounts to $75,000 and is the second dividend during the 
current year. Temiskaming has now paid a total of $1,834,- 
156.25, which is equal to 74% of the issued capital stock of the 
company. Generally speaking, the labor supply at Cobalt is 
comparatively satisfactory. 



SUDBURY, ONTARIO 

Experiments Being Made at Iron Mountain Said to Be Satis- 
factory. — A New Mill Completed and Running. — Large 
Mass of Iron Ore Available. 

Iron Mountain, in the Sudbury district, is receiving a thor- 
ough test, and results so far obtained are said to be satisfac- 



28 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Julv 7. 1917 



tory. About 150 men are employed, and should the experi- 
mental work now going on justify it, the number probably will 
be increased to 1000 men. A mill with a capacity for 300 tons 
of ore per day has been installed and preparations for the con- 
centration of ore are about completed. Mining is done by 
glory-hole method, and the ore is loaded direct into a train of 
cars and conveyed to the mill. The mill concentrate is 
shipped to smelters. 

The Iron Mountain iron deposit is understood to contain at 
least 7,000,000 tons of ore. The deposit is situated four miles 
from Milnet Junction on the main line of the Canadian North- 
ern railway. A spur-line has been built to the mine. Later 
on the facilities for iron ore production will probably be 
greatly increased. 



ELDORA, COLORADO 

Large Output of Tungsten from Numerous Leases on Promi- 
nent Mines. — Mills Running at Capacity and Exten- 
sions Being Made. 

The Vasco company at Tungsten, which has been steadily 
operating its mines and mills through the winter, sees a con- 
tinuation or even an increase in its prosperity this summer. 
The company's large mill is working at full capacity to handle 
the continuous shipments from over 12 different workings on 
the Vasco property. Shipments range from 3 to 50% tungsten, 
with an average of about 10%. Fred Barrett, one of the oldest 
mill-men in Boulder county, is superintendent of the mill. 
Fred B. Copeland, of the Copeland Sampling Co., in Cripple 
Creek, is in charge of the sampling for the company. 

H. S. O'Neil and Harry O'Day are leasing on the Vasco No. 3. 
Bradford Black has leased No. 4, and is now clearing out one 
of the old stopes. No. 5 has been taken by John MeKenna, 
who is doing exceptionally well. Cox and McKenzie have 
leased No. 6, and Thomas McGrath No. 7. John Walsh is leas- 
ing No. 8, and has been making regular shipments for some 
time. George L. Holland and associates have made the No. 10 
tunnel the largest producer on the Vasco at the present time. 
J. B. Newham on 12, and Petro & O'Day on 13, are doing fine. 

The change of this district from the Stevens Camp, of a 
little more than a year to the prosperous little town of Tung- 
sten can hardly be realized. Great credit is due the Vasco 
company in opening up this district. 

Tom McGrath has a position with the Morgan-Tungsten 
Mining Co., where he is superintendent. He was until re- 
cently with the Vasco people in the same capacity. This mill 
was recently taken over from Diggs and Clark. Verne Collins 
has a position with the Boulder Products Company. 

The Clark tunnel, at Tungsten, has cut two veins and has 
leased them both. The Clark mill is running nearly to full 
capacity, and is receiving a good supply from nearly all the 
workings on the Clark property. Ex-sheriff Baxter is leasing 
on the Clark No. 1 and has been making steady shipments. 
Dan Gillett and Goddard are working the Clark 3, and taking 
out a good grade of ore regularly. Jacob Wade reports he has 
made a big strike on the Clark No. 5. 

The Caribou mill at Caribou, Colorado, has been shut-down 
and will suspend operation as soon as it runs the ore on hand. 
It is reported that this is due to some dispute about the water- 
rights. Walter and Humphrey are preparing to wash the 
dump at the Vasco 6, on the Clark property. This is one of 
the richest Vasco dumps and is sure tog>ay well. 

President Howe, of the Keystone Mining & Milling Co., at 
Magnolia, Colorado, visited the company's property this week. 
Manager Clifford Staley has been repairing the mill and ad- 
ding to it. A. Ganvey, of Farmersville, Ohio, reports success 
from the Doss mine at Wallstreet that he recently leased. 

C. A. DeWitt, superintendent of the Wolf Tongue mill at 
Nederland, reports the mill running to its fullest capacity. 

The biennial report of the Colorado State Bureau of Mines 



in district No. 1, Boulder county, contains a resume of the 
mining situation and conditions here. The Colorado State 
School of Mines will re-open in the fall as usual. 

Woodring and Dupont, on the Huron, at Eldora, are steadily 
pushing development work. The Dixie mine above Lake 
Eldora has let a contract and work will be started at once on 
this property. 

. EIRELAND LAEE, ONTARIO 

The Important Gold Mines of This Disteict. — Large Amount 
of High-Grade Ore in Sight in the Various Mines, and 
Further Development Planned. 

Second in importance of the quartz-gold mining districts 
of Canada is Kirkland Lake that already is yielding upward 
of $1,000,000 in gold annually. 

The Tough-Oakes is the pioneer and the premier mine of 
the district and is equipped with the largest mill. The ore at 
this mine is considerably higher in value than at any other 
gold mine in any of the Northern Ontario gold districts. It 
is true that costs are comparatively high, due chiefly to the 
hardness of the rock, but the high average gold content of the 
ore allows a large margin of profit and a handsome surplus for 
dividends is piling up. The regular dividend paid by the 
Tough-Oakes company is 21% quarterly. During 1916 the 
company paid a total of $260,750. The ore reserves of this 
mine are estimated at upward of $1,000,000. 

The second gold producer of the district is the Teck-Hughes. 
which only recently installed a ball-mill having a capacity of 
75 tons of ore daily. The result of the first month's run, which 
is understood to be satisfactory, will probably soon be made 
known. The ore reserves of this property are said to be suffi- 
ciently large to warrant a further addition to the milling 
equipment, that is, provided the amount of labor available 
were to become normal. The ore throughout the mine is of 
comparatively high grade. 

The third producer will be the Lake Shore mine. Already 
on this property there are upward of $500,000 worth of ore 
blocked out, and a new 75-ton mill is being transported to the 
property. Recently a new vein 4 ft. wide and carrying re- 
markably rich ore was discovered in a cross-cut underneath 
the lake at a depth of 200 feet. 

The property of the Kirkland Lake Gold Mines Ltd. may be 
considered as the fourth in importance. This property has 
been opened to a depth of 600 ft. and approximately 5000 tons 
of $10 ore has been blocked out. About 5000 tons of good 
milling ore has been accumulated on the dumps. The lower 
workings of this property are the deepest in the Kirkland 
Lake camp. The president of the company has intimated that 
the property is about ready for a 100-ton mill. 

The Wright-Hargreaves is another valuable property, al- 
though occupying fifth place in point of development work 
done and ore reserves blocked out. It is, nevertheless, con- 
sidered as one of the leaders of this district. The main vein 
has been traced for something like 3000 ft. and at all points 
where opened up contains a high average gold content. At 
the 100-ft. level of No. 2 and 3 shafts, the grade of ore is said 
to range around $30 per ton across a width of 12 ft. The 
treasury of the company is in excellent shape, upward of 
$100,000 being on hand, and development will be continued to 
the 300-ft. level of both shafts, where a 90-ft. drift will be 
driven to connect the two workings. 

For the time being, work on the La Belle Kirkland has been 
suspended. It has been developed to a depth of 350 ft., and a 
large tonnage of good-grade mill-ore has been blocked out. 
Also, as a result of 5000 ft. of diamond-drilling, done during 
the past winter, ore has been indicated to a depth of about 
700 feet. 

All the properties mentioned are either producers, or con- 
sidered as probable producers. 



.hilv 



1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



L"P 



^£{£ MDmmQ 



The neics of the iieei at told by our special correspondents mt<l compiled from the local press. 



ALASKA 

I Special Correspondence.) — About 200 men at the Jumbo 
and Bonanza mines of the Kennecott Mining Co. walked out 
on a strike on the morning of June 16. This is about half 
the number of men on the pay-roll, and includes all the miners 
and shovelers, the tramway-men at the upper stations, and 
the Japanese cooks at the mines. The strikers are demanding 
an increase in wages of from IS to 50C£. The walk-out is con- 
fined to the mines. The employees at the lower camp, ma- 
chine-shops, mill, leaching-plant, and those engaged in con- 
struction work refused to join the strikers. All the strikers 
left peaceably after being paid off and have gone to Black- 
burn, four miles from Kennecott. 

A demand was made by the men for higher wages and but 
three days was given to the management to accede to the 
demand. E. T. Stannard, the manager, is on his way to New 
York, and H. D. Smith, assistant manager, lacking authority 
to grant such a demand, requested of the men a reasonable 
time in which to lay the matter properly before the New York 
officials of the company. 

Any additional time was refused by the men, as well as an 
offer to arbitrate and also a proposal to have Mr. Stannard 
return immediately for conference with the men. 

On two previous occasions during the last year the em- 
ployees at the Kennecott mines have made demands for in- 
crease in wages upon short notice, but in each instance suffi- 
cient time was given in which to refer the matter to the New 
York office and the demands were either met in full or other- 
wise amicably settled. 

It is not claimed by the men that the company has not fairly 
lived up to its part of these former agreements. 

The demand now made is for $5.75 per day with $1.25 off 
for board, for miners and shovelers with even a greater per 
cent increase for cooks. 

The scale at the mines at the time of the walk-out this 
morning was as follows: 

Base-rate for miners $4.25 per day, and for shovelers $3.75 
per day, with $1.25 off for board, plus the following bonuses: 

Copper between IS and 20c, 25c. per day; between 22 and 
26c, 50c per day; between 26 and 30c, 75c per day; over 30c, 
$1 per day. The local officials of the company insist that the 
men have not lived up to their former agreements, and that 
they are not fair in refusing to allow a reasonable time for 
the company to consider their demands. 

United States Judge Fred M. Brown, of the Third Division 
of the District of Alaska, has ordered all saloons closed at 
McCarthy, which is five miles from Kennecott, and is the 
nearest town to the mines in which saloons are allowed. 

United States Marshal Brenneman is on his way to Mc- 
Carthy to take personal charge in case of any violence or dis- 
orders. 

Cordova, June 16. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Alaska Treadwell Gold 
Mining Co. has taken a working-option on the Red Diamond 
group of claims, situated near Bullion creek, on Douglas 
island. Development work on the group will start at once. 
The claims are owned by the Winn interests, of Juneau. 

Juneau, June 17. 

The Shelekoff Mining Co. has shipped machinery to its 
mines on Kodiak island. The property consists of seven cop- 
per claims situated near the head of Kuliak bay. 



ARIZONA 

Gila County 

The Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co. at Miami has issued 
the following circular letter: 

Miami, June 29, 1917. 

To the employees of the Inspiration Company: The follow- 
ing communication is being presented to the various operating 
Companies of this district by a Committee of the Local Miners' 
Union: 

June 28, 1917. 
"Dear Sir: 

"Resolved that we request a conference with the representa- 
tives of the mining companies of the Globe-Miami District for 
the purpose of discussing the following demands of the local 
unions of the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter 
Workers of America. 

"No. 1. Recognition of the Grievance Committee of the Local 
Unions of the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers International 
Union, and those of the other organized trades now repre- 
sented in the mining industry in the Globe-Miami district. 

"No. 2. Representatives of the unions to be allowed on com- 
pany property at any time for the purpose of organization, it 
being understood that such representatives will in no way 
interfere with men in the discharge of their duties. 

"No. 3. Reinstatement of men discharged for cause other 
than incompetency, competency or incompetency to be de- 
termined jointy by the Grievance Committee of the unions 
and representatives of the companies. The spirit and intent 
of this clause is that no man shall be discharged or refused 
employment on account of personal prejudice or on account of 
activities in union affairs. 

"No. 4. Equal representation on the Board of Control of the 
Hospital. 

"We request an answer by 10 A.M. Friday morning, failing 
to receive an answer accepting or rejecting these demands, a 
strike vote will be taken on Saturday, and if carried, a strike 
will be called on Monday morning at 7 A.M." 

The Inspiration Company deems it proper, at this time, to 
advise its employes, labor organizations, and the public at 
large, of its position on the subject of meeting with delega- 
tions from labor organizations or recognizing committees from 
those bodies in its operations. 

First and foremost, we reserve the right and privilege to 
conduct our own affairs. We have always respected the rights 
and principles of Union organizations and their members, and 
have never attempted to disrupt these organizations or to dis- 
criminate against any of our employes because of their affilia- 
tion with the Union. On the other hand, we have always 
recognized the rights of those who did not care to join these 
organizations. This policy will he maintained in the future. 

There appears to be no need of any conference with outside 
labor organizations. If the matters which they wish to bring 
to our attention concern our employes, the men have a repre- 
sentative Committee elected by themselves, through which 
such matters, whether they be complaints or suggestions for 
improved conditions or service in any department, can be 
brought to the management. If the matters which they wish 
to discuss concern recognition of the Unions, we say, frankly 
and with full knowledge of gravity of the situation, that we 
will recognize no such labor organizations or delegations from 



30 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 19n 



them, and that we will grant no demands for recognizing 
Union Committees. 

In short, if we are to continue to operate it can only be pos- 
sible if we are allowed to conduct our own affairs with the 
help and suggestions of our own employes. 

Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co. 
By C. E. Mills, Gen. Mgr. 

J.etal Mine Workers' Industrial Union, No. S00, affiliated 
with the Industrial Workers of the World, formulated its de- 
mi nds on the evening of June 29 for presentation to the man- 
agers of the three big copper companies in the district, says 
the Arizona Record of June 30. The demands are identical 
to those which have been made by striking miners at Butte 
and Bisbee. 

According to a representative of the metal workers, this 
organization will hold a mass-meeting tonight at which time, 
unless the demands are met by the companies, a strike vote 
will be taken. If they are refused, the members will possibly 
quit work Sunday night or Monday morning. 

Following is the official statement of demands which was 
issued: 

"Miami, Arizona, June 29, 1917. 
"Mine Managers of the Globe and Miami District: 

"We, the joint committees of the Metal Mine Workers' In- 
dustrial Union, No. 800, present the following demands: 

"1. Two men to work on all piston and Leyner machines. 

"2. Two men to work together in all raises. 

"3. No blasting in stopes, drifts, or raises during shift. 

"4. Abolition of the 'rustling-card' system. 

"5. Abolition of the contract-bonus system. 

"(i. Abolition of the sliding-scale. 

"7. Water-sprays shall be used on all machines. 

"S. No discrimination against any member of any union. 

"9. Representation in the control of hospital. 

"10. Minimum wage of $6 for all men working underground. 

"11. Minimum wage of $5.50 for all men working on surface. 
"Respectfully submitted, 
"Metal Mine Workers' Industrial Union No. 800." 

The local authorities at Miami claim that the strike situa- 
tion has gone beyond their power of control, and the War 
Department at Washington late on July 3 instructed the 
Southern Department to take the steps necessary to handle 
the situation, and troops will be sent into the mining districts 
where needed if the request is officially made by the authori- 
ties in Arizona. 

Calaveras County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Sheep Ranch mine, after a 
long idleness, is to be reopened by New York capital under the 
direction of H. R. Plate, of New York. The mine has been 
worked to a depth of about 1200 ft. and for many years was 
a large producer. The ore was free-milling and often was 
filled with visible gold. Ore of this character was generally of 
dark bluish color and was in demand by jewelers who con- 
verted the rock into various forms of jewelry. The vein was 
about IS in. wide and the average of the ore for years was 
about $15 per ton. 

Sheep Ranch, June 24. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Maypole mine, formerly 
known as the Shear mine, has been re-opened by L. G. Blake- 
more. The mine is half a mile north-west of Mokelumne Hill, 
at what is known as the Italian gardens. The claim, which is 
2700 ft. long, is located on a north-east south-west vein that 
dips north-west in greenstone schist. The quartz is 6 ft. wide 
at the face of the old tunnel, which has been cleaned out by 
Mr. Blakemore. It was caved throughout its entire length, 
having been idle and forgotten for more than 30 years. On 
the dump was 300 tons of rock that sampled $5 per ton, which 
was considered good enough to justify an examination. By 
driving 300 ft. farther there will be available from 350 to 



400 ft. of backs. The outlook for this old property, one of the 
first, if not the first, quartz claim located in this county, is 
considered promising. 

The old Boston (Esperanza) mine is to be re-opened by a 
Mr. Baker, who *t is reported has made a payment of $17,500 
on the purchase price. This mine has been extensively worked 
in years gone by and has had not less than three mills, and 
at one time a chlorination works. The vein is large, 40 to 60 
ft. wide, and consists of a zone of silicified amphibolite schist. 
It carries 2 to 10% auriferous sulphide, together with free 
gold, but is low grade and requires careful and economical 
handling. 

The Gardella brothers have closed the sale of their Garibaldi 
mine in the Mill Valley district to W. M. Stiver, who repre- 
sents San Francisco capitalists. The mine is seven miles from 
Mokelumne Hill. A company has been organized to operate 
this property, which will be known as the Garibaldi Mining 
Co. There is a shaft 100 ft. deep in which some good ore 
has been found. Machinery will be placed on this property by 
the new owners. 

Mokelumne Hill, June 24. 

(Special Correspondence.) — There is much prospecting being 
done about Railroad Flat, and some good discoveries are an- 
nounced. The district is one of many possibilities. It was 
only a few years ago that the Comet mine was discovered, 
almost by accident, and within a short time produced $125,000 
at large profit. There are a number of old mines, at one time 
substantial producers, that are again being investigated. 

Railroad Flat, June 24. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Utica mill has been closed- 
down for a week because of an unusual flow of salt water, but 
is about to resume operations. The Angels Quartz mine has 
been thoroughly cleaned up and is now ready for a long period 
of activity. 

Angels, June 24. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The proposal to re-open the 
Blazing Star has been abandoned, it is stated, owing to the 
War. The Sawyer mine, controlled by William Foltz of Seattle, 
is about to resume operations, San Francisco capital having 
been interested, it is reported. 

West Point, June 25. 

Del Norte County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Tom Galvin, who is representing 
the American Exploration Co., which is operating chrome 
properties on French hill and Low divide, expects to spend 
many months here. There now is S000 tons of high-grade 
chrome ore ready for shipment. This week the company ex- 
pects five auto-trucks with which to haul the ore to this place. 
It will be shipped by steamer to San Francisco. 

The Duley and Lauff copper property on Patricks creek is 
developed by many hundred feet of adits. Work has been 
suspended for some time and an Eastern company that has 
examined the property now contemplates its purchase. O. B. 
Lauff and West Duley are hotel owners of this place. 

Large deposits of chrome ore have been found and located on 
Diamond creek by G. W. Gravlin, and other large deposits have 
been found and located on Cedar creek by John Taggert, in 
this county. 

Crescent City, June 23. 

i 
Siskiyou County 

(Special Correspondence.) — John Hays of Gold Hill, Oregon, 
and Charles Moon, of Hornbrook, left for their gold quartz 
mine, S miles from Hornbrook. They discovered the vein sev- 
eral years ago and from time to time have done considerable 
development work, and now are preparing to erect a small 
mill on the property. The ore is rich and free-milling, but is 
only 8 to 10 in. wide, where uncovered. 

Mike G. Womack, of Medford, Oregon, and M. A. Carter, and 



July ". 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



31 



L. D. Corbltl o( Ashland, Oregon, have a promising gold prOB- 
pect. the Golden Gem. which Is situated 16 miles west of Hilts 
on Hungry creek. They discovered the vein last year and 
have done enough work to justify the further development of 
the property. On account of the inaccessability of the wagon- 
road to the mine they contemplate erecting a small mill on 
the property. The ore assays $70 per ton of gold and is free- 
milling. The vein has a width of 6 to 22 in. There is several 
hundred feet of work on the property, though the greatest 
depth attained on the vein is 70 feet. 

•Mr. Womack and his associates will resume operation on a 
vein of gold, silver, and galena situated 16 miles west of 
Gazelle, in the Etna Mills district. The vein is in limestone 
and averages 10 ft. wide. On account of the distance to a ship- 
pin- point the owners are contemplating erecting a mill on 
the property this season and reducing the ore to concentrate 

for shipping. Work has been resumed on a number of old 

quartz properties in the Hornbrook district. 

Hombrook. June 25. 

COLORADO 
Bouldeb County 

(Special Correspondence.) — C. E. Brandenburg, on Left 
Hand, has made a shipment of gold ore from his new discovery 
that seems destined to prove a bonanza. This discovery is one 
of the best that has been made here in years. The vein is 
from 3 to 4 ft. wide with a rich streak from 10 to 12 in. of 
solid copper-iron. 

Cowdry & Co. has leased the Sunday mine at Rollinsville 
and will start operations on a large scale. 

Frank Arondel, of Nederland, reports that the Last Chance 
has 3 ft. of good tungsten ore. 

Eldora. June 26. 

Teller County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The directors of the Granite 
Gold Mining Co. declared a dividend of lc. per share on the 
issued stock of the company, payable July 5 to stockholders 
of record June 26. The amount of the dividend is $16,500. 
The company now will go on a bi-monthly dividend basis. 
Previous to this new dividend the last disbursement was that 
of November 1912. 

Cripple Creek, June 26. 

MONTANA 
Gbanite County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The manganese mines of the 
Flint Creek district, which is just east of Philipshurg, are pro- 
ducing from 200 to 400 tons of ore per day; the Philipsburg 
Mining Co. is shipping from 50 to 100 tons per day; the Mul- 
lins-Hynes property, from 60 to 100 tons; the Courtenay lease, 
from 50 to 60 tons; the Cape property, 25 to 50 tons; and other 
mines varying, amounts. Philipsburg, which his been a silver- 
producing camp for 50 years, has awakened to the possibilities 
of her manganese deposits, and it is believed this district will 
produce more manganese this year than any other district in 
the United States. 

W. C. Phalen, of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, has just paid 
a visit to the mines here and states that he has actually seen 
more manganese here than at any other place in the United 
States. 

Most of the ore is being shipped East and a 45% ore will net 
at the mines at present $30 per long ton. 

Philipsburg, June 25. 

Silveb Bow County 

Miners at Butte are interested in the discovery of a large 
body of manganese ore in the Hibernia mine of the Davis 
Daly company. The orebody is 100 ft. wide, and between 
700,000 and 1,000,000 tons of ore is in sight. It is close to the 
surface and can be handled by open-cut method. 



W. L. Creden, general manager for the Davis Daly company. 
has gone East to close contracts lor I he disposal of thiB ore. 
Two of the largest steel companies are negotiating for the en- 
tire output. Arrangements have been made by the Davis Daly 
company with the Butte Detroit company by which the latter 
will handle the ores at Butte. In addition to the orebody on 
the Hibernia claim, a body of manganese has been found in the 
New Republic claim, which also belongs to the Davis Daly 
company. This body of ore is said to exceed In size that in 
the Hibernia. The opening of these two bodies of manganese 
has started a hunt in scores of claims in the West Butte 
district. 

NEVADA 

Clabk County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Duplex mill is running on 
ore from the J. E. Griffith lease on the Duplex mine, and there 
is no indication of a shut-down, as other lessees are getting 
out good ore. 

George Colton, one of the owners of the Duplex mine, and 
who is now leasing, says that Jack Ellison, one of his em- 
ployees, has opened a fine body of rich ore. Several carloads 
recently shipped ran well in gold, copper, and lead. 

Wells, Lind, and Ray, who are operating the Searchlight 
Mining & Milling Co.'s property, have shipped a large tonnage 
of good lead ore. Two cars shipped recently to the smelter 
returned $18,000, and during this period several hundred tons 
of good milling ore was also produced by them. They found 
a new vein of rich ore a few days ago. 

The mill of the Chief of the Hills company is nearly com- 
pleted, a test run having been made to ascertain what changes, 
if any, would be advisable. Ben Stevens is superintendent. 

Searchlight, June 23. 

Eureka County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Thomas Brown and associates, 
of San Francisco, have taken a bond on the Holly mine of this 
place and will commence work July 1. The Holly is fully 
equipped with a 60-hp. gasoline-hoist and arrangements have 
been made to get distillate from a carload just shipped in for 

the Connelly mine. A body of shipping ore has been opened 

up and two and a half tons per day is being taken out of the 
Will Heubner property, recently purchased by A. G. Burritt, 
of Salt Lake City. This property adjoins the California. It 
is expected that as soon as the development work now being 
done is completed large orebodies will have been found, as 
the ore becomes larger, richer, and better as work progresses. 

Eureka, June 24. 

Humboldt County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Adams vein on the 800-ft. 
level of the Rochester mine, at Rochester, has widened to 14 
ft. Much of the ore is high-grade with free gold and native 
silver showing plentifully. Drifts are being extended from 
the 900-ft. level in expectation of intersecting the Adams 
vein. The East vein is yielding good ore on the 700, 800, 900, 
and upper levels. The mill clean-up for the last half of May 
yielded $26,943. 

Superintendent Wilkey, of the Rochester Combined Co., ex- 
pects to have mill-grading completed by July 10 and construc- 
tion of the plant started. Over 100,000 ft. of lumber has 
arrived and considerable machinery is daily expected. A 
160-ft. raise has been started from the main working-tunnel 
in the Shepherd claim to connect with No. 1 level. The main 
tunnel is in 480 ft. and has entered good ore. The Maynaugh 
tunnel, on the Happy Jack, has also entered excellent ore 
about 380 ft. from the portal. Developments are proceeding 
rapidly on the Bacchus and Happy Jack claims. 

New work has begun on the 1600-ft. level of the Seven 
Troughs Coalition. The main drift is advancing toward the 
shoot, which yielded specimen ore in the upper workings. 
Good ore is being mined above this point. 



32 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7. 11)17 



An orebody ranging from 4 to 12 ft. wide has been opened 
in the Cheefoo mine, at National. All the ore is stated to be 
of good milling grade with streaks showing silver sulphide 
and native silver. A little gold occurs. Construction of mine 
buildings is proceeding. N. P. R. Hatch is general manager. 
J. C. Sullivan and H. L. Schreck, of San Francisco, are heavily 
interested. 

A new mill is in operation at the Buckaroo mine, in the 
Pine Forest district. Developments have been proceeding for 
several years and a large tonnage of good ore is stated to be in 
sight. The mine is 12 miles north-west of Quinn River cross- 
ing, and is operated by the Oklahoma Gold Mining Co. Thomas 
Ewing is general manager. 

Ore averaging $250 per ton in gold and silver is being 
shipped from the 700-ft. level of the Seven Troughs mine, at 
Vernon, and on the dumps a large tonnage of $25 ore is being 
placed with a view to treating it at the mine. From the winze 
on the SOO-ft. level a cross-cut is advancing in promising ter- 
ritory. 

Lovelocks, June 28. 

Nye County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Foundations are being placed lor 
the auxiliary power-station of the Tonopah Extension, and by 
August 1 it is believed the plant will be ready for service. Its 
completion will he the signal for resumption of work at the 
Great Western and Tonopah Bonanza mines with three shifts, 
and extension of the deep cross-cut of the Western Tonopah 
Co., controlled by Boston and Butte capitalists. This work is 
designed to determine the possibilities for ore in the extreme 
western part of the district. 

The mill clean-up of the Tonopah Extension for the first half 
of June yielded 31 bars of bullion valued at $5S,000. Most of 
the ore is coming from No. 2 shaft workings, but as soon as 
the auxiliary power-plant is in operation a heavy output from 
the deep levels of the Victor shaft is planned. 

The Tonopah Belmont Co. expects to have the mill at its 
Surf Inlet gold mine, on Princess Royal island, above Van- 
couver, B. C, in operation about August 15. Mine conditions 
are reported highly satisfactory. Work on the adjoining Pugs- 
ley property is proceeding steadily. It .is stated the Eagle- 
Shawmut mine, near Sonora, California, is also developing 
satisfactorily. The company reports net earnings for May at 
$98,525, exceeding the April net earnings by over 15%. The 
Jim Butler reports May profits of $44,136, and a total of $191,- 
956 for the year. The weekly output is about 700 tons. 

Tonopah, June 2S. 

(Special Correspondence.) — Shaft sinking in the White 
Caps has reached a depth of 110 ft. below the fourth level. 
The fifth station will be cut after a lift of 127 ft. has been 
made, and as the fourth level is 436 ft. below the surface, the 
next level will have a vertical depth of 563 ft. The water from 
the several faces in the workings has steadily diminished dur- 
ing the week. The ground cut in the shaft-sinking is silicious 
shale and is the hardest known in the camp, and for this rea- 
son the footage made during the week has not broken any 
records. In the west drift on the third level 15 ft. has been 
made during the week, with no water encountered. The bulk- 
heads and flood-gate are in place in the east drift and as the 
water now only approximates 75 gal. per minute the drift will 
be extended. It is the intention to commence the filling of 
the ore-bins during the first week in July, preparatory to the 
mills starting. In the mill five hearths of the Wedge roaster 
have been completed and the bricklayers are at work on the 
sixth. The crusher-house has been completed and machinery 
installed. The tightening of the mill-tanks after being filled 
with water is in progress. The landing-platform and trestle 
from the head-frame to No. 1 ore-bin is nearing completion. 
A large-size Steele Harvey tilting-furnace for reducing the 
gold precipitate has been received and is on its foundations in 
the refinery. The cut-off wagon road from the White Caps to 



Pipe Springs has been completed and is in use. both to the 
White Caps and the White Caps Extension. 

At the shaft of the White Caps Extension five car-loads of 
lumber are coming in for the mine buildings, employees' 
bunk-house, an^ superintendent's house. The shaft will be the 
largest in the district, having three compartments. Grading 
for the buildings is in progress. An air-line has been laid 
from the White Caps to furnish air for the rock-breaker, until 
the Extension's compressors arrive. Three 50-kw. transform- 
ers have arrived for the mine. It is expected to purchase the 
necessary hoisting machinery at Goldfield, and a double-drum 
hoist will be brought in immediately. 

At the Union Amalgamated the face continues in hard blue 
lime. The east drift from the north cross-cut has exposed one 
foot of ore averaging $100 per ton in gold. This probably is 
the continuation of the Bath ore-shoot, that in the upper part 
of the mine yielded many thousand dollars to lessees. No. 2 
cross-cut raise has been started to reach the ore left in the 
hanging wall of the west drift, 110 ft. west from the shaft. 
It was found impracticable to carry all of the vein in the drift 
at this point. In the raise is 4 ft. of ore of milling grade, 
which makes the vein 8 ft. wide at this point. Since the above 
was written, further development shows the ore in the new 
orebody mentioned as the probable continuation of the Batb 
orebody to assay $176. 

Rapid progress is being made in sinking the shaft of the Ex- 
tension company below the 100-ft. level. An average of four feet 
per day has been made in the sinking, with one shift of miners. 
The vein has opened out as the shaft is being sunk from 16 in. 
to over 3 ft. It is the intention to continue the shaft-sinking 
to a depth of at least 100 ft. farther before exploring the 
medium-grade ore-shoot developed on the 100-ft. level. 

At a depth of 110 ft. water was struck in the Red Top shaft. 
For a few days an endeavor was made to keep the flow down 
by bailing, but this has been found impracticable, and to pros- 
pect the lime belt, a drift on the lime-shale contact has been 
started to the north-east. Gold was found and the drift is- 
being extended. The management has ordered a three-drill 
compressor. 

The installation of new machinery has occupied most of 
the time at the Morning Glory recently. The new hoist has 
been connected up, and the buildings have been erected. In- 
stallation of the compressor is proceeding. In the No. 3 shaft- 
sinking all of the rock taken out is pay ore. The average 
value for the last 10 ft. of sinking has been $10 in gold. 

The drift on the 300-ft. level of the Manhattan Consolidated 
is out 200 ft. from the shaft, with 20 ft. to go to reach a point 
beneath the rich shoot worked on the 200-ft. level. The 'mud- 
fault' has been reached, and important developments are an- 
ticipated. 

Manhattan, June 21. 

It is reported that the drift on the 300-ft. level of the Man- 
hattan Consolidated has been extended under" the ore-shoot 
developed on the 200-ft. level, and has broken into high- 
grade ore. 

OREGOX 
Josephine County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Operations have been resumed 
on 'The Diamond Creek' cinnabar property, 16 miles south- 
west of here. This property is owned and operated by W. 
Ehrman, John Taggert, and L. C. Cole. Preparations are being 
made to install machinery. 

The Preston Peak copper mine is under option to J. F. Reddy 
of Grants Pass. It is reported that an Eastern company is 
ready to take over the option and begin operations. This mine 
is opened to the depth of 1300 ft. There are many thousand 
tone of ore in sight showing from 3* to 20% copper and from 
$4 to $8 per ton gold. 

A. Justin Townsend, of Lynn, Massachusetts, owner of the 
Pacific placer mine, is planning to put in a dredge capable of 



.Inly 



1917 



MINING and Scientific PRt.SS 



:::: 



handling 2 yards of gravel daily. This will he used In 

addition <o the hydraulic equipment. 

The C'ollard-Moore and Oollard chrome mine is one of the 
largest shippers In this district. The owners have installed a 
Concentrator, and are shipping some high-grade massive chrome 
ore that requires m> concentration. 

A body of chrome ore was found G miles southeast of Waldo 
In w. Bunch and son and Walter Smith. It is only a few 
hundred feet from the Kerby-Holland stage-road, near the old 
Sly ranch. Ore is being mined and shipped by way of Grants 
Pass. 

The Osgood placer mine, located in Fry gulch, is a depend- 
able gold producer. It is owned by F. H. Osgood, of Seattle. 
and has been leased by James Logan for the past four years. 
This property comprises about 640 acres. Three giants are in 
operation. Water is taken from the east fork of the Illinois 
river. 

Waldo. June 23. 

TEXAS 

Lla.no County 

Ceylon E. Lyman, president of the Wakefield Iron & Coal 
Land Improvement Co., of Minneapolis, Minnesota, says in the 
Manufacturers Record: 

We are continuing the development of a large graphite 
deposit which we were working last year, and it is proving to 
extend over an area two miles long and embracing several 
veins, some of which are 50 to 150 ft. wide. Assays from these 
veins run from 12 to 35% in graphite. 

We are not doing anything in manganese at present, owing 
to the distance from a railroad, although we may do some work 
to determine the extent of one deposit in view of the possible 
wants of the Government. In this course we may be influenced 
by a report recently made by a representative of the Govern- 
ment, who pronounced it a large and remarkable deposit. 

CANADA 
Yukon Territory 
It is reported from Dawson that when transportation on the 
Yukon opens, $9,000,000 in gold will be shipped out from the 
Yukon Basin districts as the result of the season's clean-up. 
Most of this is from gravel mined during the winter months 
and washed during the early summer when water was avail- 
able. 

MEXICO 

Vera Cruz 

(Special Correspondence.) — According to advices received 
■here from Teziutlan, State of Vera Cruz, the large smelter of 
the Compania Metalurgica at that place is now in full opera- 
tion. This company has been operating large copper mines in 
that district for many years and its output of metal was large 
hefore the revolutionary period. The conditions of banditry 
interfered with railroad transportaton to and from the com- 
pany's property, but these conditions in that particular locality 
are said to have shown improvement of late. There has been 
a project on foot for a long time to construct a railroad from 
Teziutlan to the prospective deep-water port of Nautla, situated 
about midway between Vera Cruz and Tuxpam, and the Federal 
Government has signified its intention of carrying out this 
work at the earliest possible moment. Connected with the 
construction of the railroad will be the building of extensive 
■harbor and port works at Nautla, at an estimated cost of about 
$2,000,000. 

Monterrey, June 23. 

A recent report from Cananea states that everything there 
is quiet at present. The authorities have taken charge of the 
mines, mills, and smelters of the Greene-Cananea company 
and has placed guards of soldiers at all the properties. It is 
also reported that the authorities contemplate starting up 
the mines and works, but nothing definite is yet known con- 
cerning this. 



P-jr^cxniil 



umrfc and cpuointmntt. This infirmaHom < toourrvacfart. 



Rush M. Hess is at Bouse, Arizona. 

William Truyan is in Plumas county. 

C. Eim Wuensch is in Calaveras county, California. 

E. A. S. Whittari) was in San Francisco from Tuolumne. 

P. T. McGrath is in San Francisco from Phoenix, Arizona. 

Augustus Locke, of Boston, is visiting California mining 
districts. 

Frederick Laist has returned to Anaconda from South 
America. 

Waldemar Lindgren has returned to Boston from South 
America. 

Chari.es Janin, on his return from Russia, has gone to 
Washington. 

H. R. Plate, of New York, is at the Sheep Ranch mine, in 
Calaveras county. 

Andrew C. Lawson has completed an examination of the 
coalfields of northern Arizona. 

Frank H. Prouert has been making a geologic examination 
of the Rochester mines in Nevada. 

S. F. Shaw is re-opening the Panaco mine, in Coahuila, 
Mexico, for the A. S. & R. Company. 

L. P. Pressler has returned from Mexico and is now with the 
Tonopah Mining Company at Tonopah, Nevada. 

D'Arcy Weatherbe and Ross B. Hoffmann sailed by the 
'Tenyo Maru' for China and Siberia on June 30. 

Sumner S. Smith has been named resident engineer for the 
Alaskan Engineering Commission at Anchorage. 

G. H. Woliiaupter has left the Magma mill of the Utah Cop- 
per Co. to join the Michigan College of Mines Batallion. 

Will D. Cogiiill has been appointed metallurgist at the 
Seattle experiment station of the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

H. J. Wendler has been at Mokelumne Hill from Sonora, 
Mexico, making an examination of the Mokelumne group of 
mines. 

E. S. Boalich has returned from Washington, and has taken 
the position as mining engineer with the California State Min- 
ing Bureau. 

J. S. Diller will make San Francisco his headquarters for 
about three weeks while studying chrome deposits for the 
U. S. Geological Survey. 

Charles S. Galbraith has resigned from his connection with 
the Callow flotation business and has opened an office at Webb 
City, Missouri, as a metallurgical and civil engineer. 

Howland Bancroft, having finished examinations in Colo- 
rado, Wyoming, and New Mexico, has gone to New York, 
where he will be at the Engineer's Club until the middle of 
July. 

Douglas A. Mutch, manager for the Hudson Bay Mines, 
Ltd., at Cobalt, Ontario, has been appointed consulting engi- 
neer for the Dome Lake Mining & Milling Co., at South Porcu- 
pine. ' 

Frank R. Corwin has resigned his position as assistant 
superintendent of the International smelter to take charge of 
the Consolidated Arizona Smelter Co.'s smelter at Hufnboldt, 
Arizona, in the capacity of superintendent. 

A. M. Swartley is acting as director of the Oregon Bureau 
of Mines and Geology during the absence of Henry M. Parks. 
who is a captain of engineers in the Officers Reserve Corps, and 
is now at Vancouver Barracks, Washington. 

Alfred H. Brooks, formerly in charge of the Division of 
Alaskan Mineral Resources of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
has been appointed a captain in the Engineer Officers Reserve 
Corps and ordered to report for training. During Mr. Brooks' 
absence on military duty, Mr. George C. Martin will be geolo- 
gist, acting in charge of Alaskan work. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7. I'M 7 



^WM WMTm> WMMMMT 



i:.i"T!:ii!i 



-22.00 
34.50 
-13.50 
—111 
$85 
11.50 

59 

20 



METAL PRICES 

San Francisco, July 3. 

Antimony, cents per pound 18,50— 

Electrolytic copper, cents per pound 

Pig lead, cents per pound 12.25-^ 

Platinum, soft and hard metal, per ounce $105 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb 

Spelter, cents per pound 

Tin, cents per pound 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 

ORE PRICES 

San Francisco. July 3. 

Aluminum-duBt (100-lb. lots), per lb $1.00 

Aluminum-dust (ton lots), per lb $0.95 

Antimony. 50% metal, per unit SI. 35 

Chrome, 40% and over, f.ob. cars California. centB per unit. . 50 — 55 

Magnesite, crude, per ton $8.00 — 12.00 

Tin. cents per pound 60 

Tungsten, 60% W0 3 , per unit $25.00 — 30.00 

Molybdenite, per unit for MoS» contained 40.00 

Manganese, 45% (under 35% metal not desired), cents, unit. 33 — 37 

Manganese prices and specifications, as per the quotations of the Car- 
negie Steel Co. schedule of prices per ton of 2240 lb. for domestic man- 
ganese ore delivered, freight prepaid, at Pittsburg, Pa„ or Chicago, 111. For 
ore containing 

Per unit 

Above 49% metallic manganese $1.00 

46 to 49% metallic manganese 0.98 

43 to 46% metallic manganese 0.95 

40 to 43% metallic manganese 0.90 

Prices are based on ore containing not more than 8% silica nor more 
than 0.2% phosphorus, and are subject to deductions as follows: (1) for 
each 1% in excess of 8% eilica. a deduction of 15c. per ton, fractions in 
proportion: (2) for each 0.02% in excess of 0.2% phosphorus, a de- 
duction of 2e. per unit of manganese per ton. fractions in proportion: 
(3) ore containing less than 40% manganese, or more than 12% silica, or 
0.225% phosphorus, subject to acceptance or refusal at buyer's option: 
settlements based on analysis of sample dried at 212° F.. the percentage of 
moisture in the sample as taken to be deducted from the weight Prices 
are subject to change without notice unless specially agreed upon. 

Tungsten has taken a sharp advance, owing to continued and increasing 
demand, and scarcity of the supply to meet it. From a nominal price of 
$20 to $22 per unit for '60% ore, the price has risen to $25 to $30 per 
unit, and unless indications are misleading it will go still higher. Some 
ore of low grade has been shipped from the mines at Atolia to Boulder 
county, Colorado, for concentration. 

EASTERN METAL MARKET 

(By wire from New York) 
July 3. — Copper dull and nominal at 32.25c. Lead is quiet at 11.70 
to 11.50c. Zinc is dead and lower at 9.37 to 9.25c. Platinum shows no 
change, being $105 for soft and $111 for hard metal. The average price 
of tin in the month of June was 61.93c. per pound. 

COPPER 

Prices of electrolytic in New York, in centB per pound. 

Date Average week ending 

June 27 32.25 

" 28 32.25 

29 32.25 

30 32.25 

1 Sunday 

2 32.25 

3 32.25 



July 



May 
June 



July 



32.25 
29 32.50 

5 32.62 

12 32.75 

19 32.58 

26 32.42 

3 32.25 









Monthly Averages 








1915 


1916 


1917 




1915 


1916 1917 




. . .13.60 


24.30 


29.53 


July . . . 


. .19.09 


25.66 


Feb. . . 


. . .14.38 


26.62 


34.57 


Aug. . . . 


. .17.27 


27.03 


Men. . 


...14.80 


26.65 


36.00 


Sept. . . . 


..17.69 


28.28 




. . .16.64 


28.02 


33.16 


Oct. . . . 


. .17.90 


28.60 




. . .18.71 


29.02 


31.69 


Nov. . . . 


..18.88 


31.95 


June . . 


. . .19.75 


27.47 


32.57 


Dec. . . . 


. .20.67 


32.89 



Below are given the average New York quotations, in cents per ounce, 
of fine silver. 



Dale 

June 27 78.25 

" 28 78.50 

29 77.87 

" 30 77.87 

July 1 Sunday 

2 77.87 

3 77.87 



Average week ending 

May 22 74.78 

29 74.62 

June 5 74.80 

" 12 75.83 

19 77.00 

26 78.12 

July 3 77.98 



1915 

Jan 48.85 

Feb 48.45 

Mch 50.61 

Apr 50.25 

May 49.87 

June 49.03 



1916 
56.76 
56.74 
67.89 
64.37 
74.27 
65.04 



Monthly Averages 
1917 



75.14 
77.54 
74.13 
72.51 
74.61 
76.44 



1915 

July 47.52 

Aug 47.11 

Sept 48.77 

<V| 49.40 

Nov 51.88 

Dec 55.34 



1916 
63.06 
66.07 
68.51 
67.86 
71.60 
75.70 



High-record levels have been reached by silver sales at 80 % c. per oz 
at Vancouver. This new top price, indicating a premium of about 2c 
per oz. over the New York quotation, was made by Nipissing Mines Co. 
for shipment to the Far East. Producers talk of even higher prices for 
this metal, basing their contention on the big demand both at home and 
abroad and the fact that production shows no material increase. Cur- 
tailment of operations at Butte. Cananea. and other mining centres where 
silver figures prominently as a by-product, will cut down the yield of this 
metal, rather than provide the increase that had been looked for at this 
time. The Federal Government has been buying silver heavily for some 



weeks past, the purchases aggregating 400,000 oz. weekly. The last pur- 
chase, however, was for 800.000 ounces. 

Much of the silver for the Far East now goes direct from the United 
States or Canada from Pacific ports rather than through the medium of 
the London market which necessitates crossing the Atlantic. This is be- 
cause of the high shipping-costs with Atlantic war-risk insurance to Lon- 
don. Until recently it has been next to impossible to break the hold 
which English brokers have always held upon the Far Eastern markets. 

With an advance of 6%c. from the low point of the year, March 27. 
silver prices have reached the highest level since 1892. They are now 
actually higher than at any time during the sensational advance of May 
1916. when 77 He. was twice touched. Every indication points to 80c. 
silver in the near future. 

LEAD 

Lead is quoted in centB per pound. New York delivery. 
Date 

Juno 27 11.70 May 

28 11.70 

29 11.50 June 

30 11.50 

July 1 Sunday 

2 11.50 

3 11.50 July 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Mch. 
Apr. 
May 
June 



1915 

. 3.73 

. 3.83 

. 4.04 

. 4.21 

. 4.24 

. 5.75 



1916 

5.96 
6.23 
7.26 
7.70 
7.38 
6.88 



Monthly Averages 
1917 



Average week ending 

22 10.50 

29 10.93 

5 11.46 

12 11.83 

19 12.00 

26 11.75 

3 11.57 



7.64 

9.01 

1007 

9.38 

10.29 

11.74 



July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec 



1915 

. 5.59 

. 4.67 

. 4.62 

. 4.62 

. 5.15 

. 534 



1916 
6.40 
6.28 
6.86 
7.02 
7.07 
755 



1917 



The Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & Concentrating Co.. of Kellogg. 
Idaho, paid dividend No. 254. of S81.750. on June 4. and a dividend. No. 
255, of S81.750. on July 3. An extra dividend. No. 256. of S81.750. was 
also paid July 3. These dividends bring the grand total paid by this 
company to date to S19.716.000. 

The Hecla Mining Co. of Wallace. Idaho, has declared dividend No. 169 
of 15c. per share, being S150.000. Total for 1917. S900 000 Total 
paid to date. S6.205.000. 

It is reported that the leading lead producers of the Coeur d'Alene mines 
have agreed to sell 2000 tons of lead to the Government at Sc. per pound. 

ZINC 

Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery. 
in cents per pound 



Dal 


e 

27 

28 

29 

30 

1 

2 

3 


Sunday 
1916 


1916 
18.21 
19.99 
18.40 
18.62 
16.01 
12.85 


9.37 
9.37 
9.37 
9.25 

9.25 

9.25 

Monthly 

1917 

9.75 

10.45 

10.78 

10.20 

9.41 

9.63 


May 
June 

July 

Averag 

July 

Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov 
Dec. 


A VI 

}S 


rage wees 


ending 












" 








" 








July 
















" 










1915 
20.54 
14.17 
. 14.14 
.14 05 
.17.20 
.16.76 


1916 
9.90 
9.03 
9.18 
9.92 
11.81 
11.26 


1917 






















9.78 
17.03 

22 9 




May 
June 







QUICKSILVER 

The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds: 
Week ending 

Date I June 19 82.00- 

June 5 90.00 " 26 80.00 

12 90.00 I July 3 S5.00* 

Monthly Averages 



1915 

Jan 51.90 

Feb 60.00 

Mch 78.00 

Apr 77.50 

May 75.00 

June 90.00 



Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 



1916 


1917 




1915 


1916 


222.00 


81.00 


July . . 


. . . 96.00 


81.20 


295.00 


126.25 


Aug. . . 


. . . 93.75 


74.50 


219.00 


113.75 


Sept. . . 


. . . 91.00 


75.00 


141.60 


114.50 


Oct. . . 


. . . 92.90 


78.20 


90.00 


104.00 


Nov. . . 


. . .101.50 


79.60 


74.70 


86.50 


Dec. . . 


. . .123.00 


80 00 



1917 



Monthly Averages 





1916 


1916 


1917 




. . . 34.40 


41.76 


44.10 


Feb. . . 


.. .37.23 


42.60 


51.47 


Mch. . 


48.76 


50.50 


64.27 




. . .48.25 


61.49 


55 6.1 




. . .39.28 


49.10 


63.21 


June . . 


. ..40.26 


42.07 


61.93 



1915 

July 37.38 

Aug 34.37 

Sept 33.12 

Oct 33.00 

Nov 39.50 

Dec 38.71 



1916 
38.37 
38.88 
36.66 
41.10 
44.12 
42.55 



MOLYBDENUM 



Such small quantities as were offered on the New York market changed 1 
hands at S2.10 per pound MoS- for 90% concentrate. 

ANTIMONY 

The market is very dull and little business has been reported. Nomi- 
nally, prompt antimony is quoted from 19 to 19 Vic, with future quotations 
ranging from 14 to 16c. according to position. Needle-antimony, however, 
remains firm at 12c. for spot and 9 to 9 Vi c. for future delivery. 

MANGANESE 

Manganese is unchanged with the schedule price of SI per unit for 
high-grade ore. 



July 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



:;;, 



Eastern Metal Market 



.New York, June 27. 

All the metals grow more Inactive rather than otherwise as 
the weeks go hy — due to the continued uncertainty regarding 
Government decisions as to the quantity and price of probable 
purchases. The net effect is general stagnation. 

Copper quotations are practically nominal with actual busi- 
ness of small volume. 

Lead is in small demand and lower. 

Tin is dull and has declined. 

Zinc is dead but a little business has been done on lower 
prices. 

Antimony is inactive and unchanged. 

In the steel market a new and serious uncertainty has been 
injected due to the agitation of Government control of prices, 
including coal and coke, thus increasing the perplexity of 
buyers. Pig-iron buyers and purchasers of finished steel are 
much disturbed over the proposed fixing of maximum prices 
in private transactions. Government buying continues to grow 
in volume, coming from various sources. Japanese buyers of 
ship-plates are grabbing every bit of tonnage they can lav- 
hands on, paying as high as 9.90c. for 1000 tons for early 
shipment. The whole market continues to advance in the 
scramble for the small quantity of steel available for early 
shipment. 

COPPER 

All sorts of rumors are emanating from Washington as to 
the negotiations in reference to copper purchases by this and 
the other belligerent governments. Estimates of the amount 
our own army and navy will need for the remainder of 1917 
approximates 225,000,000 lb., while others state that these 
needs for 12 months will exceed 380,000,000 lb. As to price, 
common talk is that to the Government 25c. will be the settled 
figure with 28c. per lb. to the Allies. It is even stated that 
deliveries are now being made in certain urgent cases on 
Government account at 25c. per lb. Other reports are disquiet- 
ing and are to the effect that there is a decided controversy 
regarding the price-question as it relates to the cost of copper 
production and the whole situation is disquieting. Business 
has come to a halt and the hesitancy is expected to continue 
until the problem is cleared up. This is not the only unset- 
ling factor. It is stated that certain large brass interests 
have been compelled to shut down indefinitely. Consumers 
will not come into the market under present conditions, and 
sales have been light. The market is a stale and drifting one. 
Price quotations are almost distinctly nominal. Early delivery 
Lake and electrolytic is held at about 32.25c, New York, with 
third quarter at 30.50c, and last quarter 29c to 29.50c. Cop- 
per exports for May are returned as 45,241 gross tons, bringing 
the total to June 1 to 225,967 tons. The contrast is revealed 
by the fact that exports to May 1 this year are 180,726 tons, 
against only 92,286 tons in the same four months of 1916. The 
London market is unchanged at £142 for spot and £138 for 
future electrolytic copper. 

TIN 

Announcement has been made of the personnel of the sub- 
committee on tin of the Council of National Defense as 
appointed by the American Iron and Steel Institute. It is 
made up of John Hughes, chairman, assistant to the president, 
United States Steel Corporation; E. R. Crawford, president, 
McKeesport Tin Plate Co.; A. B. Hall, manager, metal depart- 
ment National Lead Co.; Theo. Pratt, assistant manager, man- 
ufacturing department Standard Oil Co., and John A. Pry, 
purchasing agent, American Can Co. This committee has been 
approved and confirmed by the Government but its personnel 
does not cause satisfaction among importers and dealers, made 



up as it is almost entirely of consumers of tin. The market 
late last week was featureless and characterized by lack of 
business. Considerable complaint was voiced by dealers and 
importers. The appearance and offering of Chinese tin was 
also an unsettling influence. Late in the week sales were 
made of both Banca and Chinese tin but not in large volume 
and mostly for future delivery. Early this week more activity 
was experienced, sales on Monday amounting to 200 to 300 
tons, nearly all futures, with a little spot, and moBtly by two 
sellers. On Tuesday about 150 tons of futures was sold, and 
the arrivals of about 300 tons from London caused the spot 
market to fall to 62c, New York, a decline of ljc. per lb. since 
June 20, when sales were made at 63.75c. Arrivals to June 26 
inclusive were 1225 tons, with 3081 tons of Straits tin reported 
afloat. The London quotation on the 25th, the last cable re- 
ceived, was £243 15s. for spot Straits and £241 for futures. 

LEAD 

Many believe that a reaction downward is now due, with a 
probability of its continuance. At any rate the market is easier 
and slightly lower, with demand light. This is due to the 
easing of the situation occasioned by the announcement, re- 
ported in this market last week almost exclusively, that the 
Government had made arrangements to purchase its July 
requirements of about 8000 tons at 8c. per lb., St. Louis. The 
quantity was considerably less than anticipated, and as a 
result some producers and dealers, who had been holding 
stocks against Government needs, had some lead as a surplus 
which they at once offered for sale. Lead has changed hands 
recently at 11.50c, St. Louis, or 11.65c to 11.75c, New York, 
but at present the market is quiet and has come to a halt. 
Some dealers held out for 12c. but were left out of the run- 
ning. The London lead market is £30 10s. for spot and £29 10s. 
for future delivery lead, unchanged for some time. 
ZINC 

With production at a record rate but with demand for the 
metal at a low ebb, it is rather remarkable that the price holds 
as firmly as it does. Expectation of large Government needs 
and the firmness of ore prices are the explanation, but in the 
last few days there has been a slight weakening. Producers, 
large and small, are getting weary of their 'watchful waiting' 
attitude as to the Government's needs and the prices it will 
pay. Actual buying is not large and there is talk of attempts 
to find other fields for zinc as substitutes for other metals in 
which the Germans are said to have achieved marked success. 
Future deliveries continue to command higher prices than 
nearby deliveries, but there is more tendency to shade the 
earlier positions than the other. Quotations for early delivery 
range around 9.25c, St. Louis, with the forward position held 
at 9.50c, St. Louis. Sales have been made of fair tonnages 
for early delivery at a shade under 9.25c, St. Louis, or at 
9.12Jc, St. Louis, and 9.374c, New York, while for the future 
position 9.50c, St. Louis, or 9.75c, New York, has been done 
with resistance on the part of sellers to shade this. Reports 
are coming from Washington of extended controversies as to 
the amount and price of the high-grade and other kinds of 
zinc soon to be needed by the Government, but nothing definite 
is forthcoming. By a week from now a clearer outlook is 
hoped for. 

ANTIMONY 

The market continues dull and uninteresting, with demand 
very light. It is reported that Cookson's antimony is being 
offered for shipment from England at about 22c, New York, 
duty paid. Chinese and Japanese grades are practically un- 
changed at 19c. to 19.50c, New York, duty paid, for early 
delivery. Futures are in more demand than early deliveries. 



30a 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7. 1917 



HIJIDWS^mHJyL jpJS@©3BH8g 









Hydraulic Pressure Tests of Oxy-Acetylene Welded 
and Screwed Pipe Connections 

s The interest created by an article that appeared about a 
year ago giving a report of tests of oxy-acetylene welded pipe 
connections and screwed pipe connections tested under tension 
and compression, and the desire of readers for further informa- 




Fig. 1 

tion regarding the relative strength of welded and screwed 
pipe connections, encouraged the experimenters to carry on a 
second series of tests. 

These tests were conducted in the machine-construction 
laboratory of the University of Kansas and had for their 
purpose the determination of the relative strength of welded 
and screwed connections in steel pipe of various sizes when 
subjected to internal hydraulic pressure. 

The pipe samples, which were cut from standard black steel 
pipe, were from the same stock and hence probably of uniform 
quality. The welded specimens were made by operators of 
the Oxweld Acetylene Co., Chicago. The screwed connections 
were made up with malleable-iron couplings and tees by expert 
pipe fitters. The pieces for the butt welds were cut at an angle 
of about 60° in a pipe-cutting machine to get the necessary 
'V groove for welding. The T" welds were made by cutting a 
hole in the run and butting the outlet against the run. The 
ends of all the specimens were sealed by welding in plugs or 
discs made from boiler plate punchings. Two of these discs 
are shown at the bottom of Fig. 3. 

*F. H. Sibley, Professor of Mechanical Engineering. Uni- 
versity of Kansas, assisted by Messrs. Maris, Ruth, Schooley, 
Jesperson, and Dryden. 



The specimens were subjected to pressure by means of a 
small hydraulic pressure pump. Fig. 1, which was made 
especially for this work. The specimen under test was placed 
about 25 ft. from the pump and connected to it by means of a 
i-in. copper tube. A pressure-gage with a check-valve opening 
toward the gage was placed between the pump and the speci- 
men. The check-valve was necessary to steady the pressure 
in order that satisfactory readings could be obtained because 
some of the samples carried pressures greater than 5000 lb. 
per sq. in. before failing. The illustrations show several of 
the specimens tested and their modes of failure. 

Welded 2 and 3-in. specimens are shown in Fig. 2. These 




failed by splitting along the longitudinal seams of the pipe, 
the split stopping at the welded section. The 4-in. welded 
specimens in Fig. 3 bulged under the high pressure but did 
not fail in either the weld or the pipe-seam. 

The mode of failure of two of the screwed connections are 
shown in Fig. 4. The bursting pressures for the screwed 




connections were far below that of the welded specimens and 
all failed in the fitting. Great difficulty was experienced in 
testing the specimens made up with screwed fittings because 
sand-holes developed and the water leaked through the cast- 
ings to such an extent that it was almost impossible to reach 
the point of rupture. Fig. 5 shows one of the screwed 'T' 
specimens under test and illustrates clearly the leaky condi- 
tion just mentioned. 

Examination of the data given in the table shows that in 
only one case was there failure in the weld and that was 
merely a leak which did not develop until 3850 lb. per sq. in. 
pressure was applied. This brings out the point that while 
leaks are much less likely to occur in welded than in screwed 
connections they are the principal cause of difficulty. There- 
fore, pipe-lines that are to be subjected to high pressure, if 
properly tested for leaks when installed, should give no trouble 
under service. 



.July 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



31 



The results of these tests bear out the conclusions given In 
the previous series, namely: 

a. The strength of a welded pipe connection Is practically 
the same as that of unwelded pipe. By building up the weld 
slightly It can be made stronger than the rest of the pipe. 

b. The strength of the welded pipe connection is very much 
greater than that of the malleable-iron screwed fittings. 

c. Although a careless or inexperienced operator might pro- 
duce a leaky joint, nevertheless, if the pipe-line is tested for 
leaks when installed it should give no difficulty In service. 

HYPRAt'UC PRESSURE TEST OP OXY-ACETYLENE AND SCREWED 







PIPE 


CONNECTIONS 








Pressure 












at 


Maximum 






Bin 




failure. 


pressure. 






plpo 


Type 


lb. per 


lb. per 


Nature ot 


Condition 


in. 


joint 


sq. in. 


s<i. in. 


failure 


of weld 


2 


Welded t 


4400 


4400 


Tube seam split 


O.K. 


2 




3200 


2200 


Leak in tube seam 


O.K. 


a 




4750 


4750 


Tube seam split 


O.K. 


a 


Screwed 'T' 


2350 


2750 


Sand holes in fitting 




a 




500 


2000 


Sand holes in fitting 




3 


Butt weld 




5300 




O.K. 


3 




4950 


4950 


Tube seam split 


O.K. 


3 






4250 




O.K. 


3 


Coupling 


3950 


3950 


Coupling split 




3 




3400 


4400 


Leak in coupling 




3 


Welded T' 




3500 




O.K. 


3 


,, 




4250 




O.K. 


3 


" 




3505 




O.K. 


:; 


Screwed 'T' 


350 


2700 


Sand holes in fitting 




3 




300 


3100 


Sand holes in fitting 




4 


Butt weld 




5100 


Pipe bulged 


O.K. 


4 






3250 




O.K. 


4 


Coupling 


300 


3000 


Leak at threads 




4 




750 


2600 


Leak at threads 




4 


Welded T' 


3850 


5100 


Leak in weld 


Leaked 


4 


Screwed 'T' 


1000 


1950 


Sand holes in fitting 





Saves $19,000 Annually Hauliug Manganese Ore 

Fifty years ago manganese ore was in such demand that the 
owners of the Ladd mine, a manganese property in San 
Joaquin county, California, found it profitable to transport it 
on mule-back to Stockton, a distance of 32 miles. It was then 
loaded on river boats and carried 90 miles to San Francisco. 



larly sought by glass-works on account of the low percentage 
of Iron it contains. It lies in a formation of sandstone, chert, 
and serpentine. Jasper lies on the hanging wall, sandstone on 
the foot-wall. There are three adits tapping the vein at a 
deptl Of :'.">i ft. The pay-streak is from 1 to 6 ft. wide, av- 
criming 3 ft. The ore runs from 4:1 to 55%. A few months 
after the beginning of the War the price of manganese went 
up, and M. C. Seagrave, of San Francisco, realizing thai, the 
Ladd mine was a 'War Bride' worth cultivating, purchased 
the property and reopened the mine. 

Mr. Seagrave invested $2750 in transportation-equipment, 
purchasing eight mules at $225 each, two 3-ton bottom-dump 
wagons at $250 each, and six sets of double-harness at $75 
each. Operating records show that the two mule-teams could 
make three trips daily and haul IS tons from the mine of the 
crushing-plant situated in Corral Hollow on a switch of the 
Western Pacific railroad, a distance of three miles. The cost 
of this hauling, including the wages of two drivers and one 
stable-man, feed for the animals, repairing, shoeing, depre- 
ciation, interest on investment, taxes, and insurance, totalled 
$17.07 per day. This was an expense of 32c. per ton-mile of 
ore hauled, 95c. per ton of ore, or $6.95 cost per trip. 

The road over which the mules hauled their loads is black 
adobe. From the upper ore-chute at the mine there is a 20% 
grade to the main road, which then skirts the mountain, 
twisting and turning down a 10% grade for one and a half 
miles. Here a broad wash is reached. It is the natural drain- 
age of the surrounding mountains. In the summer the road 
is dusty, full of chuck-holes, and deep adobe ruts, baked to 
the hardness of cement by the burning rays of the sun. 

In the winter the ore-wagons would often sink axle-deep in 
the black quagmire, and these conditions usually forced the 
abandonment of all activities during wet weather. For weeks 
after a heavy rain four mules could barely haul one ton of ore 
over these roads. Two big mule-teams could not haul enough 
ore to keep the crusher busy. 

Eastern steel-mills began demanding regular tonnage and 
later went so far as to offer attractive premiums to miners 
who could meet their requirements. Mr. Seagrave was unable 
to fill his contracts. He summoned a mining expert, who, 




THE LADD MANGANESE MINE, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 



At this point it was placed aboard sailing ships for a 15,000 
mile journey to England, via Cape Horn. As new deposits of 
this ore were discovered in more accessible places the Ladd 
mine could not meet the prices of its competitors and the 
property was closed down. 



after a careful analysis of conditions, recommended the pur- 
chase of a White Good Roads Truck and a 5-ton trailer to 
supplant the mules and 3-ton wagons. 

The new motor-equipment cost the mine-owner $7825, almost 
three times the original outlay for the mules. But the truck 



Manganese ore, such as is found in the Ladd mine, is used and trailer were able to haul every nine hours a total of SO 
for making ferro-manganese steel, and the oxide is particu- tons of ore to the crusher and 80 tons of gravel for repairing 



32 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Julv 7. 1917 



the road. This equipment reduced the cost to 4c. per ton- 
mile, 12.3c. per ton of ore, or $2.47 per trip. The truck made 
eight trips per day, registering 4S miles. The total cost for 
operating the truck and trailer, including salaries of driver 
and helper, distillate, oil, grease, depreciation, interest, taxes, 
insurance, maintenance and repairs on truck, and mainten- 
ance, repairs, and tires for the trailer, amounted to $19.77 
per day. 

For 300 working days the motor equipment saved the owner 
$66.40 per day or a total of $19,671.05 per year, over the cost 
of performing the same work with the old facilities. 

When the truck and trailer were delivered at the mine the 



with offices at 565 West Washington Blvd., Chicago. The new 
company is composed of five former officers and employees of 
the Snyder Electric Furnace Company. 

The Absor|Won Method of Extracting Gasoline 
From Mineral Oils 

The annual report of the State Oil and Gas Supervisor for 
California contains a description of the absorption method 
by B. E. Lindsly, engineer for the Honolulu Consolidated Oil 
Co. The method consists of subjecting gas to intimate contact 










LOADING CHUTE FOR LADD SEANGANESE MINE 



rainy season was but 30 days off, and it required quick work 
on the part of the owner to place the roads in condition be- 
fore the wet weather set in. Every ton of ore mined and not 
delivered to the crusher meant a loss of $25. To stop hauling 
ore and repair the road with the mule equipment was not 
practicable. Building a road by ordinary means would have 
made necessary the hireing of additional men, wagons, and 
mules. 

The mule-teams were taken off the job, a gravel-elevator 
was erected in the creek-bed . near the ore-crusher, and the 
truck began its work of hauling both ore and gravel. The 
ore was loaded at the chute, transported to the crusher, and 
dumped in less than 30 seconds. The truck was then driven 
to the gravel-elevator where it was loaded with 10 tons of 
gravel, and on the return trip to the mine spread it along 
the road where it was required. The broad steel wheels of 
the truck rolled the surface hard and smooth. 

The truck and trailer with one driver and one helper com- 
pleted the road and delivered all the ore that was mined to 
the crusher without interruption, in 26 days. Dangerous 
curves were straightened out. culverts were built, the road 
widened in many places, turnouts made, and in many other 
ways it was improved. 

When the road was nearly completed the truck and trailer 
delivered 10 tons of ore three miles, picked up 10 tons of 
gravel on the return trip, spread and* rolled it, and returned 
to the chute at the mine in one hour and ten minutes. On 
the completed road a four-mule team was able to deliver but 
three tons of ore to the crusher and return empty to the 
chute in three hours. 

The Booth-Hall Co. has been formed to conduct an electric- 
furnace building, engineering, and metallurgical business, 



with oil that is completely devoid of gasoline. The gasoline 
vapors in the gas are deposited in the oil and subsequently 
recovered by distillation. The gravity of the oil should be 
about 34° BaumS, and the boiling point sufficiently high to 
permit an easy separation from the absorbed gasoline. 

The cycle of the absorbing-oil is as follows. The oil enters 
the heat-exchanger, where it transmits heat to the incoming 
oil. Then it passes to a cooler, to a horizontal absorber, and 
to a vertical spray-absorber. The gas-pressure forces it to 
a separator where the pressure is released. The excess gas 
given off in the separator is collected. This oil passes to the 
exchanger and to the still, where the gas is extracted and the 
cycle is repeated. 

It is claimed that the absorption method has the following 
advantages over the compressor method: greater recovery, 
lower first cost, and lower operating-cost. A recovery of at 
least 0.1 gal. per 1000 ft. of gas can usually be obtained from 
even so-called 'dry' gas, or gas that has already been treated 
by the compressor method. Engineers connected with the 
U. S. Bureau of Mines have estimated that the first cost of an 
absorption plant with a capacity of 60.000,000 cu. ft. of gas 
per day would be $1 to $1.50 per 1000 cu. ft. capacity. 
Doubling this maximum estimate for a small plant, the cost 
of a 2,000,000 cu. ft. plant would be only $6000. The output 
of such a plant, assuming a recovery of 0.25 gal. per 1000 
cu. ft. would be 500 gal. of gasoline per day. The cost for 
labor would not be over $15 per day. Since the method is 
patented and controlled by the Hope Natural Gas Co. of Pitts- 
burg, Pennsylvania, there would also be a royalty charge. 

The gravity of the gasoline recovered is usually higher 
than the commercial product, and therefore requires blending 
with a lower grade refinery-naphtha to fit it for the retail 
market. 



July 



1!U7 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



:;:: 



START RIGHT 




THE 



SHERIDAN Shaking GRIZZLY 

Will feed and screen 



run 



of 



mine ore. 



in iir:' mil. i: n I'n'MH ■ii.iii'iiiiiiiiiiMilliiMiLMiiiiiiiiMciillWI 

SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE 
MATTER 



Having the maximum capacity 

and 

consuming the minimum 

horsepower. 

It is the ideal feeder for 
YOUR CRUSHER. 

Successfully installed in some of the 
largest mills in the West. 




THE SHERIDAN GRIZZLY 

as installed at the Timber Butte Mill 

handling (10 tons per hour of 
run of mine ore. 



TRAYLOR ENGINEERING & MANUFACTURING CO. 



New York Office: 30 Church St. 



Main Office and Works : 

ALLENTOWN, F»A„ U. S. A. 

Post Office Box No. 696 



Western Office: Salt Lake City, Utah 



What's the most inexpensive way to 
effectively protect mine-timbers? 




Just Gunite them. Effectually protect timbering or 
any other wood or metal surfaces with the Cement-Gun. 



You can line drift where rock slacks 
off; line shafts; repair concrete 
work; waterproof flumes, tunnels, 
or ditches; waterproof dams and 
retaining walls; seal water-bearing 
fissures; or build fire-bulkheads. 

The CEMENT-GUN is light and 
easily portable. Its first cost is low 
and its operating cost lower still. 
Any man can use it. 

For protective work, compared to 
paint or concrete, GUNITE, the 
cement-sand product, is almost un- 
believably inexpensive. There are 
no forms to build, no costly mixer 
to run, as in the case of Concrete; 



neither does GUNITE have to be 
renewed from year to year as does 
paint. 

Whether your tonnage is ten or ten 
thousand, whether you operate 
mine, mill, or smelter; you have 
use for a CEMENT-GUN. The 
present users number among them 
such concerns as the Anaconda 
Copper Company which owns six 
CEMENT-GUNS and which has re- 
cently constructed effective fire- 
bulkheads of GUNITE. 

The uses for a CEMENT-GUN are 
so many, its cost is so low, that 
you cannot afford to neglect to get 
further information. 



Write us today mentioning- the class of protective 
work which, at present, costs you most and which is 
most unsatisfactory. No obligation. Write. 

Cement-Gun Company, Inc. 

Allentown, Pa., U. S. A. 

Cement-Gun Company. Inc., 30 Church St,, New York City 

E. R. Ayers, 1414 Fisher Bldg\. Chicago. 111. 

John A. Traylor. Newhouse Bldg\, Salt L,ake City, Utah 

Taylor Engineering Co.. 538 Central Blclg 1 .. Seattle, "Wash. 

Taylor Engineering Co., Vancouver, B, C. 

A. R. Roberts, 737 Traders' Bank Bldg"., Toronto, Ont„ Can. 



34 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 




Any desired speed on any machine! That is what 



7/ 




Variable Speed 
Transmission 



will give you. 

Thousands are in use on different kinds of mining 
machines. 

It drives like a counter shaft, may be fastened 
either to ceiling or floor. Varies speed of machine 
while running. 

WRITE FOB CATALOG P. 

REEVES PULLEY COMPANY 

Columbus, Indiana 



[IM00TH- 



Smooth-On 
Iron Cement 
No.l 

will stop steam or water leaks 

in castings, boilers, pipes, etc. N 

Our new 144-page instruction book 
is free. It illustrates by photographs 
of actual repairs how thousands of "" 

dollars have been saved with /^ 
Smooth - On. Send for your 
copy now. 



Smooth -On Mfg. Co. 

570-574 Communipaw Ave. 
Jersey City, N. J. 

For Sale by Supply Houses 




MJBm 


nil 




1 







"WESTERN" 

OIL AND GAS ENGINES 

Twenty-two engines of the type illustrated ranging 
from 80 to 160 H.P. and dozens of our Standard type 
single cylinder engines sold in the last five months 
to the largest Oil, Mining and Irrigation Companies. 
And we still lead in prompt deliveries. 
Send for Bulletin. 

Western Gas Engine Corporation 

900 North Main Street, Los Angeles, California 

II KAN CI I OFFICE: 
423 Bialto Building, San Francisco 
AGENTS: 
Schweitzer Machine Company, - Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona 
Arizona Engineering Company, ... Kingman, Arizona 
Nevada Engineering & Supply Company, - - Reno, Nevada 
F. C. Richmond Machinery Company, * Salt Lake City, Utah 



The Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Company 

100 William Street, New York 

WorkB: Perth Am boy, N. J. 

Cyanide of Sodium 96-98% 

Cyanogen 51-52% 

"Cyanegg" 

Sodium Cyanide 96-98% in egg form, 

each egg weighing 1 ounce. 

Cyanogen 51-52% 





*Esl 



IGOLD DREDGES I 

Yuba Ball j Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps 
YUBA MANUFACTURING COMPANY 



WORKS: MsiytviUe. Cal. 



SALES OFFICE: 433 California St., San Francisco. C»l. 



MINING LAWS 

of the United States, Arizona, California, Idaho, 

Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah — including 

Laws to Locate Oil Lands. 

Compiled by CALVERT WILSON— 1917 Edition 

Price $1. Book Dipt., MDflHO "ml s,-i, ntilic PRESS, San Francisco 



July 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



85 



THE STANDARD BALL MILL 




A lirlndinp Machine of Proven Efficiency and Capacity 
An Economical Mill to Install and Operate 

BALL MILLS, the modern crushing- device, take the ore from the 
crasher to desired size in one operation. 

A special feature in THE STANDARD BALL MILL is the self- 
lockinp corrugated lining-, requires no bolts through shell, will wear 
thinner and longer than those which are bolted in. No special lift- 
ing- devices required. 

Made in all sizes. Following sizes carried in stock for immediate 
shipment. 

5x4. capacity crusher product to 12 mesh. 10 tons per hour; 

H.P. required 40. 
4x3. capacity crusher product to 12 mesh. 3 tons per hour; 

HP. required 15. 

Laboratory or Sample Mill, either ball or pebble mill. 250 lbs. 
per charg-e. 

We also carry in stock for immediate shipment Manganese Steel 
Balls fn sizes 1" to 4" and High Carbon Steel Forged Balls. 

The Morse Bros. Machinery & Supply Co. 

Denver, Colorado 



Make Your Cement Gravels Pay 




Price Cement Gravel Mill 

Has proved itself to be an efficient and most economical 
means of releasing gold and black sands from cemented 
gravel, clay, talc or other auriferous material. 

The above 6-ft. mill has a capacity of 200 to 450 tons per 
24 hrs. and requires only 15 to 20 hp. to operate. 

The Price Jr. Mill has a capacity of 25 tons per 24 hrs. and 
requires 3 to 5 hp. 

Write tor Booklet. Let us quote you. 

G. W. PRICE PUMP & ENGINE COMPANY 

33 STEVENSON ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 



American Steel & Wire Company's 
Trenton-Blei chert System 

Aerial Tramways 

"VTO matter what the contour of the ground, we 
■^ will construct a tramway that will transfer 
material at minimum expense; and no grades are 
too steep to surmount; no rivers or valleys too 
wide to cross; and no grading, bridges or viaducts 
of any kind are required. There is practically no 
limit to the length of these tramways. 

Send for complete descriptive catalogue of 
tramways in use. 

American Steel & Wire Company 

Chicago New York Cleveland Pittsburgh W^-^ster Denver 

Export Representative : U. S. Steel Products Co., New York 

Pacific Coast Representative: U. S. Steel Products Co. 

San Francisco Los Alleles Portland Seattle 





SILVER PLATED COPPER AMALGAM PLATES 

FOR SAVING GOLD 

MoMt extensive and successful manufac- 
turers. Old plates replated— made esjaa) 
to new. 

SAN FRANCISCO PLATING WORKS 

1349-51 Mission St, San Francisco E. G. DENNIST0N, Prop. 

Get our prices. Catalog sent. 

Telephone Market 2915. 



METALLURGY OF THE COMMON METALS 

By L. S. AUSTIN 

Fourth Edition, Revised. 532 pages. Illustrated. Indexed. 
$4 Postpaid. 
A simple, comprehensive treatise on the metallurgy of gold, 
silver, copper, iron, lead, and zinc. An ideal book for one 
who desires to acquire a general knowledge of smelting 
operations. Published and for sale by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



CORROSIRON 

has many applications to mining and metallurgical condi- 
tions where acid or alkaline solutions have to be em- 
ployed. 




Thi9 is an ordinary type of flanged cast pipe. The flanges are 
faced clear across and are made to conform to standard pipe sizes 

A steel pipe fits over a CORROSIRON liner and is peined 
against the flanges ot the CORROSIRON to hold it in 
place. The space between is filled with non-corrosive 
material such as plaster ot paris or any type of acid 
cement. 



WRITE US CONCERNING YOUR CONDITIONS 



Pacific Foundry Company 

SAN FRANCISCO. CALIFORNIA 



36 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 




No. 3 Mill partly assembled. 
Made in three sizes: 15 to 30. 30 to 60, and 60 to 120 tons per 24 hours 

PAUCITY OF PARTS 

in the DENVER QUARTZ MILL means 

f l - ^ iO| f^S BREAK-DOWNS 

I 1 ^^ ^^ SHUT-DOWNS 

I ■""* ^N ^% TROUBLE 

J , JJ A^Ji^J EXPENSE 

^^ REPAIRS 

because it is a self-contained mill in which all 
"ginger-bread" work has been eliminated. 

Get this. In the DENVER QUARTZ MILL Nothing 
Breaks Except Rock. 

Ask for literature. 

The Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 

216-217 Colorado Bldg., Denver, Colo., U. S. A. 



Investigate This 

• 

A CYANIDE PROCESS that is almost automatic, that 
will treat ores heretofore unadaptable to cyanide; that 
will increase the extraction ot gold and silver content 
by from 5 to 15 per cent as employed by mills using 
Pachuca tanks, air or mechanically agitated pulp with 
filter presses; that will require one-fourth the labor to 
operate; that has an initial cost of a fraction of that of 
the older processes; that will mean increased dividends 
for your company. 

This Process Is Not 
An Experiment 

It is being successfully employed in milling operations, 
which attest to all of our claims for its superiority over 
what has been accepted in the past as standard practice. 

One unit consisting of a drum 15 ft. long and 6 ft. in 
diameter will agitate, filter and wash from 30 to 50 tons 
of ore a day. 

WRITE for details. Our Metallurgical Staff will tell 
you what this Process can do in your particular case. 

Koering Cyaniding Process Co. 

5 1 1 HAMMOND BUILDING 
DETROIT, MICH. 



r 



m a 



Sales 



man 



I carry prices, blueprints, pho- 
tographs, and all the information 
regarding my line 
in a EosaJ-p fiEAFi 
Price Book — a 
handsome, compact 
loose leaf binder that 
fits my pocket and is 
always available. 

There is no dead matter in this 
book because when prices change it 
is easy to remove the dead sheets 
and put in fresh ones. 

I can arrange the leaves to suit my 
convenience, and the index enables 
me to find what I want instantly. I 
can get fresh sheets anywhere in 
the country and ESil-PEED sheets ALWAYS fit. 

Many of my customers have found ring books efficient for pay-roll 
records, stock books, inventory, reports, sales, claim records, bills pay- 
able, trial balance, and many other uses. They get E55i|-j>nnD stock 
forms from their stationers -to fit the binders — and avoid made-to- 
order prices. 

Get iloosb J-Phiafi Books and Forms at any Stationer 

EgapPK£3 Books and Forma Are Acknowledged the 
Beat by both Dealers and User*. 
WHY SUBMIT TO SUBSTITUTION t 

Catalog L-3 on Request 

Irving - Pitt Manufacturing Company 

Largest Loose Leaf Manufacturers in the World 

KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI 3 





NOTE 



Chemicals for Recovery Processes 

Borax Borax Glass 

L ead Acetate 

Zinc Sha ings Zinc Dust 

Cyanide 

EVERYTHING FOR THE LABORATORY 



importer San Francisco.Cal. E *i 



CHICAGO PNEUMATIC SIMPLATE VALVE 

Fuel Oil Compressors 

Will materially 
reduce your 
compressed air 
costs. Will 
operate on cheap 
fuel such as Star 
Oil. Diesol. Calol. 
Stove Oil. Solar 
Oil. Gas Oil. etc. 
"Chicago Pneu- 
matic" Simplate 
Valve Compress- 
ors are built in 
over 300 sizes 
and styles, in 
capacities up to 
5000 cubic feet 
of air per 
minute. 




Sold fur Bulletins 

Pneumatic Tool 



Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company 

SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE 71 First St. 

LOS ANGELES OFFICE 925 Title Insurance Bldg. 

GENERAL, OFFICES 1081 Fisher Bldg., Chicago 

EASTERN OFFICES 52 Vanderbllt Ave., New York 

Brauches Everywhere F-l 



July 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



■M 




WRITE FOR 
CATALOGS 

Dryers - - • No. 16 
Screening - - No. 27 
Drop Forged Chain No. 32 
Mining Machinery - No. 41 
Crushers - • - No. 42 
Skip Hoists - - No. 43 



OUR BUSINESS IS TO 



Reduce Your Handling Costs 



Our Automatic 
Skip Hoists 

reduce the cost of 
handling-materials to 
a minimum. 

We make the larg- 
est variety of Mech- 
anical Dryers in the 
world. 



THE C. O. BARTLETT & SNOW & CO. 

CLEVELAND, O. 50 Church St., New York City 





S til well Feed Water Heaters 

Class "O" Type 

A Feed Water Heater 
A Feed Water Purifier 
A Condensation Receiver 
A Feed Water Softener 

Either Thoroughfare or Switch Valve Type of steam sup- 
ply. Fitted with float controlled or water seal overflow as 
may be necessary. Single piece castings, automatic raw water 
control, double filtration, simple design, simple in operation. 

Bulletin No. 783 is descriptive. 

We carry stock on nil sizes and can make immediate shipment 

PLATT IRON WORKS DAYTON, OHIO 

Salea Representatives in Principal Cities 4 



Tungsten and Monazite Concentrates, 




to secure the highest price, 
] must be freed from sulphur, 
tin, and other heavy min- 
erals. 

The Wetherill 
Separator 

accomplishes this, obtain- 
ing an extremely high re- 
covery. 

The Stearns -Roger 
Mfg. Co. 

Denver, Colorado i 



Everything in Mine Safety 

It i,s :\ pleasure tO Un0UH0e that, in i rman 

th n<ii t ol ruthleBfl submarine warfare, the s. s 'Norwegian'" 

brought in ;i larne consignment <>1 tin- KI.Kl'SS 1'ItOTO 31 ; I 
CONTAINED OXYGEN BREATHING APPARATUS and that 
other consignments ore to follow shortly. 

In view ol the tact thai owlnj to abnormal conditions on 
advance In price will haw to be made in tho near Future, I 
would recommend that all users and prospective users ol the 

FLEI'SS PHOTO equipment take advantage Ol the present prices. 

by anticipating their requirements for the coming 1 year and 
place then- orders promptly, 



The new J & B STRETCHER hOB taken the field cast. It 
covers all requirements, and while substantially made, la much 
lighter and less expensive than the present high prieed ones on 
the market. The J & B was invented by Mr. W. H. Brit ton. 
well known, as being; tor eighteen years Safety Engineer for 
one of the largest companies in the East, and Mr. H. L. 
Johnson. General Superintendent of the same company. Send 
me postal for pi-ices and full particulars. 



Orders for my K. K. K. Sanitary Closet are coming in about 
as fast as 1 can take care of them. All will be filled in the 
order received. 



Everything in Acetylene 

At last our HEAVY STEEL "ITP" (IT'S TROUBLE PROOF) 
FLAT OPEN FLAME CARBIDE LAMP is on the market. It 
is made according to recommendation of one of the best known 
mining engineers in the West and is pronounced to be unequalled 
by any large lamp manufactured. Invented, Made and Sold by 
Americans. One well known Mine Manager writes me "You 
have every other Carbide Lamp knocked off the board." 

Height of lamp. G H. in.; to top of bail, 9 in. Weight 24 oz. 

Burns from 4 % to 9 hours, according to size of burner. 
Price $4-00 each. 

SPECIAL PRICES IN QUANTITY. 



I sell Carbide, Cyanide, and Caustic Soda 



E. D. BULLARD 



268 Market Street 



San Francisco, Cal. 



W9h& 



A stone so hard and close grained it cannot be 
ground on an emery wheel, and yet so tough that it 
can be worn down in your mill to a thin shell without 
fracturing. 

Equal in every respect to imported linings which 
are now unobtainable. Delivered at a price 15% to 
30% less than the imported product. 

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 

Silica 94.0% 

Silicate of alumina and potash 3.4% 

Hydrous silicate of lime 3.0% 

Oxide of iron 1.6% 

Crushing: strengrth. pounds per square inch. 45,300 

Abrasion by standard rattler test 4.15% 

Toughness by coefficient 21.5% 

Standard cut blocks ready for immediate shipment 
on receipt of your order. Special blocks cut to your 
specifications, delivered within a reasonable time. 

Send for Sample and Prices. 

JASPER QUARRY CO. 

Boat 616 

SIOUX CITY, IOWA 



38 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



We Know 
The 

Assayers 
Needs — 
Hence 
It's Easy 
To Supply 
His 
Wants 




Witness: Our Success With 

Case Gasoline Muffle Furnaces 

This furnace heats all parts of the muffle evenly, 
enabling assayers to "feather" cupels and secure 
desired uniform results. 

All parts of the muffle can be supplied with air, 
thus securing perfect oxidation, while cupellatlon 
is rapid and complete. 

Assayers before buying, Invariably 

get our catalog. 

Shall we send it to you? 

THE DENVER FIRE CLAY CO., Denver, Colo. 



B&B AERIAL TRAMWAYS 

The Shortest Distance Between Two Points 

Ore from Mine 
to Mill with- 
out interrup- 
tion or 
delay 




is assured to 
users of 

B& B 

AERIAL 

TRAMWAYS 

The two-bucket system for 
small and medium capacities 
is simplicity itself. It is oper- 
ated by one man and reduces 
haulage costs to but a few cents 
per ton. 

Whatever your present method of mine trans- 
portation, write us. It will pay you. 

BRODERICK & BASCOM ROPE CO. 

St. Louis, IVIo. 



Men Wanted for Government Service 

The following call for skilled men has been received from the Government: 

I. Steel Inspectors (Chief) 

Salary— Up to $2,400 per year. 

Duties — Men will be engaged at the mills, most of which are located in the Pittsburgh dis- 
trict, and will pass on Government steel as it is turned out at the rolling mills. 
Qualifications — Two years' or more experience in inspection of steel, or in practical met- 
allurgical work. Men having a good education in chemical engineering or metallurgy, 
plus the above experience, are especially desirable. Preference will be given to men who 
have had experience in inspection or manufacture of munition steel. 

II. Steel Inspectors (Sub) 

Salary— $3.50 to $5.00 per day. 
Duties — Same as for (I). 
Qualifications — Same as for (I). 

NOTE. — Men now employed by the Government or by firms or corporations engaged in carry- 
ing out contracts for the Qovernment or its Allies will not be accepted for these positions unless 
they can get the written assent of the head of the office, firm or corporation under which the 
applicant is employed. 

For further information apply California Alumni Association 
114 California Hall, Berkeley, Cal. 



.i: '!i .ii,;:!'::;::':i! ■:■::. 



July 7, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



39 



Prof 



DIiF<eeit®ify 



(For Addresses See Cards on Following Pages) 



RATES: One-hall inch, $25 per year, subscription Included Combination rate with 
The Mining Matfeinu (London) oiw-Uulf inch in each, $40 per year, subscriptions included! 



ENGINEERS, METALLURGISTS, amd GEOLOGISTS 



UNITED STATES 

ARIZONA 

Bradley. D. H.. Jr. 
Gemmil, David B. 
Mackay, Angus B. 
Smith & Ztesemer 
Tlmmins, Colin 
Wrampelmeier. E. L. S. 



CALIFORNIA 

Arnold, Ralph 

Beauchamp, F. A. 

Beckman & Linden Erie. Corp. 

Bray ton & Richards 

Bretherton, S E. 

Burch, Albert 

Bureh. Caetani & Hershey 

Burch, H. Eenyon 

Caetani, Gelasio 

Carpenter, Alvin B. 

Chodzko, A. E 

Clark, Baylies C. 

Collins, Edgar A. 

Cranston, Robert E 

De Ealb, Courtenay 

Dennis, Clifford G. 

Dickerman, Nelson 

Farish, John B. 

Freitag, E. 

Oester, G. C. 

Gibson, Arthur 

Grant. Wilbur H. 

Hamilton, E. M. 

Hanson, Henry 

Hoffmann. Ross B. 

Hoover, Theodore J. 

Hunt & Co., Robert W. 

Huston, H. L. 

Hyde, James M. 

Janin, Charles 

Juessen, Edmund 

Einzie, Robert A. 

Lanag-an. W. H. 

Loring, W. J. 

Mason, Russell T. 

Merrill, Charles W. 

Merrill Metallurgical Co. 

Morris. F. L. 

Mudd. Seeley W. 

Muir, N. M. 

Munro, C. H. 

Myers, Desaix B. 

Neill. James W. 

Newman, M. A. 

Nowland, Ralph C. 

Pepperberg, Leon J. 

Perkins, Walter G. 

Prichard, W. A. 

Probert, Frank H. 

Radford, William H. 

Rickard, T. A. 

Riordan, D. M. 

Royer, Frank W. 

Scott, Robert 

Simonds, Ernest H. 

Sizer, F. L. 

Smith, Howard D. 

Stebbins, Elwyn W. 

Steel, Donald 

Stevens, Arthur W. 

Storms, William H. 

Thomas, E. G. 



Thomas. Wm. S. 
Turner, H. W. 
Tweedy, Geo. A. 
Wiley, W, H. 
Wiseman. Philip 



COLORADO 

Argall & Sons, Philip 
Bancroft, Rowland 
Chase, Charles A. 
Chase & Son. Edwin E. 
Collins, George E. 
Dickerman, Alton L. 
Dorr Company, Tbe 
Hills & Willis 
Lunt, Horace F. 
Rickard. Forbes 
Bitter, Etienne A. 



IDAHO 

Alderson. Baker & Baker 
Brown, Frederick C. 
Easton, Stanly A. 
Hershey, Oscar H. 
Hill, Walter Hovey 



ILLINOIS 

Hollis, H. L. 

Hunt & Co., Robert W. 

Massey Co., George B. 



LOUISIANA 

Stanford, Richard B. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Alderson, Baker & Baker 
Alderson.Victor C. 
Mackay, Angus R. 
Richards, Robert H. 
Rogers, Allen Hastings 



MINNESOTA 

Collins, Edwin James 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Winchell, Horace V. 



MISSOURI 

Brinsmade, Robert Bruce 
Copeland, Durwald 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Eirby, Edmund B. 
Pepperberg, Leon J. 
Robertson, James D. 



MONTANA 

Creden, William L. 

Greene, Fred T. 

Valerius, McNutt & Hughes 



NEVADA 

Lakenan, C. B. 
Symmes, Whitman 
Turner, J. E. 



NEW TORE 
Aldridge. Walter H. 
Arnold, Ralph 
Ball, Sydney H. 
Banks, John H. 
Beatty, A. Chester 
Benedict, Wm. de L. 
Berry, Edwin S. 
Brodie, Walter M. 
Bulkley, J. Norman 
Burger, C. C. 
Carr. Homer L. 
Channing, J. Parke 
Cranston, Robert E. 
Dorr, John V. N. 
DunBter, Carl B. 
Drucker, A. E. 
Dwight, Arthur S. 
Finlay, J. R. 
Gay, Frederick W. 
Henderson, H. P. 
Hoffmann, EarlF. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Lamb, R. B. 
Landers. William H. 
Leggett, Thos. H. 
Lloyd, B. L. 
Mather, ThomaB W. 
Mein, William Wallace 
Mercer, John W. 
Minard, Frederick H. 
Olcott & Corning 
Payne, Henry Mace 
Perry, O. B. 
Pickering, J. C. 
Poillon & Poirier 
Raymond, Robert M. 
Raymond, Rossiter W. 
Rickard, Edgar 
Ricketts. L. D. 
Rogers. Allen Hastings 
Rogers, Edwin M. 
Sharpless, Fred'k F. 
Simonds & Burns 
Simpson, W. E. 
Spilsbury, E. Gybbon 
St aver, W. H. 
Sussman, Otto 
The Sothman Corporation 
Thomas, E. G. 
Thomas, Eirby 
Thomson, 9. C. 
Von Rosenberg. Leo 
Webber, Morton 
Weekes, Frederick R. 
Westervelt. William Young 
Wilkens and Devereux 
Yeatman, Pope 



OKLAHOMA 

Valerius. McNutt & Hughes 



OREGON 

Oregon-Idaho Investment Co 



PENNSYLVANIA 

Chance, H. M. 
Garrey. George H. 
Garrison, F. Lynwood 
Heinz, N. L. 
Hunt 4 Co., Robert W. 
Soupcofl, S. M. 
Spurr, J. Edward 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Eye, Clyde M. 



TEXAS 

K inn on, Wm. H. 
Lucke, P. E. 



UTAH 



Fischer, C. A. 
Howard, L. O. 
Kirk & Leavell 
Erumb, Henry 
Neill, James W. 
Sears, Stanley C. 
Talmadg/e, Sterling B. 
Vadner, Charles S. 
Win wood. Job H. 



WASHINGTON 

Greenough, W. Earl 
Eefl er & Johns 
Levensaler, L. A. 
Roberts, Minor 
Seagrave, W. H. 



FOREIGN 

AFRICA 



Dixon, Clement 
Dyer, S. C. 

Emery, A. B. 



ASIA 

Cole, F. L. 
Collins, Wm. F. 
Collbran, Arthur H. 
Finch, John Wellington 
Jenks, Arthur W. 
Mayreis, L. J. 
Mills, Edwin W. 
Vallentine, E. J. 
Weigall, Arthur R. 



AUSTRALASIA 

Fraser, Colin 
Smith, J. D. Audley 



CANADA 

Brewer. Wm. M. 
DeLashmutt, Ivan 
Fowler, Samuel S. 
Hardman, John E. 
Hitchcock, C. H. 
Hunt Sl Co.. Eobert W. 
Eirby, A. G. 
Levy, Ernest 
Rogers, John C. 
Simpson, W. E. 
Summerhayes, M. W. 
Tyrrell, J. B. 
Whitman. Alfred R. 



EUROPE 

Arnold, Ralph 
Bayldon, H. C. 
Botsford, Robert S. 
Brown, B. Gilman 

Collins, Henry F. 

Curie, J. H. 

de Marny, E. N. Barbot 

Geppert, B. M, 

Holloway, Geo. T. & Co., Ltd. 

Hoover, H, C. 

Hoover, Theodore J. 

Hunt & Co., Bobert W. 

Hut chins, John Power 

Inekipp & Bevan 

Euehn, A. F. 

Loring, W. J. 

McCarthy. E. T. 

Macnutt, C. H. 

McDermott, E. D. 

Michell, George V . 

Pearse, Arthur L, 

Purington, Chester W. 

Shaler, Millard E. 

Smith, Reuben Edward 

Stines, Norman C. 

Tellman, Alfred 

Thomas, E. G. 

Thorne, W. E. 

Titcomb, H. A. 

Truschkofl, Nicholas B. 

Turner, Scott 

Weatherbe. D'Arcy 

Wright, Charles Will 



MEXICO 

Hoyle, CharleB 
Royer, Frank W. 
Stevens, Blarney 
Wilkens and Devereux 



SOUTH AMERICA 

Bancroft. Howland 
Barker, Edgar E. 
Bellinger, H. C. 
Copeland. Durward 
Couldrey. Paul S. 
Hawxhurst, Robert. Jr. 
Lamb, Mark R. 
Lewis, H. Allman 
Marshall, N. C. 
McCann, Ferdinand 
Strauss, Lester W. 



ASSAYERS, CHEMISTS, aid ORE-TESTING WOE) 



Arizona Assay Office 
Atkin & McRae 
Bardwell, Alonzo F. 
Baverstock & Payne 
Beckman & Linden Eng. Corp. 



Bird-Cowan Co. 
Cole & Co. 

Critchett & Ferguson 
Eldridge&Co.,G. 9 
Falkenburg & Laucks 



Frost, Oscar J. 

General Engineering Co., The 
Gibson, Walter L. 
Hamilton, Beauchamp, 
Woodworth, Inc. 



Hanks, Abbot A. 
Irving & Co., James 
James Co., The George A. 
Ledoux & Co., Inc. 
Luckhardt. Co.. C. A, 



Officer & Co.. R. H. 
Perez, Richard A. 
Penological Laboratory 
Richards, J. W. 
Smith, Emery & Co. 



40 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY 



John M. Baker 
Victor C. Alderson Hamilton W. Baker 

ALDERSON, BAKER & BAKER 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEEBS 



186 Devonshire St. 
Boston, Mass. 



Falk Building, 
Boise, Idaho 



BOTSFORD, Robert S. 

MINING ENGINEER 
% F. Riches, 9th Line. No. 44, 
Basil Island. Petrograd, Russia 



BRADLEY, D. H., Jr. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER 
MiH design. Mine equipment. Mine 

management 
Bank of Arizona Bdg.. PreBcott, Ariz. 





Burch 


Caetani & 


Hershey 




CAETAtU, 


Gelasio 








CONSULTING ENGINEER 






Crocker Bdg:., San Francisco 




Cable 


Caetani 




Usual 


Codes 



CARPENTER, Alvin B. 

MINING ENGINEER 
508 Union League Bdg., Los Angeles. Cal. 



ALDRIDGE, Walter H. 

MINING AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 
% Wm. B. Thompson. 
14 Wall St., New York 



Corey C. Brayton E. R. Richards 

BRAYTON & RICHARDS 

MINING AND METALLURGICAL 

ENGINEERS 
Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco 



CARR, Homer L. 

MINING ENGINEER 
With Jones & Baker 
50 Broad Street, New York 
Cable: Minecar 



ARGALL & SONS, Philip 

MINING AND METALLURGICAL 

ENGINEERS 

First National Bank Bdg.. Denver 

Cable : Argall Code : Bedford McNeill 



BRETHERTON, S. E. 

CONSULTING MINING AND MET. ENGRS. 

Specialty: Smelting of copper and lead ores 

and treatment of complex zinc ores 

220 MillB Bdg.. San Francisco 



CHANCE & CO., H. M. 

COAL MINING ENGINEERS 

839 Drexel Bdg.. Philadelphia 



ARNOLD, Ralph Cable: Ralfarnoil 

GEOLOGIST AND PETROLEUM ENGINEER 

Union Oil Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

120 Broadway, New York. 

No. 1. London Wall Bdg.. London. E.C. 



BREWER, Wm. M. 

MINING ENGINEER AND GEOLOGIST 

P. O. Box 701, Victoria, B. C. 

Cable : Brewer Code : Bedford McNeill 



CHANNING, J. Parke 

CONSULTING ENGINEER 
61 Broadway, New York 



BALL, Sydney H. 

MINING GEOLOGIST 

71 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Sydball Code : Bedford McNeil] 



BRINSMADE, Robert Bruce 

CONSULTING ENGINEER 
No. 9a Galena No. 1, Puebla, Pue, Mexico. 



CHASE, Charles A. 

MINING ENGINEER 

812-824 Cooper Bdg., Denver 

Liberty Bell G. M. Co.. Telluride. Colo. 



BANCROFT, Howland 

CONSULTING MINING GEOLOGIST 

SymeB Bdg., Denver 

Casilla No. 215. Oniro. Bolivia 

Cable: Howban Code : Bedford McNeill 



BR0ADBRIDGE, Walter 

CHIEF ENGINEER 
Mineral Sep., Ltd., 62, London Wall, E.C. 
Cable : Rillstope. London 

(Temporarily on Active Service) 



Edwin E. Chase R. L. Chase 

CHASE & SON, Edwin E. 

MINING ENGINEERS 
1028 First National Bank Bdg., Denver 



BANKS, John H. 

(Formerly of Ricketts & Banks} 

MINING ENGINEER AND METALLURGIST 

61 Broadway. New York 



BRODIE, Walter M. 

MINING ENGINEER AND METALLURGIST 
47 Cedar St., New York 



CH0DZK0, A. E. 

CONSULTING MECHANICAL ENGINEER 

Specialty: Compressed Air 

641 Phelan Bdg., San Francisco 



BARKER, Edgar E. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Chuquicamata, Chile 



BROWN 


Frederick C. 




MINING 


ENGINEER 




R.F.D. 4. 


Boise, Idaho 



CLARK, Baylies C. 

MINING AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER 

Sutter Creek, California 

Cable : Baclark Code : Bedford McNeill 



BAYLD0N, H. C. 

MINING ENGINEER 
'Earagandy.' Akmolinsk. Siberia 



BROWN, R. Gilman 

CONSULTING ENGINEER 
Gracechurch St.. London, E.C. 



Cable : Argeby 



Usual Codes 



COLE, F. L. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Shanghai. China 
Cable : Hanco 



BEATTY, A. Chester 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 
26 Broad Street. New York 
Cable: Granitic 



BULKLEY, J. Norman 

CONSULTING MECHANICAL AND 
ELECTRICAL ENGINEER 
Mining Work a Specialty 
120 Broadway. New York 



COLLBRAN, Arthur H. 



MINING ENGINEER 
Seoul, Korea 



Hamilton. Beauchamp, Woodworth, Inc. 

BEAUCHAMP, F. A. 

METALLURGIST 

Specialty: Flotation 

419 Embarcadero. San Francisco 



Burch. Caetani & Hershey 

BURCH, Albert 

CONSULTING ENGINEER 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable: Burch Usual Codes 



COLLINS, Wm. F. 

MINING AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 

Peking:, China 
Cable: CollinB. Peking 



BELLINGER, H. C. 

METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 
% Chile Exploration Co., Chuquicamata 
(via Antofagasta) Chile. South America 



BURCH, H. Kenyon 

MECHANICAL AND METALLURGICAL 

ENGINEER 

% The Sierra Madre Club. Los Angeles, Cal. 



COLLINS, Edgar A. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Care 1018 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 



BENEDICT, William de L. 



MINING ENGINEER 
19 Cedar St., New York 



BURGER, C. C. 

MINING ENGINEER 
71 Broadway. New York 



COLLINS, Edwin James 

MINING ENGINEER 

Mine Examinations and Management 

1008-1009 Torrey Bdg., Duluth. Minn 



.lulv 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



41 



PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY 



COLLINS, George E. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Mine Examinations and Management 
414 Boston Bdg.. Denver 
Cable: Coleomac 



A. E. DriirkiT G. W. Laurie 

DRUCKER & LAURIE 

CONSULTING METALLURGICAL ENG'S. 
Testing. Desi&rnine :md Mill Coiintruction 
30 Church St., New York 



GARREY, George H. 



CONSULTING MINING GEOLOGIST AND 

ENGINEER 

Bullitt Bdg.. Philadelphia. Pa. 



COLLINS, Henry F. 

MINING AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 
66 Finsbury Pavement. London, E.C. 



DUNSTER, Carl B. 

MINING ENGINEER 
11 Pine St., New York Marquette, Mich. 

Code: McNeill 



GARRISON, F. Lynwood 

MINING ENGINEER 

928 Drexel Bdg., Philadelphia 

Cable: Aurum Code: McNeill 



COPELAND, Durward 

METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 
Missouri School of Mines. Llallagua, 

Rolla. Mo. Boliria 



COULDREY, Paul S. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Gen. Mining Supt. Cerro de Pasco Mining Co., 

Cerro de Pasco, Peru, S. A. 
Cable: Cerrocop 



DWIGHT, Arthur S. 

MINING ENGINEER AND METALLURGIST 

29 Broadway, New York 
Cable : Sinterer 

Code : McNeill ; Miners & Smelters 



DYER, S. 0. 

MINING ENGINEER 

% Transvaal & Rhodesian Estates, 
P. O. Box 13, Bulawayo. Rhodesia 



GAY, Frederick W. 

CONSULTING ENGINEER 

Mechanical and Electrical Installations 

Purchasing: — Inspection — Supervision 

310 SanBome Street, San Francisco. 

CORRESPONDENT 

The J. G. White Engineering Corp., 

New York 

Engineering Construction Financing 



CRANSTON, Robert E. 

MINING ENGINEER 

437 Holbrook Bdg.. San Francisco 

60 Wall St., New York 

Cable: Recrana Code: McNeill. 1908 



EASTON, Stanly A. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Manager Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & 

Concentrating Co., Kellogg, Idaho 



GEMMILL, David B. 

MINING & METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 

General Manager Bradshaw Reduction Co., 

Crown King, Arizona. 



CREDEN, William L. 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 

Mine Examination and Management. 

First National Bank Bdg., Butte, Mont. 



EMERY, A. B. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Messina, Transvaal 
Telegrams and Cables: 

Abemery, Messina, Transvaal 



GEPPERT, R. M. 

MINING ENGINEER 
At present in RusBia 



CURLE, J. H. 

MINE VALUER 
62, London Wall, London 



EYE, Clyde M. 

MINING AND METALLURGICAL. ENGINEER 

Supt. Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., 

Baguio, Benguet, P. I. 



GESTER, G. C, 

GEOLOGICAL AND MINING ENGINEER 

819 First National Bank Bdg., 

San Francisco 

Cable: Gester, San Francisco. 



DE EALB, Courtenay 



Associate Editor 

Mining and Scientific Press 

No professional work undertaken 



FARISH, John B. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Office, 58 Sutter et., San Francisco 
Residence, San Mateo, Cal, 
Cable: Farieh 



GIBSON, Arthur 

MINING ENGLNEER 

Specialty: Placer Mining 

1022 Haig-ht St., San Francisco 



DeLASHMUTT, Ivan 

MINING ENGLNEER 

Mine Supt. Standard Silver-Lead Mining Co. 

Silverton, B. C. 



PINCH, John Wellington 

GEOLOGIST AND MINING ENGINEER 

46 Rue Massenet, Shanghai, China 

No examinations undertaken 



GRANT, Wilbur H. 

GEOLOGIC AND MINING ENGINEER 
437 Holbrook Bdg., San Francisco 

Code: Bedford McNeill 



de MARNEY, E. N. Barbot 

MINING ENGINEER 
W. O. Stredny Prospect, 33 Petrograd. Russia 
Cable: Barbot de Marney Code: McNeill, '08 



FINLAY, J. R. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Room 802, 52 William St., New Tork 



GREENE, Fred T. 

MINING ENGINEER AND GEOLOGIST 
Butte, Montana 



DENNIS, Clifford G. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Crocker Bdg:., San Francisco 

Cable : Sinned Code : McNeill 



FISHER, C. 

CONSULTING 

First National 
Kearns Bdg 
Cable : Cafishoil 


A. 

GEOL. AND FUEL ENG'R 
Bank Bdg., Denver, Colo. 
, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Usual Codes 



W. Earl Greenough S. B. Davie 

GREENOUGH, W. Earl 

MINING ENGINEER 
Exam., Development and Management 
Old Nat'l. Bank Bdg., Spokane, Wash. 



DICKERMAN, Nelson 

MINING ENGINEER 

The Insurance Exchange, San Francisco 

Cable : Deerhodor Code : McNeill, 1908 



FOWLER, Samuel S. 

MINING ENGINEER AND METALLURGIST 

Nelson, British Columbia 
Cable : Fowler Usual Codes 



Hamilton, Beauchamp, Woodworth, Inc. 

HAMILTON, E. M. 

METALLURGIST 

Specialty: Cyaniding Gold and Silver Ores 

419 The Embarcadero. San Francisco 



DOLBEAR, Samuel H. 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 

Specialty: Non-metallic Minerals 

1411-1412-1415 Merchants National Bank 

Bdg.. San Francisco 



FRASER, Colin 

MINING GEOLOGIST 

% Broken Hill Assoc. Smelters, Ltd., 

Collins House, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 



HANSON, Henry 

METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 
Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 



DORR COMPANY, THE 

John V. N. Dorr, President 
HTDROMETALLURGICAL AND WET CHEM- 
ICAL ENGINEERS 
Denver New Tork London. E.C. 



FREITAG, K. 

MECHANICAL & METALLURGICAL ENG'R. 

Mine and Metallurgical Plant Design and 

Construction 

1008 Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco 



HARDMAN, John E. 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 

112 St. James St., Montreal, Canada 

Cable: Hardman Code: Bedford McNeill 



42 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY 



HAWXHURST, 


Robert, Jr. 


MINING 


ENGINEER 


Eden Mining Company. 


Bluefields 


. Nicaragua 



H0YLE, Charles 

MINING ENGINEER 
Apartado 8, El Oro, Mexico 



KIRBT, Edmund B. 

MINING ENGINEER AND METALLURGIST 

918 Security Bag.. St. Loan 

Specialty: The expert examination of mine* 

and metallurgical enterprises 



HENDERSON, H. P. 

MINING ENGINEER 
80 Broadway. New York 



Burch 


Caetani 


& Hershey 




HERSHEY, 


Oscar 


H. 




CONSULTING MINING GEOLOGIST 


Kellogg, Idaho 




Cable: Herahey 




Code 


McNeill 



Robert W. Hunt 
Jno. J. Cone 



Jaa. C. Hallated 
D. W. McNaugher 



HUNT & CO., Robert W. 

ENGINEERS 
Bureau of Inspection, Tests and Consultation 
Chicago-San Francisco-New York -Pittsburgh 
San Francisco Office, 251 Kearny St. 
St. Louis-Montreal -London 
Consulting, Designing' and Supervising Engi- 
neers, Inspectors of Railroad, Structural and 
Other Materials and Equipment 
Chemical, Physical and Cement Laboratories 



KIRK & LEA YELL 



CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

lamination. Management, and Operation of 

Mines. Design Equipment 

Newhouse Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah 



KRUMB, Henry 

MINING ENGINEER 
Felt Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah 



HEINZ, N. L. 

CONSULTING ENGINEER 

Metallurgy of Zinc and Manufacture of 

Sulphuric Acid 

523 St. James Place. Pittsburgh. Pa. 



HUSTON, H. L. 

MINING ENGINEER 

San Francisco 
Cable : 



034 Mills Bug., 
Haruston 



KUEHN, A. F. 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 
1 London Wall Bdg., London. EC 
Cable: Norite 



HILL, 


Walter Hovey 

MINING ENGINEER 
Boise, Idaho 






Code 


McNeill 



HUTCHLNS, John Power 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 

% American International Corporation, 

8 Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, Petrograd 

Cable : Getchlns Code : McNeill. 1808 



LAKENAN, C. B. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Ely. Nevada 



Victor G. Hills Frank W. Willis 

HILLS & WILLIS 

MINING ENGINEERS 

Cripple Creek, 415 McPhee Bd*.. Denver 

Cable: Hill will Usual Codes 



HYDE, James M. 

Treatment of Difficult Ores 

Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 
Cable: Jamehyde 



LAMB, Mark R., M. E. 

Santiago. Chile 

Mgr. for A llis-Ch aimers in S. A. 

Data and information available on mines 

and equipment 



HITCHCOCK, C. H. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Mines examined with a view to purchase 

Sudbury. Ontario 



Dudley J. Inskip John A. Reyan 

INSKIPP & BEVAN 

MINING ENGINEERS 

1. Broad St. Place. London, E.C. 

Cable: Monazite Usual Codes 



LANAGAN, W. 


H. 






MINING 


ENGINEER 




1057 Monadnock Bdg.. 


San Francisco 






Code 


McNeill 



HOFFMANN, Karl F. 

MINING ENGINEER 
2 Rector St.. New York 

Code: McNeill. 1908 



JANIN, Charles 

MINING ENGINEER 

722 Kohl Bdg.. San Francisco 

Cable: Charjan Code: McNeill 



LANDERS, William H. 

MINING ENGINEER 
136 West 44th St.. New York City 



HOFFMANN, Ross B. 

MINING ENGINEER 
228 Perry St.. Oakland. Cal. 
Cable: Siberhof 



JENKS, Arthur W. 

MINING ENGINEER AND METALLURGIST 

% Burma Mines. Ltd.. Namtu, Northern 

Shan States. Burma. India 



LE6GETT, 


Thos. 


H. 




CONSULTING 


ENGINEER 


149 Broadway 


New 


York 


Cable : Tomleg 









H0LLIS, H. L. 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 

AND METALLURGIST 

1025 Peoples Gas Bdg.. Chicago 



JUESSEN, Edmund 

MINING ENGINEER 
New Almaden, Cal. 



LEVENSALER, L. A. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Box 1454, Tacoma, Wachington 



HOLLOW AY & CO., Geo. T., Ltd. 

METALLURGISTS AND METALLURGICAL 

ENGINEERS 

13 Emmett St.. Limehouse. London. E. 

Cable: Neolithic Code: McNeill 



KEFFER & JOHNS 



MINING ENGINEERS 

Examinations. Reports and Management of 

Mining Properties 

610 Hutton Bdg.. Spokane. Wash. 



LEVY, Ernest 

MINING ENGINEER 

Representing Alexander Hill & Stewart. 

Rossland. British Columbia 

1024 Old Nat'l. Bank Bdg.. Spokane. Wash. 



HOOVER, H. C. 

MINING ENGINEER 
% Commission of Relief in Belgium, 
3 London Wall Bdgs.. London, E.C. 
Cable : Crevooh 



KINN0N, Wm. H. 



MINING ENGINEER AND METALLURGIST 
307 San Francisco St.. El Paso. Texas 



LEWIS, H. Allman 

MANAGING ENGINEER 

The Porco Tin Mines. Ltd. 

Casilla 52, Potosi, Bolivia 

Cable: Porcorama Code: McNeill (1908) 



HOOVER, Theodore J. 

MINING ENGINEER 
1. London Wall Bdg.. London. E.C. 
and 634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 
Cable: Mildaloo 



KINZIE, Robert A. 

MINING ENGINEER 
First National Bank Bdg., San Francisco 



LLOYD, R. L. 

METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 

Specialty: Pyro-Metallurgy of Copper and As- 
sociated Metals. 29 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Ricloy Code: McNeill 



HOWARD, L. 0. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Examination, Consulting. Management 

421 Felt Bdg.. Salt Lake City. Utah 



KIRBY, A. G. METALLURGIST 

Mill Designing and Construction 

Specialty: Concentration and Cyanidatlon 

1206 Bank of Hamilton Bdg.. 

Toronto. Out., Canada 



Bewick, Moreing & Co. 

LORING. W. J. MINING ENGINEER 

62. London Wall. London, and 

1018 Crocker Bdg\, San Francisco. Cal. 

Cable: Wantoness Usual Codes 



July 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



43 



PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY 



LONGYEAR COMPANY, E. J. 

■XPLOBIira KNUINKKKS AND GEOLOGISTS 

Diamond Drilling and Shaft Sinking 

Contractors 

.. iurcrs of Diamond Drills and Supplies 
i Offlon, 710 78D Sc.-uniy Bdg.. 
Minneapolis, aUnne 
Oabla: Longco Oxlt-: Bedford McNeill 



MEIN, William Wallace 

MINING ENGINEER 
43 Exchange Place. New York 
Cable: Mein. New York 



MERCER, John W. 

MINING ENGINEER 

General Manager South American Mines Co 

Mills Bdg.. Broad St.. New York 



NOWLAND, Ralph C. 

Hobart Bdg . San Francisco 
In charge Exploration Dept. of D C. Jacktlnc 



B. E. Olcott c. R Corning 

OLCOTT & CORNING 

MINING & METALLURGICAL ENGINEERS 
36 Wall St.. New York 



LUCKE, P. K. 

MINING ENGINEER 
136 E. Magnolia Ave.. San Antonio. Texas 



MERRILL, Charles W. 

METALLURGIST 



121 Second St.. 
Cable: Lurco 



San Francisco 

Code: Bedford McNeill 



OREGON-IDAHO INVEST. CO. 

ORE BUYERS. ASSAYERS 

Mine Examinations 

Office: First and Court Sis.. Baker. Ore. 



LUNT, Horace F. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Gazette Bdg.. Colorado Springs. Colo. 



MERRILL METALLURGICAL CO. 

ENGINEERS 

San Francisco 



121 Second St.. 
Cable : Lurco 



Usual Codes 



PAYNE, Henry Mace 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 



Woolworth Bdg., 

Cable: Macepayne 



New York 

Usual Codes 



MACKAY, Angus R. 

MINING ENGINEER 
740 E. Adams St., 35 Congress St., 



Phoenix, Ariz. 



Boston, Mass. 



MICHELL, Geo. V. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Tomsk, Siberia 



PEARSE & CO., Arthur L. 

MINING ENGINEERS 

Worcester House. Walbrook. London. B.C. 

Cable : Undermined Usual Codes 



MACNUTT, 


C. H. 


MINING ENGINEER 


% Institution 


of Wining and Metallurgy. 




Loudon 



MILLS, Edwin W. 

MINING ENGINEER 
% American Legation, Peking. China 
Cable: Millman 



PEPPERBERG, Leon J. 

CONSULTING GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER 

Oil Lands Exam., Developed. Bought, Leased 

903 Grand Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

718 New Call Bdg.. San Francisco, Cal. 



MARSHALL, N. C. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Andagoya, via Buenaventura, < 
South America 



MINARD, Frederick H. 

MINING ENGINEER 



Trinity Bdg.. 
Cable: Frednard 



111 Broadway, New York 

Code: McNeill 



PERKINS, Walter G. 

METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 
462 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 



MASON, Russell T. 

MINING ENGINEER 
2142 W. 30th St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 



MORRIS, F. L. 

MINING ENGINEER 

1057 Monadnock Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable : Fredmor Code : McNeill 



PERRY, 0. B. 

MINING ENGINEER 
120 Broadway, New York 



MASSEY CO., George B. 

CONSULTING EXCAVATING ENGINEERS 
Advice on Equipment and Methods for Strip- 
ping. Open-Cut Mining. Dredging. 
Peoples Gas Bdg.. Chicago 



MUDD, Seeley W. 

MINING ENGINEER 
1208 Hollingsworth Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 



PICKERING, J. C. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Pyriton, Clay County, Alabama 
Cable : Keringpic-Birmingham 



MATHER, Thomas William 

MINING ENGINEER 
Room 1037. 15 Broad St., New York 
Cable: Matherite 

Codes: Bedford McNeill; Miners & Smelters 



MUIR, N. M. 

MINING ENGINEER 
1024 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 



Howard Poillon C. H. 

POILLON & POIRIER 

MINING ENGINEERS 
63 Wall St.. New York 



MAYREIS, L. J. 

MINING ENGINEER 
% Burma Mines. Ltd.. Namtu, Burma 



MUNRO, C. 


H. 










MINING 


ENGINEER 






Hobart 


Bdg. 


San 


Francisco 




Cable 


Ornum 






Code 


McNeill 



PRICHARD, W. A. 

MINING ENGINEER 

e /o Oroville Dredging. Limited, 

Mills Bdg., San Francisco 



McCANN, Ferdinand 



CONSULTING MINING AND 

METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 

Hotel Maury. Lima, Peru 



MYERS, Desaix B. 

MINING ENGINEER 
321 Story Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 



PROBERT, Frank H. 

MINING ENGINEER 
University of California. Berkeley, Cal. 



McCarthy, e. t. 

MINING ENGINEER 
10 Austin Friars, London 



NEILL, James W. 

METALLURGIST, AND MINING ENGINEER 

169 Pierpont St.. Salt Lake City. Utah 
Pasadena. Cal. SneUing, Cal. 



PURINGTON 


c. 


W. 






MINING ENGINEER 






6. Copthall 


Ave 


., London, 


EC. 


Cable 


Olenek 






Usual Codes 



McDERMOTT, E. D. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Zyrianovsk Roudnik 
Tomsk Government, Siberia 
Codes: McNeill, 1008: Moreing & Neal 



NEWMAN, M. A. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Vantrent, Placer Co., Cal. 



RADFORD, William H. 

ALLUVIAL MINING 
2360 Broadway, San Francisco 
Cable: Bandan 



44 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY 



RAY, James C. 

CONSULTING GEOLOGIST 

Microscopic Examination of Ore* 
Oat man, Ariz. 



ROGERS, John C. 



MINING ENGINEER I 

Examination and Exploration of Mining Prop- 
erties with a View to Purchase 
Copuer Cliff, Ontario Code: Bedford McNeill 



SMITH, Reuben Edward 

MINING ENGINEER 

VladivoBtok. % Magazine E. L. Smith 

Cable Resmith, % Magazine Smith 

Code: McNeill. 1908 



RAYMOND, Robert M. 

MINING ENGINEER 
The Exploration Co., Ltd., 
61 Broadway, New York 



ROYER, Frank W. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Consolidated Realty Bdg., Los Angeles, 

and Apartado 805, Mexico City, D. F. 

Cable : Royo Code : McNeill 



Franklin W. Smith Ralph A. Ziesemer 

SMITH & ZIESEMER 

MINING ENGINEERS 
Biebee, Ariz. Code: McNeill 



RAYMOND, Rossiter W. 

MINING ENGINEER AND METALLURGIST 
29 W. 39th St.. New York. P.O. Box 223 



SCOTT, Robert 



INVENTOR AND BUILDER OP THE 
SCOTT QUICKSILVER FURNACE 
498 S. Eleventh St.. San Jose, Cal. 



SOUPCOPF, S. M. 

MINING ENGINEER 
412 Oliver Bdg., Pittsburg, Pa. 



RICHARDS, Robert H. 

ORE DRESSING 

Make careful concentrating tests for the de- 
sign of flow-sheetB for difficult ores 

491 Boylson St., Boston. Mass. 



RICKARD, Edgar 

MINING ENGINEER 

Room 2134, 120 Broadway, New York 

724 Salisbury House, London, E. C, Eng. 



W. H. Seagrave W. E. Buckle 

SEAGRAVE, W. H. 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEERS 

Examination. Equipment and Management 
of Properties 

L. C. Smith Btlg., Seattle 

Cable : Seadunk Code : Bedford McNeill 



SPILSBURY, E. Gybbon 

CONSULTING. MINING AND 
METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 
45 Broadway. New York 
Cable: Spilroe 



SPURR, J. Edward 

MINING GEOLOGIST 
Bullitt Bdg., Philadelphia. Pa. 
Tonopah Mining Co. of Nevada 



RICKARD, Forbes 

MINING ENGINEER 
Equitable Building, Denver 



SEARS, Stanley C. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Reports. Consultation and Management 
705 Walker Bank Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah 
Usual Codes 



STANFORD, Richard B. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Room 206. Metropolitan Bank Bdg.. 

New Orleans. La. 

Cable: Stanford Code: McNeill 



RICKARD, T. A. 

Editor, The Mining and Scientific Press 
No professional work undertaken 



SHALER, Millard K. 

MINING GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER 
4 Bishopgate, London, E.C. 



STAVER, W. H. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Metal Mine Management and Reports 

75 St. JameB Terrace, Yonkers. New York 



RICKETTS, L. D. 

CONSULTING ENGINEER 
42 Broadway. New York 



SHARPLESS, 


Fredk. 


F. 




CONSULTING 


MINING 


ENGINEER 


52 Broadway, New 


York 




Cable: FreBharp 




Code 


McNeil] 



STEBBINS, Elwyn W. 

MINING ENGINEER 
819 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 



RIORDAN, D. M. 

CONSULTING ENGINEER 

Mining investigations carefully made for 

responsible intending investors 

525 M;trket St.. San Francisco 



SIMONDS, Ernest H. 

METALLURGICAL ENGINEER 
616 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 



STEEL, 


Donald 






MINING 


ENGINEER 


AND 


GEOLOGIST 




Palo Alto 


Cal. 





RITTER, A. Etienne 

MINING ENGINEER AND GEOLOGIST 
Colorado Springs, Colo. 



SIMONDS & BURNS 

MINING ENGINEER 
25 Madison Ave., New York 



STEVENS, Arthur W. 

MINING ENGINEER 
606 Park Way Avenue, Piedmont. Cal. 



ROBERTS, Milnor 

MINING ENGINEER 

The Pacific NorthweBt, British 

Columbia and Alaska 

University Station. Seattle. Wash. 



SIMPSON, W. E. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Amos, Quebec, Canada 

Fundicion de Los Arcos, Toluca, Mex. 

30 Broad St., New York 



STEVENS, Blarney 

MINING ENGINEER 

Independencia 19. Mexico City. Mexico 

% Lane Rincon Mines. Inc. 



ROBERTSON, James D. 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 
Member A. I. M. E. and Am. Chem. Soc. 
1403 Syndicate Trust Bdg.. St. Louis. Mo. 



SIZER, F. L. 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 
1215 First Nafl. Bank Bdg., San Francisco 



STINES, Norman C. 

MINING ENGINEER 
19 Nevsky Prospect. Petrograd, Russia 



ROGERS, Allen Hastings 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 
201 Devonshire St. Boston, Mass. 
71 Broadway. Ne*. "^ork 
Cable: Alhasters 



SMITH, Howard D. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Kohl Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable: Diorite Code: Western Union 



STORMS, William H. 

MINING GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER 

Assistant Editor 

Mining and Scientific Press 



ROGERS, Edwin M. 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 

32 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Emrog Code: McNeil: 



SMITH, J. D. Audley 

MINING ENGINEER 

Dibbs Chambers, 58 Pitt St.. 

Sydney, Australia 

Cable: Jadunand All Codes 



STRAUSS, Lester W. 

ENGINEER OF MINES 

Casilla 514, Valparaiso, Chile. S. A. 

Cable : Lestra-Yalparaiso Code : McNeill 



July 7. 1017 



MINING and Scientific PRF.SS 



IS 



PROFESSIONAL DIRECTORY 



SUMMERHAYES, Maurice W. 



MkT 



MINING ENGINEER 
Porcupine Crown Mines, Ltd., 
Tunmmti, Ontario. aCnada 



TURNER 


, H. W. 








MINING ENGINEER 




587 


MilU Bdjr., 


San Francinco 


Cable 


Latito 




Code: Bedford McNeill 



WESTERVELT, William Young 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 

17 Madinon Ave. (Madison Square East) 

Now York 

Cnhle: CftnewfKt Cn.lt-: McN-llt 



SUSSMAN, Otto 

MINING ENGINEER 
61 Broadway. New York 



TURNER, J. K. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Goldneld. Nevada 



WHITMAN, Alfred R. 

MINING GEOLOGIST 
5 Royal Exchange Bdg., Cobalt, Ontario 



SYMMES, Whitman 

MINING ENGINEER 

Manager Union Con. Mine, Mexican Mine, etc., 

Virginia City. Nevada 



TURNER, Scott 

MINING ENGINEER 
Apartado 324, Lima. Peru 



WILEY, W. H. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Palm Drive. Glendora, Cal. 



TALMAGE, Sterling B. 

MINING GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER 

Geologic Maps. Examinations. Reports 
200 Vermont Bdg.. Salt Lake City. Utah 



TWEEDY, Geo. A. 

MINING ENGINEER 
1100 Investment Bdg-.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



H. A. J. Wilkens W. B. DeTereux. Jr. 

WILKENS and DEVEREUX, 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEERS 
London 120 Broadway, N. T. Mexico, D J. 

Cable : Kenreus Code: Bedford McNeill 



TELLAM, Alfred 

METALLURGIST AND ORE DRESSER 

Ridder Mining Co. No. 19, Oust Kamenogorsk 

Cemipalatinsk Oblasti, Siberia 



TYRRELL, J. B. 

MINING ENGINEER AND GEOLOGIST 
634 Confederation Life Bdg., Toronto. Canada 
Cable : Tyrrell Usual Codes 



WINCHELL, Horace V. 

CONSULTING MINING GEOLOGIST 
828 First National-Soo Line Bdg.. 

Minneapolis. Minn. 
Cable: Raoewin 



THE SOTHMAN CORPORATION 

CONSULTING & CONSTRUCTION ENG'RS. 
Power Development, Transmission. 
Water WorkB. Etc. 
40 Exchange Place, New York 



VADNER, Charles S., m.sc. 

Research and Experimental Work 

Leaching and Electrolytic Recovery of Copper, 

Zinc, Iron, etc. 

22% W. 7th South St.. Salt Lake City 



WINWOOD, Job H. 

MINING engineer 
Continental Bank Bdg., Salt Lake City, 



THOMAS, E. G. 

700 Union Oil Bdg.. Los Angeles 

111 Broadway, New York 

6. London Wall Bdg., London, B.C. 

Cable: Duntho Code : McNeill 



VALERIUS, McNUTT & HUGHES 

GEOLOGISTS AND MINING ENGINEERS 
TulBa, Okla. Billings, Mont. 



WISEMAN, Philip 

mining engineer 

1210 Hollingsworth Bdg., Los Angeles 
Cable: Filwiseman Codes: W. U,; McNeill 



THOMAS, Kirby 

MINING ENGINEER 
Examination, Valuation and Exploration 
Mining Properties 
120 Broadway, New York 



VALLENTINE, E. J. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Osborne & Chappel, Ipoh, 



Perak, Malay States 
Code : McNeill 



WRAMPELMEIER, E. L. S. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Manager Montana Mines Co., Ruby, Ariz. 



THOMAS, Wm, S. 

MINING ENGINEER 
2719 Dwight Way. Berkeley, Cal. 



WEATHERBE, D'Arcy 

MINING ENGINEER 

14 Copthall Ave., London, E.C. 

Cable : Natchekoo Code: McNeill 



WRIGHT, Charles Will 

MINING ENGINEER 

Ingurtosu, Sardinia, Italy 

Cable : Wright. Arbus Code : McNeill 



THOMSON, S. C. 



CONSULTING MINING ENGINEER 
120 Broadway. New York 



THORNE, W. E. 

MINING ENGINEER 
Bodaibo, Siberia 



WEBBER, Morton 

MINE VALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT 
165 Broadway. New York 
Cable: Orebacks 



WEIGALL, Arthur R. 

MINING ENGINEER 
c /o The Seoul Mining Co., Suan Mine, 
Whang Hai Province, Korea 



Edwin S. Berry 



Pope Yeatman 

YEATMAN, Pope 

CONSULTING MINING ENGINEERS 

Examination, Development and Management of 
Properties 

111 Broadway. New York 
Cable: Diona Code: Bedford McNeill 



TIMMONS, Colin 

MINING ENGINEER 
Tucson, Arizona 



TITCOMB, 


H. 


A. 








Salisbury House, 


London 


. E.C 




Cable : Titcomb 








Code: 


McNeill 



WEEKES, Frederic R. 

MINING ENGINEER 
71 Broadway. New York 



' Through the Yukon and Alaska ' 

By T. A. RICKARD 
Price S3. 50 
MINING and Scientific PRESS. 420 Market 



PROFESSIONAL CARD RATES: 

ONE-HALF INCH, $25 PER YEAR 
(48 cents per week) 



Combination Rate with 

THE MINING MAGAZINE of London 

% inch in each, $40 per year 

(77 cents per week) 



SUBSCRIPTION INCLUDED 



TRUSCHKOFF, Nicholas E. 

MINING ENGINEER 

Gen. Mer. Ekibastous Minea & Sm., 

Kirghiz Min. & Tr. Co.. Irtyah Corp., Ltd. 

Pavlodar, Siberia 



WE CARRY A LARGE STOCK OF TECHNICAL BOOKS 

New Catalogues just off the press. State subject in which you are interested 

Mining and Scientific Peess, 420 Market Street, San Francisco 



46 MINING and Scientific PRESS July 7, 1917 

Assayers, Chemists, and Ore-Testing Works 



ARIZONA ASSAY OFFICE 

(J. S. Neall. P. W. Libbey) 

Aesayers. Chemists and Metallurgists 

CONTROL AND UMPD3E WORK 

305-307 N. First St.. Phoenix. Arizona 



ATKIN & McRAE 



Assayers, Chemists, and Metallurgists 

CONTROL AND UMPIRE AS8ATS 

Careful Analytical Chemists 

610 South Olive St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



J. M. CALLOW, President 



GENERAL ENGINEERING CO., THE 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
159 Pierpont Avenue, Salt Lake City. Utah 
Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants 
ORES TESTED IN SMALL OR 10-TON LOTS BY AMALGAMATION. CONCENTRATION, 

CYANEDATION, MAGNETIC SEPARATION. FLOTATION 

The 3rd edition of our Ore TeHting Bulletin is now ready for mailing. We shall be pleased 

to send it to you upon request 



BARDWELL, Alonzo F. 

(Successor to Bettles & Bardwell) 

CUSTOM ASSATER AND CHEMIST 

158 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake City, Utah 

Ore Shippers' Agent 



JAMES CO. 


THE GEORGE A 












ASSAYERS 


AND 


CHEMISTS 






Supervision of Ore Sampling. 
No. 28-32 Belden Place (off 


Technical Analysis, 
Bush near Kearny) 


Cement Testing 
San Francisco 



BAVERSTOCK & PAYNE 

INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTS AND ASSAYERS 

Technical and Chemical Analyses of Ores, 

Minerals, and All Organic Materials 

223 W. First St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



BECKMAN & LINDEN ENG. CORP. 

Chemical, electro -chemical, metallurgical 

and electro-metallurgical Investigations and 

reports. Processes developed 

604 Balboa Bdg., San Francisco 



HAMILTON, BEAUCHAMP, WOODWORTH, Inc. 

METALLURGICAL ENGINEERS 

SPECIALTY: THE TREATMENT OF GOLD AND SILVER ORES. BY FLOTATION. BY 

CYANIDE, OR BY A COMBINATION OF BOTH PROCESSES 

Flotation of Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Other Minerals 

Tests Made on Lots of 1 lb. up to 5 Tons 

MILLS DESIGNED AND CONSTRUCTED 

CONSULTING AND EXPERT WORK UNDERTAKEN 
Laboratory and Office: 410 The Embarcadero, San Francisco 
Telephone: Sutter 6266 Cable address : Hambeau CodeB: West. Union, Bed. McNeill 



COWAN, C S. 

Successor to BLrd-Cowan Co, 
CUSTOM ASSAYER AND CHEMIST 

Ore Shippers Agent 
160 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake City 



LEDOUX & CO., Inc. 

ASSAYERS. CHEMISTS AND METALLURGISTS 

Independent samplers at the port of New York 

Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street, New York 



COLE & CO. 

ASSAYERS. CHEMISTS, ORE BUYERS 
Shippers' Representatives 
Box BB, Douglas, Ariz. 



LUCKHARDT CO., C. A. 

(A. H. Ward. Harold C. Ward) 

ASSAYERS AND CHEMISTS 



Telephone, Kearny 5951 



Sampling of Ores at Smelters 



53 Stevenson St., San Francisco 



CRITCHETT & FERGUSON 

ASSAYERS AND CHEMISTS 

El Paso, Texas 

Umpire and Controls a Specialty 



SMITH, EMERY & CO. (ore testing plant, los angeles) 

INDEPENDENT CONTROLS AND UMPIRE ASSAYERS 

Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and DeBign Mills 

651 Howard Street, San Francisco 245 South Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles 



ELDRIDOE & CO., G. S. 

The Vancouver Assay Office — Est. 1890 

Analytical Chemists, Assayers 

Control and Umpire Assays 

Cave Bdg.. Vancouver, B. C. 



FALKENBURG & LAUCKS, 

ASSAYERS. METALLURGISTS. ORB 

TESTING 

Seattle, Wash. 



HANKS, Abbott A. 

CHEMIST AND ASSAYER 

Established 1866 

630 Sacramento St., San Francisco 

Control and Umpire Assays, Supervision of 

Sampling at Smelters 
Cable: Hanx Code: W. U. and Bed. McN. 



PEREZ, Richard A. 

ASSAYER. CHEMIST AND 

METALLURGIST 

(Established 1895) 

120 N. Main St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



PETR0L0GICAL LABORATORY 

W. HAROLD TOMLTNSON. 

Swathmore. Pa. 
Petroacopic work. Rock sections made 
Microscopic examinations of rocks 



FROST, Oscar J. 

ASSAYER 
420 18th St.. Denver 



OFFICER & CO., R. H. 

ASSAYERS AND CHEMISTS 

169 South West Temple Street. 

Salt Lake City. Utah 



RICHARDS, J. W. 

ASSAYER AND CHEMIST 

1118 Nineteenth St.. Denver 

Ore Shippers' Agent. Write for terms 

Representatives at all Colorado smelters 



GIBSON, Walter L. 

Successor to 
FALKENAU ASSAYING CO- 
ASSAY OFFICE AND ANALYTICAL 
LABORATORY. SCHOOL OF ASSAYING 
824 Washington St., Oakland 
Phone 8929 
Umpire assays and supervision of sampling. 
Working tests of ores, analyses. Investi- 
gations of metallurgical and technical 
processes 
Professor L. Falkenau, General Manager 
and Consulting Specialist 



IRVING & CO., James 

ASSAYERS AND GOLD BUYERS 

Mines Examined 

702 South Spring St.. Los AngeleB. Cal. 



NEW MEXICO STATE SCHOOL OF MINES 

An Institution of Technology and Engineering. Full degrees, low cost, fine climate, 
new equipment, accessible to mines and smelters. Write for catalogue 

FAYETTE A. JONES. PRESIDENT. SOCORRO. NEW MEXICO 



WE CARRY A LARGE STOCK OF 

TECHNICAL BOOKS 

SEND FOR OUR CATALOGUE AND CALL ON 
US WHEN YOU COME TO SAN FRANCISCO 

MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market Street 



July 7, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



17 



THE 



u 



WAUGH 

DREADNAUGHT 
DRILL 

STAYS ON THE JOB 




"Dreadnaugrhts" used unmounted as hand drills for enlarging a 
"raise." in the Dome Mines, South Porcupine, Ontario. The ground 
was a mixture of white quartz and schist, yet with 5 machines they 
averag-ed thirty-four 10-ft. holes a shift. 



When the steel is binding or runs into a slip, 
the hole is not lost if you are using a "Dread- 
naught," for it can be cranked back while run- 
ning with the full force of rotation, without 
danger of breakage. In a number of mines 
where "Dreadnaughts" are being used with 
drills of other makes, they use their "Dread- 
naughts" for pulling steels that have been 
stuck by other machines. 




DENVER, COLO. 

New York El Paso Seattle Salt Lake City 

San Francisco Houghton Butte Joplin Los Angeles 
Canadian Rock Drill Company, Ltd.,Toronto| Nelson, B. C. 

M-39 



Braun K. & K. Laboratory 
Flotation Machine 




READY FOR WORK 



A Miniature Machine suitable for laboratory tests, 
built similar to the Standard Size 

K. & K. Flotation Machines 

now used by many of the largest metallurgical plants 
practicing flotation. 

This machine produces every effect essential to deter- 
mine to what extent an ore will lend itself to flotation. 

The elimination of violent agitation adapts it to all 
classes of ores, including carbonates, and permits 
selective flotation tests. 

The top is hinged, allowing ready access for thor- 
ough cleaning. 




OPEN FOR CLEANING 



Ask for your copy of Bulletin S120 



mMm-jfM 



San Francisco. U. S. A. 



Los Angeles, U. S. A. 



48 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Co. 

55 Congress St., Boston, Mass, 

Selling Office, UNITED STATES SMELTING CO., Inc., 
130 Broadway, New York City 

NEEDLES MINING AND SMELTING COMPANY 

Custom Lead and Zinc Concentrator at Neddies, Cal. Ad- 
dress: Needles, Cal. 



Cal. Address: Kennett, 



MAMMOTH COPPER MINING COMPANY 

Custom Copper Smelter at Kennett, 
Cal. 

UNITED STATES SMELTING COMPANY 

Custom Lead and Copper Smelters and Custom Lead and Zinc 
Concentrating Mills at Midvaie. Utah. Address: Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 

Custom Zinc Smelters at lola, Altoona. La Harpe, Kansas and 
Checotah. Ok] a. Address: 413 Republic Bdg., Kansas 
City, Mo. 

GOLDROAD MINES COMPANY 

Goldroad, Arizona. 
UNITED STATES METALS REFINING COMPANY 

Custom Copper Smelter and Electrolytic Copper Refinery at 
Chrome, N. J. Electrolytic Lead Refinery at Graselli, Ind. 
Address: 120 Broadway, New York City, N. Y. 

CIA. DE REAL DEL MONTE 

Mines and Mills at Pachuca and Real del Monte. Address: 
Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. 

UNITED STATES SMELTING, REFINING A MINING EXPLORA- 
TION CO. 

For Examination and Purchase of Metal Mines. Address: 55 
Congress St., Boston. Mass.; 120 Broadway, New York, 
N. Y.; Room, 1027 First Nat'l Bank Bldg.. Denver. Colo.; 
1504 Hobart Bldg., San Francisco. Cal.; Newhouse Bldg.. 
Salt Lake City. Utah; Ediflcia La Mutua 411, Mexico, D. F. 

Bayers of ORES, MATTE and FURNACE PRODUCTS 

Refiners of BLISTER COPPER and LEAD BULLION 

Sellers of GOLD, SILVER, LEAD, COPPER, ZINC DUST, CADMIUM, 

ARSENIC and SELENIUM 



Graphical Solution 

of 

Fault Problems 



By C. F. TOLMAK, Jr. 

Professor of Geology and Mining Engineering, The 

School of Mines, University of Arizona, and 

State Geologist of Arizona. 



43 Pnges 23 Figures 5 x S in.. Limp Leather 



$1.00 Postpaid 



The presentation of the subject is in as simple 
a form as possible. One who can read mine maps 
and has a fair geometrical sense regarding under- 
ground geological features can understand and 
apply these principles without necessarily having 
had previous training in descriptive geometry and 
graphical work. 

Published and For Sale by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 MARKET ST.. SAN FRANCISCO 47 

THE MINING MAGAZINE, Salisbury House, London. E. C. 



THE OZARK 

SMELTING & MINING CO. 



Buyers of Combined LEAD-ZINC 

ORES, no matter how complex 

— paying for both metals. 



Main Office 
601 Canal Ed. 
CLEVELAND, Ohio 



Smelters 

COFFEYVILLE 

Kansas 



International Smelting Co. 

New York Office: 42 Broadway 

Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and 
Lead Ores 

SMELTING WORKS : INTERNATIONAL, UTAH, and MIAMI, ARIZ 



REFINERIES : 

Rariton Copper Works, Perth Amboy, N. J. 

International Lead Refining Company. East Chicago. Indiana. 



ORE PURCHASING DEPARTMENT: 
618 Kearns Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



L. VOGELSTEIN & CO., Inc. 

43 BROADWAY, NEW YOKK 

BUYERS OF ORES AND METALS 

OF ALL CLASSES 

SELLERS OF COPPER, TIN, LEAD, SPELTER, 
ANTIMONY, Etc. 



25 BROAD ST. 



NEW YORK 



The Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., 
of Canada, Ltd. 

SMELTERS AND REFINERS 

Purchasers of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc Ores. 
Producers of Tadanac Brand Pig Lead, Bluestone, 
Spelter, and Copper. 
Offices, Smelting and Refining Dept., Trail, British Columbia 



THE BRIQUETTING OF FINE ORES 
AND FLUE DUST 

is a Real Money and Time Saver in Smelting. 

Send for particulars. 
THE GENERAL BRIQUETTING CO. 



WILDBERG BROS., 

Smelters, Refiners and Purchasers of 

Gold and Silver Ores, Gold Dust, Bullion and 
Native Platinum 

Producers of Proof Gold and Silver for Assnyers 
OFFICE 41G-419 PACIFIC EDG. SAN FRANCISCO 



.Inly 7. 1!)17 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



411 



BEST FACILITIES FOR TREATMENT OF 

GOLD and SILVER 
BULLION 

Ores, Concentrates, Cyanide Product 

CONSIGN ALL SHIPMENTS TO SELBY, CAL. 



SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO. 

Address correnpoideioe to 

GENERAL OFFICES: MERCHANTS EXCHANGE BDG., 

SAN FRANCISCO 



The 

American Metal Co., Ltd. 

61 Broadway, [New York 

St. Louis Denver 

Mexico 

Mexican Representatives : 

Companla de Mlnerales y Metales 

Mexico City and Monterrey 

Dealers in 

Gold, Silver, Lead, 

Zinc and Copper Ores, 

Copper Matte, Copper and Lead Bullion 



AMERICAN ZINC 

LEAD & SMELTING CO. 

PURCHASERS OF 

ZINC ORE 



PRODUCERS OF 

HIGH GRADE SPELTER 

Including "AMERICAN," "MASCOT," "CANEY" 
and "GRANBY" Brands 

Pig Lead and Sulphuric Acid 



Send Ore Inquiries to Send Spelter and Acid Inquiries to 

1012 PIERCE BUILDING 120 BROADWAY 

ST. LOUIS, MO. NEW YORK, N. Y. 

WESTERN OFFICE: 1218 FOSTER BUILDING, DENVER, COLO. 



LADYSMITH SMELTING CORPORATION, Ltd. 

BUYERS and SMELTERS of COPPER, 
GOLD, and SILVER ORES 

OFFICES: 



WORKS: 

ON TIDEWATER 

VANCOUVER ISLAND 



504-507 BELMONT BUILDING 
VICTORIA, B. C. 



SINTERING FINE ORES 

FOR BLAST FURNACES 

Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Company, Inc. 

Columbia Building : 29 Broadway, New York 

Cable Address: Sinterer-New York 



The Empire Zinc Company 
Buys Zinc Ores 



Address out Office: 

703 Symes Bldg., 
Denver, Colo. 



Or write to 

H. L. WILLIAMS. 

605 KEAFtNS BLDG., 

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 



ATKINS, KROLL & CO., San Francisco 

IMPORT MERCHANTS 

DANISH FLINT PEBBLES. SILEX LINING. CYANIDE. 

QUICKSILVER. MINING CANDLES. FIREBRICK. 

BORTS AND CARBONS. BLACKSMITH COAL. COKE. 

IMPORTED FUSE. SCHEELITE CONCENTRATES. 70%. 

SUPERIOR QUALITY ZINC DUST. 

STOCKS CARRIED 



MINE SAMPLING 
AND VALUING 

By O. S. HERZIG 

with a chapter on 

SAMPLING PLACER DEPOSITS 



163 Pages 



by CHESTER WELLS PURINGTON 

«.\« Illustrated Cloth »2 Postpaid 



This is the first comprehensive treatise on a most 
important part of the mining engineer's work. It 
presents a complete logical and well-rounded dis- 
cussion of the principles and practice of sampling 
and valuing mines. Most experienced engineers 
will be glad to have sueh a volume in their library, 
and to the young engineer, who has not been 
through the mill, it should prove well nigh in- 
valuable. 



Published and For Sale by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO 43 

THE MINING MAGAZINE, Salisbury House, London, E.C. 



50 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 




OPPORTUNITIES 

Under this heading- announcements may be made of new and second- 
hand machinery or supplies, for sale or wanted. The cost is five cents 
per word, one dollar minimum order. Remittances MUST accompany 
order. Copy must be received by Saturday morning for the following 
week's issue. 



CORPORATION CHARTERS, AGENTS. ETC. 



FOR SALE — Two quintuplex pumps, lead lined, capacity 1000 gallons 
per minute against 500-foot head, each connected to a 200 H.P. Westing- 
house two-speed motor. These pumps are in fine condition, having run 
for only a few weeks in the Ward shaft of the Comstock Lode. Address 
Opp. 629. Mining and Scientific PresB. LT 7-21 

AIR COMPRESSOR FOR SALE: — Ingersoll-Sargeant Duplex steam-driven 
-compound, class "HC". Steam cyl. 14x 14 in., air cyl, 22^x14 % in. with 
14-in. stroke. Good condition. Address Tonopah Midway Consolidated 
Mining Co.. Tonopah, Nev. TF 



WANTED — Good second-hand assay outfit including scales. 
86. Mina. Nevada. 



Address Box 
LT 7-7 



FOR SALE, CHEAP — Twenty stamps, weight 1000 pounds each. Cost 
new $877. Iron work complete for two Joshua Hendy 10-stamp batteries. 
Also 2700 feet of %-inch wire rope at 15e. per foot and 7000 feet %■ 
inch wire rope at 10c. per foot. Original Amador Consolidated Mines Co.. 
Amador City, California. LT 7-14 

GURLEY ENGINEER'S TRANSIT with complete arc. stadia, wires, etc., 
reading to thirty seconds: will sell for $200. Can be seen at Mining and 
Scientific Press office. Address Opp. 596, Mining and Scientific press. LT 7-7 

WANTED — 1000 tons manganese ore: reply to Manganese Company of 
California, 180 Sutter street, San Francisco. TF 



PORTLAND FILTERS — NEW 

Two 12 ft. by 10 ft. at a sacrifice. 
These have never been set up. Now in Denver. 

SOUTHWESTERN WRECKING COMPANY 

EL PASO, TEXAS 



WE 



Buy and sell all kinds of Standard Mining 
Equipment, new or second-hand — broken cast 
and steel — CYANIDE. Let us quote on your 
next order. 



WRITE TODAY 



MINES SUPPLY 

305 CUNARD BLDG. 



COMPANY 

SAN FRANCISCO 



FOR SALE 

1 — One-yard Atlantic Steam Shovel (Am. Locomotive Works). 

1 — Eighteen-ton Locomotive (Davenport Locomotive Works). 

1 — Four-ton Locomotive. 

1 — Keystone Drill Machine. Traction, No. 3, Friction Hoist for 350 

feet. 
9 — Side-Dump, Three-Yard. Narrow-Gauge Waste Cars. 

D. A. McPHERSON, Deadwood, South Dakota 



JAW CRUSHERS 

The following are in Denver stock for immediate ship- 
ment. All fitted with manganese Jaw Plates and in first- 
class condition: 

1 — 15x24 Allis-Chalmers Blake. 
1 — 13x24 Allis-Chalmers Blake. 
1 — 13x24 McFarlane Blake. 
1 — 13x24 Farrell Foundry Blake. 
1 — 30x5 Robinson-Rea Co.* Blake. 
3 — 10x20 Davis Iron Works Blake. 

2 — 9x15 Davis Iron Works Blake. 

3 — 7x10 Standard Blake. 

1 — 9x15 Davis Iron Works Dodge. 
3 — 7x10 Gates Iron Works Dodge. 
1 — 7x10 Denver Roll Jaw. 
1 — 7x16 Samson. 

The Morse Bros. Machinery and Supply Company 

DENVER, COLORADO LT-7-7 



LET US INCORPORATE YOUR COMPANIES 

All popular charters; Delaware, Maine. West Virginia, Nevada, etc. 
Expert corporation lawyers all states. Charterguide A4. free. INTER- 
STATE CORPORATION SERVICE SYSTEM — A. Clarksburg, West Va.. 
Reno, Nevada. TF 

WANTED — Chrome iron ore containing not less than 40 per cent 
chromic oxide nor more than S per cent silica. Deposits meeting these re- 
quirements will be investigated and shipments contracted for. Address 
American Refractories Company, S. H. Dolbear. engineer, 1411 Merchants 
National Bank Bdg., San Francisco. TF 

WANTED — Hauling contracts anywhere. Seven years experience with, 
auto trucks in mountains and deserts. Can handle any proposition. Cali- 
fornia Auto Trucking Co., 860 Waller St., San Francisco. Phone Park 
5426. 



1V1 ACHIISIERY FOR SALE 

The following is only a partial list of our large stock of ready to 
ship machinery. Write us your requirements. 



DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS 
(500 Volt) 

1 — 1 H.P. Three Rivers. Type 

TR. 1200 R.P.M. 
1 — 5 H.P. Westinghouse. 1500 

R.P.M. 
1 — 7% H.P. General Electric, 

Type CQ. 1800 R.P.M. 
1 — 10 H.P. WestinghoUBe, 1250 

R.P.M. 
1 — 30 H.P. General Electric. 

Form A. 625 R.P.M. 
1 — 30 H.P. General Electric, 

Form B. 625 R.P.M. 
1 — 35 H.P. General Electric. 

Form H. 975 R_P.M. 
1 — 50 H.P. General Electric, 

Form H, 900 R.P.M. 
1 — 50 H.P. Bullock. 600 RJ>.M. 
1 — 55 H.P. General Electric. 

Form H. 925 RJJM. 
1 — 75 H.P. Westinghouse. 800 

R.P.M. 

(220 Volt) 
1 — 1 H.P. Three Rivers, 1500 

R.P.M. 
1 — 2 H.P. General Electric, 

Class CJ. back geared, 1740 

R.P.M. 
1 — 4 H.P. WeBtern Electric. 

1000 R.P.M. 
1 — 5 HP. Three Rivers. 1700 

R.P.M. 
1 — 5 H.P. Crocker-Wheeler. Type 

CM. 1220 R.P.M. 
2 — 5 H.P. Crocker-Wheeler. Type 

CM. 1000 R.P.M. 
1 — 1214 H.P. Electrical Mchy. 

Co.. 1750 R.PJM. 
1 — 13 H.P. Crocker-Wheeler. 

Type CM. 1000 R.P.M. 
2 — 15 H.P. General Electric, 

Type CQ, 1000 R.P.M. 
1 — 20 H.P. Western Electric, 

470 R.P.M. 
1 — 20 H.P. General Electric, 

Type CQ, 925 R.P.M. 
1 — 40 H.P. Milwaukee, 960 

R.P.M. 

(126 Volt) 
1 — % H.P. Waite & Bartlett. 

1000 R.P.M 
1 — 2% H.P. General Electric. 

1900 R.P.M. 
1 — 3 H.P. General Electric, 

1820 R.P.M. 

ALTERNATING CURRENT 

MOTORS 

3 Phase, 60 Cycle 

1 — 3 H.P. Westinghouse. 220/ 

440 Volt. 1700 R.P.M. 
2 — 3 H.P. General Electric. 220/ 

440 Volt, 1800 R. P. M. 
1 — 5 H.P. General Electric. 220/ 

440 Volt, 1800 R. P. M. 
1 — 10 H.P. General Electric. 

220/440 Volt. 1800 R.P.M. 
2 — 20 H.P. General Electric. 

220/440 Volt, 1200 R.P.M. 
2 — 30 H.P. Westinghouse. 220/ 

440 Volt. 825 R.P.M. 
1 — 40 H.P. General Electric, 

220/440 Volt, 900 R.P.M. 
1 — 100 H.P. General Electric, 

220/440 Volt, 600 R.P.M. 
1 — 120 H.P. General Electric. 

Synchronous, 440 Volt, 300 

R.P.M. 



ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES 

2 — 10 Ton Baldwin-Westing- 
house. Standard Gauge, 250 
Volt. 

2 — 7 Ton Jeflery. 30" Gauge, 
250 Volt. 

1 — 5 Ton General Electric. 24 
Gauge, 250 Volt. 

2 — 3 Ton Jeflery, 24" Gauge, 
250 Volt. 
STEAM LOCOMOTIVES 

1 — 50 Ton Shay. 36" Gauge. 

3 — 50 Ton Baldwin, Standard 
Gauge. 

STEAM DRIVEN COM- 
PRESSORS 

1 — 8x9x12 Leyner. 

1 — 10x10x10 Smith-Vaile. 

1 — 12x13% x 8% x 16 Leyner 
Compound. 

1 — 10x16x9x14 Rand Imperial 
Compound. 

2 — 14x14x22 Rand, Class C. 

1 — 14^x16x10x17 Leyner Com- 
pound. 

1 — 14 x 16 x 9 % x 16 Norwalk 
Compound. 

1 — Il%x20%xl8xllx22 Leyner 
Compound. 

1 — 16x18x11x22 Leyner Com- 
pound. 

1 — 18 x 20 x 13 % x 20 Norwalk 
Compound. 

BELT DRIVEN COMPRESSORS 

1 — 8x8 Bury. Single. 

1 — Il%x6i4xl4 Leyner Com- 
pound. 

1 — 14%x9%x8 Ingersoll-Rand 
Compound. 

1 — 24 Vi x 14 & x 14 Ingersoll- 
Rand Compound. 
BLOWERS 

1 — 85 cu. ft. Piqua Positive 
Blower. 

1 — 24 cu. ft. Connersville Posi- 
tive Blower. 

1 — No. 5 Root Positive Blower. 

6 — No. 5 Baker Positive Blow- 

1 — No'. 3 Garden City Positive 
Blower. 

1 — No. 2 Garden City Positive 
Blower. 

1 — No. 10 Sturtevant Monogram 
Blower. 

1 — No. 6 Sturtevant Pressure 
Blower. 

1 — No. 1 Buffalo Pressure 
Blower. 

EXHAUSTERS 

4 — 108" Garden City, Double 
Steel Plate Exhausters, for 
hot blast. 

1 — 8' Steel Plate Mine Fan, En- 
gine driven. 

2 — 96" Sturtevant Steel Plate 
Exhauster. 

1 — 72" American Steel Plate 
Exhauster. 

6 — 60" Sturtevant Steel Plate 
Exhausters. 

3 — No. 7 Sturtevant Monogram 
Exhausters. 

1 — No. 7 Buffalo Volumne Ex- 
hauster. 

1 — No. 6 Sturtevant Monogram 
Exhauster. 

2 — 36" Sturtevant Steel Plate 
Exhausters. 

7 — 35" National Steel Plate Ex- 
hausters. 



MORSE BROS. MACHINERY & SUPPLY CO. 
1732 Wazee St., Denver, Colo. 



July 7, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



51 




POSITIONS WANTED 

Thr i*ost of advertising for positions wanted i* '- cents per word per 
Insertion, Minimum order 50 oenta. Replies forwarded without extra 
Charge, Remittances must accompany order. Copy must bo received 
Saturday morntnf for the following' week's issue. 



MINING ENGINEER returned from two years successful management 
of important gold property in South America, now open for engagement. 
Over 16 yean experience, development, construction and operation of 
nun-- and mills in Spanish America, Canada and the United States. Ad- 
dress PW 034, Mining and Scientific Press. LT 7-14 



MINE FOREMAN wishes to make change: long experience; gets results; 
best references. Address PW 635. Mining and Scientific Press. LT 7-21 

ALL AROUND PRACTICAL MAN wants position as general foreman of 
construction, good organizer of men; married, steady, sober, A-l references; 
no job too large to handle. Address PA 632, Mining and Scientific Press. 
^ LT 7 * 21 

HOISTING PLANT with new H.P. gasoline hoist, rope, ore bucket, 
eheave. shaft and boxes. $476. Also several steam, electric and belt hoists, 
water wheels, small milling plant and other machinery. U. S. Iron Works. 
Seattle. Wash. eow-TP 

GOLD AND SILVER MINES FOR SALE — Only first-class propositions 
handled. If interested, address S. T. Schreiber. Boise, Idaho. TP-eow 

ENGINEER AND MECHANIC, age 32. American, open for position 
i Gas engines. Meitz & Weiss and Wordberg oil engines, gen- 



erators, motors, hoist and millman 
ing & Scientific Press. 



Go anywhere. 



Address PW 633. Min- 
LT 7-14 



ENGINEER WISHES POSITION; hoisting, stationary or marine; steam 
or gas. Have had long, varied experience as chief engineer and mine me- 
chanic. All sorts of installations, repairs and adjustments. Solve your 
gas engine problems and reduce your fuel expense. References and service 
letters. Address M. A. K., Box 228, Oatman. Arizona. LT 7-14 

MINING ENGINEER. 13 years experience in mining, cyaniding, concen- 
tration and management, age 37, married. Good references. Open for 
engagement after June 1. Denver interview. Address PW 600, Mining 
and Scientific Press. Lt 7-14 

POSITION WANTED — Melt-room man and assayer, experienced in smelt- 
ing cyanide precipitates and refining base bullion. Some experience as mill- 
man. Address PW 606. Mining and Scientific Press. LT 7-7 

WANTED — Position as mill superintendent. Thoroughly experienced; 

flotation a specialty. Now operating flotation plant successfully; desire 

change. Best of references present employers. Address PW 614. Mining 

and Scientific Press. LT 8-1 

THOROUGHLY COMPETENT ASSAYER AND CHEMIST desires position 
with smelting works, mill or mine; also surveying, superintendence. Excel- 
lent references for skill and good work. Address PW 607, Mining and 
Scientific Press. LT 7-7 

MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circulation rep- 
resentative in every mining community in the world. Replies will be held 
confidential if desired. Address, The Manager. Mining and Scientific PresB. 



EQUIPMENT FOR SALE 

We offer for sale the following equipment for Immediate delivery, 
subject to prior Bale. 

6 Standard Callow 8-ft. tanks, complete. 

2 Type 1-B Callow Duplex Screens, complete with overhead step 
pulley, steel housings, spray boxes, etc. Equipped with phosphor 
bronze ton cap belts. 

8 Butchart Tables, complete with linoleum covers and No. 2 type 
riffling. 

Above equipment in very good condition, used only two months. 
Prices npon application 



Address all communications to 
UTAH LEASING COMPANY 

305 Newhouse Bldg., Salt Lake 



WILFLEY TABLES 

7 — No. 4, perfect condition, complete with new riffles; practically 

unused. Immediate delivery. 
2 — No. 2, good condition. 
2 — No. 6, with new riffles, steel frame, perfect. 

Southwestern Wrecking Company 
El Paso, Texas 



POSITIONS AVAILABLE 

Announcements in i hi s column arc Becured through the co-operation 
of many of the largest mining companies in the United States Ad- 
vertisements under this heading will be Inserted two limes without 
charge. Additional insertions charged at the rate of '2c. per word. 



SALES ENGINEER WANTED — Sales engineer of ability and experi- 
ence with ore-treatment machinery. Pine opportunity for one who can 
make good. Address PA C28, Mining and Scientific Press. LT 7-14 

MECHANICAL DRAFTSMEN — Several men required who are experi- 
enced on mill and smelter design. Liberal salaries. Business Men's Clear- 
ing House, Denver, Colorado. LT 7-14 



TEMPORARY FREE REGISTRATION 

While present heavy demand continues for well-qualified men all 
branches mining, milling, smelting, we will accept, without regis- 
tration charge, applications from mining or metallurgical engineers, 
assayers. chemists, etc.. who are technical graduates and who would 
consider salaries of $125 and lower. Desirable positions secured 
promptly. We have placed fourteen thousand men in positions, at 
salaries up to $6,500.00 per annum. Established 14 years. 

Business-Men's Clearing House, Denver, Colorado 



ANTIMONY ORES WANTED 

Any grade over 15#> . State quantity which can 
be delivered. State Analysis. Send Samples. 

NICHOLS-LAYNG CHEMICAL CO., INC. 

KIRKWOOD AVE. AND QUINT ST., SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



Structural Steel Head Frame 

Two compartment 70' designed for 100 
H.P., complete with sheaves and ore bins. 
One of the most substantial gallows frames 
in the southwest. K.D. marked for re-erec- 
tion, exactly the same as new. Send for 
photos. 



SOUTHWESTERN WRECKING 

EL PASO, TEXAS 



COMPANY 



MOT OR TRUC KING 

MOUNTAIN HAULING A SPECIALTY 

California, Nevada, Arizona. 



E. M. MOORES, 



15th and Alabama Streets, 
Telephone Market 7274 



SAN FRANCISCO 



COMPLETE STAMP MILL 

50 stamps, 1050 lbs., Denver Engineering Works, latest type, chrome 
steel shoes and dies, complete with all timers, feeders, etc. Used 
three months; perfect condition. 

SOUTHWESTERN WRECKING COMPANY 

EL PASO, TEXAS 



(OPPORTUNITIES CONTINUED ON PAGE S2) 



52 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 




FOR SALE 

NEW 400 H.P. BOILER — IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 

New 400-H. P. Hawkes Combination Fire and Water 
Tube Boiler, 200 lbs Pressure, Steel Setting. 

STANDARD AMERICAN DREDGING CO. 
NO. 414 13TH STREET OAKLAND. CAL. 



TUBE MILL BARGAIN 

4-ft. by 20-ft. tube mill, brand new, complete, 
weight, 16 tons, f.o.b. cars, $1500.00. 

SOUTHWESTERN WRECKING COMPANY 

EL PASO, TEXAS 



C YAM ID 

PROMPT DELIVERY 

San Francisco and New York 

W. M. DU VAL & CO. 



13 Gold Street 
New York 



112 Market Street 
San Francisco 



CYANIDE 

CASSELL BRAND 

We have 10 tons in stock for immediate delivery and no 
restrictions for export. 

PACIFIC WESTERN COMMERCIAL CO., 

149 California St., San Francisco 



Ball and Tube Mills 

The following in stock ready for immediate shipment: 

10 — 6x12' either manganese lining: for ball work or El Oro or 
Silex for tube mills. 
9 — 5' 6"x8' Ball Mills, manganese lining. 
4 — 5' 6"xl6' Tube Mills. Fl Oro or Silex. 
1 — 5x22' Tube Mill. Silex Uned. 
1—5' 6"xl6' Tube Mill. Silex lined. 
1 — 4x15' Tube Mill. El Oro lfned. 

The Morse Bros. Machinery and Supply Company 

DENVER, COLORADO LT-7-7 



HENRY B. LISTER, 

Attorney at Lair 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds for New York 
806 Pacific Bdg., Fourth and Market Streets, San Francisco. 



.■; ' ■> 



For Lubrication of 
Mine Machinery 




SECURE a lubrication service for 
your mine equipment that is excep- 
tionally economical and at the same 
time highly efficient. 

Hoisting Engines 

Compressors 

Winding Machines 

Blower Fans 

Crushers 

Drills 

Motors 

Cars 

Locomotives 

This equipment when lubricated with 

ALBANY GREASE 

will produce maximum results, operating 
with cool, easy running bearings — at a 
minimum cost. We have collected data 
in detail giving results of comparative 
lubrication tests on mine equipment 
which points out the great saving secured 
with Albany Grease. This data will be 
sent you on request. You can conduct a 
test on Albany Grease at our expense. A 
sufficient quantity of Albany Grease and 
an Albany Cup will he sent you without 
charge, upon receipt of your request. 

I Your dealer sells Albany Grease. If not, order direct. \ 



.■ Albany Lubricating Co. 

Adam Cook's Sons, Props. 

708-10 Washington Street 

New York 

Established 1858 





.Iiilv 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



68 




V- ' ■■■■My- '-;.-.- ■:.: ■;^,^:.;. v -- 




Miningf s<"'f« Press *$*° 



±_ £ 




Mill Building and Ore Bins 

Will sell separate or together complete steel 
mill building for housing hundred ton mill 
marked for re-erection, complete. Ore bins 
are exceptionally heavy, capacity 500 tons; 
made of steel throughout. Write for blue 
prints. 

SOUTHWESTERN WRECKING COMPANY 
EL PASO, TEXAS 



CRUSHING ROLLS 

We have the following sets of latest type Crushing 
Rolls in Denver stock ready for immediate shipment. 
All have been thoroughly overhauled and are in first- 
class condition in every respect. 



setB 16x36 Colorado Iron Works. 

" 16x36 Davis Iron Works. 

" 14x36 Allis Reliance outbored bearing. 

" 14x30 Allis Reliance outbored bearing. 

" 14x27 H. & B. Parallel. 

" 14x27 Davis Iron Works. 

" 12x20 Davis Iron Works. 

" 12x20 H. & B. Parallel. 

" 12x12 Davis Sampling. 



The Morse Bros. Machinery and Supply 
Company 



DENVER, COLORADO 



NEW AND SECOND-HAND MACHINERY 

Before you order your equipment get my prices on new and 
second-hand boilers, steam and gas engines, pumps and all 
classes of machinery. Also carry a line of high compres- 
sion Diesel crude oil engines in small sizes. No spark 
troubles ; just the engine for prospectors. 

Give full details when writing 

PAUL H. COOP, 1111 Hobart BIdg., San Francisco 



CORLISS EIVGIIME 

We can make immediate delivery on the following en- 
gines, which are in good mechanical order: 

1—100 H.P. 

1—110 H.P. 

1—120 H.P. 

1—150 H.P. 
SOUTHWESTERN WRECKING COMPANY, El Paso, Texas 



40-H. P. Fairbanks-Morse 
Gas Hoist 

Single Drum, direct connected, geared, complete with 750 
ft. new f" rope; absolutely perfect, immediate delivery. 

Southwestern Wrecking Company 
El Paso, Texas 



POWER PUNT 

For Immediate Delivery 

2—350 B.H.P. Wolf Cross Compound Superheated 
Steam Locomobiles complete, with Condensers, 
Boiler Feed Pumps, Injectors and Feed Water 
Heater. 

2 — Dahl Liquid Oil Burning Systems Complete with 
Pumps and Heaters. 

2— General Electric A.T.B. 32 pole, 345 K.V.A. 3-60- 
480 Engine Generators. 

2— Type B.L.C., 35 K.W.H., 850 R.P.M., 125 V., Belt 
Driven Exciters. 

S— Fort Wayne 60 cycle, 219 K.V.A. (175 K.W. 8-10 
P.F.), 33,000 volt primary to 480 volt secondary, 
single phase Transformers. 

2— Type H, 60 cycle, 25 K.V.A., 33,000 volt primary to 
110-220 volt secondary, single phase Transformers. 

1 — Blue Vermont Marble Switchboard, with all neces- 
sary instruments. 

8 — 3-phase Aluminum Cell Lightning Arresters. 

6—200 amp. Choke Coils. 

Above equipment has been slightly used but not 

misused and is guaranteed to be in first-class con- 
dition. Power plant is for sale only as a whole. 

Mill Equipment 

1 — 32"xl0' Gates Revolving Screen. 

1 — 6'xl6" Hardinge Mill. 

2 — 32'xl5' Dorr Agitators and Tanks. 

2 — 36" Perrin Presses. 

1 — 6x9 Aldrich Vertical Triplex Pump. 

1 — 42x48 Belt Driven A.C. Tube Mill. 

1 — 52" Merrill Precipitating Press, 30 leaves. 

1— No. 787 H-H-M Steel Bullion Safe. 

1 — 42" Carlin Grinding pan. 

2 — Erie City Economy Boilers. 

1 — 3x2x4 Duplex Boiler Feed Pump. 

Full Refinery Equipment. 

Lot large Redwood Tanks, good condition. 

Pulleys, Shafting and Transmission Equipment. 

Motors 

2—50 H.P. 3-60-440, 720 R.P.M. G.E. Motors. 
1 — 40 H.P. 3-60-440, 900 R.P.M. G.E. Motor. 
2—15 H.P. 3-60-440, 900 R.P.M. G.E. Motors. 

All above motors equipped with starting compen- 
sators arranged for conduit wiring, no voltage release 
and overload relays. 

Miscellaneous 

1— No. 1174 F.M. 1000-lb. Portable Scale. 

1— No. 1128 F.M. Platform Scale. 

1 — No. 1046 F.M. double beam Warehouse Scale. 

1 — No. 1928 ten-ton F.M. single-beam Wagon Scale. 

1— 50-ton F.M. 4'xl0' Track Scale with Type R Regis- 
tering Beam and Steel Frame. 

1 — 7x10 Double Cylinder Steam Hoist. 

1—15 H.P. Fairbanks Gasoline Hoist and 500 ft. rope. 
Complete Boarding House Equipment. 
Power Plant may be inspected at Beowawe, Nev. 

Other material at Buckhorn, Nev. 

Write for particulars and prices. Above list is 

incomplete. 

Nevada Engineering & Supply Company 

Reno, Nevada 



54 




MINING and Scientific PRESS July 7, 1917 

BUYER 

-*-=^ Machinery and Supplies of Dependable Manufacturers are here Listed 

tfg Addresses will be found on the Sixth followinq Page ••• 

f ^J33 If uou do notfind what you wantcommunicatewith Mining and Scientific Press Service 

] 





Acetylene Generators 

Billiard, E. D. 
Acetylene Lamps 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Bullard, E. D. 

Harron, Rickard St McCone. 

JuBtrite Mfg. Co. 

Agitators 

Chalmers St Williams. 
Dorr Company, The. 
Hammond Iron Works. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Koering Cyaniding Process Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Western Pipe & Steel Co 

Airometers 

Denver Hydro Company 
Air Pipe 

Bemie Bro. Bag. Co 

Tay, George H. 
Air Receivers 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Reardon, P. H. 

Tay, George H. 

Western Gas Engine Corporation. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Air Tubing 

Bemis Bros. Bag Co. 
Amalgamated Plates 

Angels Iron Works. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 

San Francisco Plating Works. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Assayers' and Chemists' Directory 
(See Index to Advertisers) 
Assayer' and Chemists' Supplies 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Bags 

Bemis Bros. Bag Co. 
Balances and Weights 

Ainsworth & Sons, Wm 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co, 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 

Thompson Balance Co. 
Ball Mills 

(See "Mills") 
Bearings 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Reardon, P. H. 
Belting 

Angels Iron Works. 

Diamond Rubber Co.. The. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Goodrich Co., The B. F 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co., G. W 

Reardon. P. H. 

Tay. George H. 
Blowers 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Reardon, P. H. 

Rix CompreBsed Air & Drill Co. 
Boiler Graphite 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Boilers 

AlliB-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

He idrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

He ;idy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Mine St Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

National Eng. St Equip. Co. 



Reardon. P. H. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Boots and Shoes 

Putman Boot & Shoe Co. 
Brick. Fire 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Briquet ting Machinery 
Braun Corporation. The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
General Briquetting Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Briquetting Ores, Coal, Etc. 

General Briquetting Co. 
Buckets 

AUis-Chalmere Mfg. Co. 
Atlae Car & Mfg. Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 
Link-Belt Company. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Western Gas Engine Corporation. 
WeBtern Pipe & Steel Co. 

Burlap and Cotton Goods 

Bemis Bros. Bag Co. 
Burners, Oil 

Braun Corporation. The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Reardon, P. H. 

Cableways, Suspension 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Sauerman Bros. 
Canvas Air Tubing 

Bemie Bro. Bag Co. 
Cages 

Angels Iron Works. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Carbons, Borts, and Diamonds 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Diamond Drill Carbon Co. 
Cars 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Western Gas Engine Corporation. 
Casing 

Tay, George H. 
Cast Iron Pipe 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. 

Tay, George H. 
Castings 

Angels Iron Works. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Pacific Foundry Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Western Gas Engine Corporation. 

Yuba Construction Co. 



Chain 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Link-Belt Company. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Chemicals 

Braun Corporation. The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
RoesBler St Hasslacher Chem Co. 

Chemical Castings 

Pacific Foundry Co. 

Western Gas Engine Corporation. 

Chilean Mills 

(See "Mills") 
Classifiers 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado D*on Works Co. 

DeiBter Machine Co. 

Dorr Company, The. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy D;on Works, Joshua. 

Morse BroB. Machy. & Supply Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Clutches, Friction 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Link-Belt Company. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Western Gas Engine Corporation. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Compressors, Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg, & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron WorkB, Joshua. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

International High Speed Steel Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

MorBe Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

National Eng. St Equip. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Reardon. P. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Western Gas Engine Corporation. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Compressors, Hydraulic Air 

National Eng. & Equip. Co. 
Concentrator Belts 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 

Goodrich Co., The B. F. 
Concentrators 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron WorkB Co. 

Deister Concentrator Co. 

Deiater Machine Co. 

Eccleston Machinery Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Serm Concentrator Co. 

Stimeon Equipment Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Concrete Mixers 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Condensers 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks.. A. S. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp, 
Converters 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp 



Conveyors, Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Goodrich C, The B. F. 
Harron, Rickard St McCone. 
Link-Belt Company. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Cranes 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Link-Belt Company. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co 

Cross-Arms 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Crucibles 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Crushers 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Angels Iron Works. 
Bacon, Earle C. 
Bartlett & Snow Co., C. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. St Sup. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Johnson Engineering Works. 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 
Link-Belt Company. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Price Pump & Engine Co., G. W. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Cupels 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Cyanide Plants and Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works. 

Butters & Co., Ltd., CharleB. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Dorr Company, The. 

Hamilton, Beauchamp, Wood- 
worth, Inc. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Kelly Filter Press Co. 

Koering Cyaniding Process Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfra. Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Dewaterers 

Chalmers Sc Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co, 

Dorr Company. The. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Drafting Material 

Ainsworth & Sons, Wm. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Dragline Excavators 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Link-Belt Company. 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Sauerman Bros. 

Union Construction Co. 

(Continued on page GG) 



July 7. L917 



Made in U. S. A. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

1 I 



65 






Tltr Slogan of the Cameron "Chorai In : Die I iramtol ITifnJ.*' 



High Efficiency 

"BULLDOG" A * ainst Hi s h Heads 

Rock Drill and Mining Steel 



Hollow 




Solid 



Has no superior, and is used with all 
drills wherever the BEST is needed. 

Manufactured only by (he 

International High Speed Steel Co. 

at its works, Rockaway, N. J. 

Main Office: New York City 



Pacific Coast Representative: 
H. D. Staley, 132 Lick Building, San Francisco, Cal. 



Sacramento Pipe Works 

MANUFACTURERS 

SHEET STEEL RIVETED PIPE, 

WELL CASING and AIR PIPE 

WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTERS 

Standard Pipe — Screw Joint Casing, Pipe and Casing Fittings, 

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. 

Valves and Brass Goods. 




SACRAMENTO. CAL. 

Drill 
Building 

exclusively — 

Come to 
Specialists 

Want Irtll 
Watk& 

30-36 1 Dale Avenue 

Paterson, N, J. 





The upper illustration shows two 5-ln. 3-stage 
Cameron Pumps, direct connected, to 300 H.P. 
motor, giving a capacity of 600 G.P.M., against 
1,225 feet head at 1,760 R.P.M. These 



Cameron 
Centrifugals 

were run continuously without inspection for sev- 
eral months, and gave their initial high efficiency. 
After replacing the packing in the stuffing boxes, 
they have been operated to date without stopping. 

This is just another example of the continuous 
High Efficiency you can be sure of when you in- 
stall CAMERON CENTRIFUGALS. 

As shown by the lower illustration, they are 
very simple in design, compact and strong, with 
horizontally split casings, which give ready access 
to the working parts. 

Bulletins and Full Information on Bequest. 




A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works 



1 1 Broadway, New York 

San Francisco Los Angeles 



Seattle 



56 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7. 1917 



THE BUYER'S GUIDE 



Dredges and Accessories 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 
Marion Steam Shovel Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Price Pump & Engine Co.. G. W. 
Union Construction Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Yuba Construction Co. 

Drill Makers and Sharpeners 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co 
Wood Drill Works. 

Brills. Air and Steam 
Angela Iron Works. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Reardon. PH. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Wood Drill Works. 

Drills, Core 

Harron. Rickard A McCone 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Union Construction Co 

Drills, Diamond 

Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Electric 

General Electric Co. 
Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Drills, Prospecting 

Harron. Rickard A McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Reardon. P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Drills, Steel 

International High Speed Steel Co. 

Employment Bureau 

Business Men's Clearing House. 
Pacific Audit A System Co.. Inc. 

Engineers 

(See Professional Directory) 
Engines, Internal Combustion 

A llis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Harron. Rickard A McCone. 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros Machy. A Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Price Pump A Engine Co.. G. W. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Tay. George H. 

Western Gas Engine Corporation. 

Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp. 

Engines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Morse Bros Machy. A Supply Co. 
Nordbere Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng A Mfg. Co. 

Explosives 

Du Pont Powder Co 
Hercules Powder Co. 

Fans, Ventilating 

Albany Lubricating Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Reardon. P. H. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Filters 

Angels Iron Works. 
Braun Corporation. The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers A Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Koering Cyaniding Process Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co 
Oliver Filter Co 
Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co 

Filter Bags 

Filler Fabrics Co. 
Filter Presses 

Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann wo 



Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Kelly Filter Press Co. 
Koering Cyaniding Process Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp. 

Fire Extinguishers 

Bullard. E. D. 
Justrite Mfg. Co. 

First Aid Equipment 

Ballard. E. D. 

Siebe. Gorman A Co.. Ltd. 
Flotation Apparatus 

Butters A Co.. Ltd.. Charles. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Filter Fabrics Co. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Stimaon Equipment Co. 
Forget 

Harron. Rickard A McCone. 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Frogs and Switches 
(See "Railway Supplies") 
Furnaces, Assay 

(See "Assayers' and Chemists' Sup- 
plies") 
Furnaces, Boasting and Smelting 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron. Rickard A McCone. 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co. 

Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 

Pacific Foundry Co. 

Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co, 

Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp. 

Gaskets 

(See "Packing") 
Gasoline Locomotives 

Fate Co.. Ths J. O. 
Gears 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Dodge Sales A Eng. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Link-Belt Company. 

Meese A Gottfried Co. 

Western Gas Engine Corporation. 
Generators 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. A Mfg. Co. 

Giants, Hydraulic 

(See "Hydraulic Mining Mach") 
Graphite Prod acts 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Grease, Lubricating 

Albany Lubricating Co. 
Heaters, Feed Water 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Dodge Sales A Eng. Co. 

Harron. Rickard A McCone. 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp. 
Hoists, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works. 

Bartlett A Snow Co.. C. O. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Link -Belt Company. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Price Pump A Engine Co., G. W. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

■Westinghouse Elec. A Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp 

Hoists, Oil and Distillate 

Western Gas Engine Corporation. 
Hoists, Steam or Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

Harron. Rickard A McCone. 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup Co 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Mine A Smeltpr Supply Co 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co. 



Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Price Pump • Engine Co.. G. W. 

Reardon. P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp- 

Hose 

Angels Iron Works. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co.. The. 
General Electric Co. 
Goodrich Co.. The B. F. 
Harron, Rickard A McCone. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Reardon. P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 
Tay. George H. 

Hose, Air 

Bemis Bros. Bag Co 
Hose Couplings 

Angels Iron Works. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Harron. Rickard A McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

National Tube Co. 

Powell Co.. Wm. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Tay. George H. 

Wood Drill Works. 

Hydraulic Mining Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Angels Iron Works. 
American Spiral Pipe Works. 
Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Price Pump & Engine Co.. G. W. 
Sacramento Pipe Works. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp. 

Injectors 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co. 

National Tube Co. 

Powell Co.. Wm. 

Tay. George H. 

Iron Cements 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 

Jigs 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers A Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Link-Belt Company. 
Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co. 
Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp. 

Laboratory Supplies 

(See "Assayers' and Chemists' Sup- 
plies") 

Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 

General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. A Mfg. Co. 

Lamps, Miners 

Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Bullard. E. D. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Justrite Mfg. Co. 

Lead Joint Pipe 

National Tube Co. 
Tay. George H. 

Locomotives, Electric 

American Locomotive Co.. Ltd. 
Atlas Car A Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. A Mfg. Co. 

Locomotives, Gasoline 

Fate Co.. The J. O. 
Locomotives, Steam 

American Locomotive Co.. Ltd. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co. 

Lubricants 

Albany Lubricating Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 

Harron. Rickard A McCone. 

Reardon. P. H. 
Lubricators 

Albany Lubricating Co. 

Dodge Sales A Eng. Co. 

Harron. Rickard A McCone. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The. 

Powell Co.. Wm. 

Reardon. P. H. 

Tay. George H. 



Machinery, Used 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co 

Magneslte 

Atkins. Kroll A Co. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Metal Co., Ltd. 
American Zinc. Lead A Smelt. Co 
Atkins. Kroll A Co. 
Beer. Sondheimer A Co. 
Consolidated Min. A Smelt. Co 

of Canada. Ltd. 
Edgar Zinc Company. 
Empire Zinc Co. 
Granby Min. A Smelt. Co. 
International Smelting Co 
Ozark Smelting A Mining Co 
Selby Smelting A Lead Co. 
U. S. Smelt. Refining A Min. Co 
Vogelstein A Co., L. 
Wildberg Bros. 

Meters — Flow, Air, Gas, Water 

General Electric Co. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp 

Mills — Ball, Pebble and Tube ■ 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works. 
Braun Corporation. The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co 
Bullard. E. D. 
Chalmers A Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co 
Eccleston Machinery Co. 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Johnson Engineering Works. 
Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co 
New York Engineering Co. 
Price Pump A Engine Co.. G. W. 
Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp 

Mills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers A Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Quartz Mill A Crusher Co 
Harron. Rickard A McCone. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Lane Mill A Machinery Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co 
Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp 

Motor Trucks 

White Company. The. 
Motors 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers A Williams. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard A McCone. 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co 

Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Co 

Westinghouse Elec. A Mfg. Co. 

Oil and Grease Cups 

(See "Lubricators") 

OH Well Supplies 

Diamond Rubber Co.. The 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
National Tube Co. 
Powell Co.. Wm. 
Tay. George H. 

Oil, Flotation 

General Naval Stores Co. 

Hunter-Johnson Co. 

Pensacola Tar A Turpentine Co 

Ore Bags 

Bemis Bros. Bag Co. 
Ore Bins 

Hammond Iron Works. 

Western Pipe A Steel Co. 
Ore Buyers 

(See Metal Buyers and Dealers) 
Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Catting 
Apparatus 

Bullard. E. D. 
Oxygen Apparatus 

Bullard. E. D. 

Siebe. Gorman A Co.. Ltd. 
Packing 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 

Tay. George H. 
Paint, Preservative 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 
Patent Attorneys 

Dewey. Strong A Townsend. 



(Continued on page 58) 



.Inlv 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



57 



"Pacific" 



Forged Steel Balls 

Forged Steel Shoes and Dies 

Hammered Iron and Steel 
Cam Shafts 



Prompt Deliveries 
Reasonable Prices 



Communicate with our San Francisco Office 
1206 Hobart Bdg. Phone Sutter 3489 

ANGELS IRON WORKS 

Mining Machinery 
Angels Camp, California 




Mar io it 
Steam Shovels, Dredges, Draglines 
and Kindred Machinery 

TAKING into account its very difficult 
operating conditions, and the known ability of 

the c^t^^TT'^"- B ° ""»M>< «!"■<»«!> with whatever It starts. 
Uie Canadian Uondyke Minine Company. Ltd.. of Dawson, Y. T.. some 
year, ato concluded that the best move it could mate, when purchS 
a Placer M.mnc Dredte. was to select a "Marion." The wisdom of 
this decision is today evident in the fact that wisaom ot 

This Marion Dredge Operated Late Into De- 
cember— 175 Miles From the Arctic Circle 

—with the air so cold that the Dredge would have 

frozen up solidly if stopped even a few moments— necesBitatins a comnlcte 
shutdown until Sprint. The Canadian KJondyke Minim] Company El? 
is now employinir Marions" exclusively. "uwjr, la. 

J?,'™? T"' r ^ uir ™=»''- >"••". 'an J# m d m "M,rlm." We 
w=mavs„bmuT^f a ' , ' <:,,lar,al, J 0U ! »»»' ™t .. . tasi. upon which 
1™™! " ' recommendations. There will be no obligation 

upon you in reguesunc this information. " 

E The Marion Steam Shovel Company, Marion, Ohio 

>-« Branches: Miami, Chlcsjo, «™ York, PMIidelphli, Sin Frmclito, Sural. 

1 ESTABLISHED 1884 





It's AH -Around Efficiency That Counts 

in Tanks and Pipe 

That is why 

"National Quality" 
tanks and pipe are be- 
ing- used so widely to- 
day in thousands of 
engineering - and mining" 
projects. 

"NATIONAL QUALITY" 
Wood Tanks and Pipe 

We manufacture every kind of mining- tank and pipe 
using- only the best Douglas Fir and California 
Redwood. Write for our Catalog: and Information. 

NATIONAL TANK & PIPE COMPANY 




275-P, Oak Street 



RADIUM 



Portland, Oregon 



PRODUCTION 
AND USES 



By SYDNEY FAWNS 



00 pases. Illustrated. Cloth, $1.00 postpaid. 



CONTENTS: History, Appearance, and Energy of 
Radium. Radio-activity of the Earth. Sea, Air, and Sun. 
Description of Radium Rays and Emanations. The Uses 
of Radium. The Occurrences of Radium Ore. Extraction 
of Radium. Appendix. Bibliography. Index. 



For Sale by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



EjHciblvhed 1657 

ALevfchen 6 Jon»r Rope Cb. 

JH.IjouM, Mo. 

-WIRE ROPE for MINE J 1 , BXCAVATORJL. 

ORANEJ 1 , OABLEWAYJ 1 , TRAMWAY.E. 

DHEDGEJ 1 <m d ,/TEAM/HOvEUrt 

Branch tf-toreii* j** 

NewYork-Chlca^-Dpnvei!- |J 
ii l aHfreJu»flfo.^nfranriJ<|p./"7ai 




OIL FINDING 



An Introduction to the Geologica 
Study of Petroleum 



By E. CUNNINGHAM CRAIG, with an Introduction hy 
SIR BOVERTON REDWOOD 



195 pases. Illustrated. Cloth, 5% x 9, $2.40 postpaid. 

This admirable book, while intended primarily for 
geologists, and especially for young geologists, is written 
in a style so free from technicalities that It may be 
studied with profit by a far wider circle, including all 
those interested in the petroleum industry either in an 
administrative capacity or as investors. The book will 
be especially helpful to those making preliminary ex- 
aminatons of a field. 

The chapter headings are: The Origin of Petroleum, 
Processes of Formation; The Migration, Filtration, and 
Subterranean Storage of Petroleum; Lateral "Variation; 
Geological Structure; Indications of Petroleum; Strati- 
graphy; Location of Wells; Field "Work; Indoor "Work. 
For Sale hy 
MINING and Scientific PRESS 
4SO MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



58 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 191T 



THE BUYER'S GUIDE 



Pebbles 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Harron, Bickard & McCone 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Perforated Metals 

A Ills-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meeee & Gottfried Co. 

Pipe Fittings 

American Metal Co.. Ltd. 
Lunkenheimer Co.. The. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
National Tube Co. 
Pacific Foundry Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co 
Powell Co., Wm. 
Beardon. P. H. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 
Smith, S. Morgan. 
Tay, George H. 
Western Pipe & Steel Co 

Pipe, Air 

Bemis Bros. Bag Co. 
Tay. George H. 

Pipe. Iron 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co 
Tay, George H. 

Pipe, Blveted 

American Spiral Pipe Works. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works. 
Smith, S. Morgan. 
Western Pipe & Steel Co. 

Pipe, Steel 

American Spiral Pipe Works. 

National Tube Co. 

New York Engineering Co 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Tay. George H. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co 

Pipe, Wood 

National Tank & Pipe Co 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Bedwood Mfrs. Co. 

Placer Mining Machinery 

American Spiral Pipe WorkB. 

Angels Iron Works. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

Harron. Bickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co.. G W. 

Beardon, P. H. 

Sauerman Bros. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Yuba Construction Co. 

Pneumatic Tools 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Harron, Bickard & McCone 

Powder 

Du Pont Powder Co. 
Hercules Powder Co. 

Preservatives, Wood 

General Naval Stores Co. 
PenBacola Tar & Turpentine Co. 

Preservatives, Metal 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Prospecting Supplies 

Braun Corporation. The. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron, Bickard & McCone. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Pulleys, Shafting and Hangers 

(See "Transmission Machinery") 
Pomps, Air Lift 

Price Pump & Engine Co.. G. W. 
Beardon, P. H. 

8ullivan Machinery Co. 

In persoll -Rand Co. 

?umps. Centrifugal 

A Ilia-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

'-STieron Steam Pump Wks.. A. S, 

Frenier & Son. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup Co 

Tnckson Iron Works. Byron. 

Krogh Pump Mfg. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Piatt Iron WorkB. 

Price Pump & Engine Co., G. W. 

R*>ardnn. P H 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Tay, George H. 



Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Wortbington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Yuba Construction Co. 

Pumps, Hydraulic 

National Eng. & Equip. Co. 
Pomps, Reciprocating 

AlliB-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works. 

Cameron Steam Pump WkB..A. S. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

MorBe Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co., G. W. 

Piatt Iron Works. 

Beardon, P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Tay, George H. 

Wortbington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Pumps, Vacuum 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks.. A. S. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Piatt Iron Works. 

Price Pump & Engine Co., G. W. 

Reardon. P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Quicksilver 

Atkins. Kroll St, Co. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Quicksilver Furnaces 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Railway Supplies and Equipment 
American Locomotive Co., Ltd. 
Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Bams, Hydraulic 

National Engineering Co. 
Rescue Apparatus 
Bullard, E. D. 
Elmer, H. N. 
Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd. 

Bock Crystals 

Diamond Drill Carbon Co. 
Rolls, Crushing 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Bacon. Earle C. 
Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 
Link-Belt Company. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Sauerman Bros. 
Safety Appliances 

Bullard, E. D. 

Harron. Bickard & McCone. 

Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd. 
Sample BagB 

Bemis Bros. Bag Co. 
Samplers 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Saw Mill Machinery 

Harron. Bickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Link-Belt Company. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Schools and Colleges 

(See "Index to Advertisers") 
Screens 

Alii s-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works. 

Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Cal. Perforated Screen Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Harron. Bickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 



James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Link-Belt Company. 

Ludlow-Saylo#Wire Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Shafting 

{See "Transmission Machy.") 
Shoes and Dies 

Angels Iron Works. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Shovels, Electric and Steam 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

SUex 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Smelters and Refiners 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelt. Co. 
Beer, Sondheimer & Co. 
Consolidated Min. & Smelt. Co. 

of Canada, Ltd. 
Empire Zinc Co. 
International Smelting Co. 
Ozark Smelting & Mining Co. 
Selby Smelting & Lead Co. 
U. S. Smelt. Refining & Min. Co. 
Vogelstein & Co.. L. 
Wildberg Bros. 

Smelting Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron WorkB Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Pacific Foundry Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Springs 

American Spiral Pipe Works. 
Cary Spring Works. 
Barron, Bickard & McCone. 

Stamp HUls 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Angels Iron Works. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Harron, Bickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg, & Sup. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Wellman-Seaver -Morgan Co. 
Worthington Pump. & Mach. Corp- 

Steel, Drill (Hollow and Solid) 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Ingersoll-Band Co. 
International High Speed Steel Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Steel, Drill and Sheet 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 
Western Pipe & Steel Co. 

Steel, Tool 

International Highspeed Steel Co. 
Suction Dredges 

Krogh Pump Mfg. Co. 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co., G. W. 

Union Construction Co. 

Yuba Construction Co. 
Tanks, Cyanide 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Hammond Iron Works. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Koering Cyaniding Process Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 

Worthington Pump. & Mach. Corp. 

Tanks, Steel 

Hammond Iron Works. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 

Wilcox & Co.. S. H. 
Tapes, Measuring 

Lufkin Bule Co. 
Thickeners, Pulp 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Dorr Company. The. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Koering Cyaniding Process Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co, 
Tractors 

Price Pump & Engine Co., G. W. 

Yuba Construction Co 



Tramways, Aerial 

Broderick & Bascom Bone Co. 
Fulton Engine Works. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 
Sauerman Bros. 

Transits 

Ainsworth & Sons. Wm, 
Transmission Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 

Link-Belt Company. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co,. G W. 

Reardon, P. H. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Trucks, Motor 

White Company. The. 
Tube Mills 

(See "Mills") 
Tubing, Air 

Bemis Bros. Bag Co. 

Tubes 

National Tube Co. 
Tay, George H. 

Turbines, Hydraulic 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Pelton Water Wheel Co 
Piatt Iron Works. 
Smith, S. Morgan. 

Turbines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouae Elec. & Mfg. Co 

Valves 

(See "Pipe Fittings") 

Valves, Automatic 

Denver Hydro Company 
Ventilating Tubing 

Bemis Bros. Bag Co. 
Water Wheels 

Angels Iron Works. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Piatt D-on Works. 

Smith. S. Morgan. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co 

Waterproof Coating 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 
Welding, Oxy-acetylene 

Bullard, E. D. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Prest-O-Lite Co., Inc. 
Well Drilling Machy. and Supplies 

American Well Works. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Wheels, Car 

Angels Iron Works 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Winches 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 
Wire Cables 

(See "Rope, Wire") 
Wire, Insulated 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Zinc Boxes 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Hammond Iron Works. 

Koering Cyaniding Process Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co, 
Zinc Dust and Shavings 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelt. Co. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Granby Min. & Smelt. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

U S. Smelt., Refining & Min. Co. 



.Inly 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



59 



Simplicity plus 
Durability 




the keynote of success of the 

LUNKENHEIMER 
"Clip" Gate Valve 

It has but two internal movable parts, viz: the stem and single, sharp 
tapered double faced disc. The body and bonnet are held together by a steel 
"Clip," which adds strength and rigidity to the valve and facilitates taking 
apart for cleaning or repairs. 

The joint between the body and bonnet is practically indestructible, it 
being a seamless copper wire gasket, partially imbedded in the top of the 
valve body. The stuffing box can easily be repacked while valve is under 
pressure and wide open. 

The body and bonnet are made of Lunkenheimer "Valve-iron" with the 
trimmings of Lunkenheimer "Valve-bronze." For handling cyanides, creosote, 
alkaline solutions, etc., the "Clip" can be furnished in ALL IRON. 

Specify Lunkenheimer "Clip" and insist on having the genuine. 

Your local dealer can furnish them; if not, write us. 
Write for Booklet No. 505-CD. 

IHE LUNKENHEIMER ££; 

—"QUALITY"— 



New York Chicago 



Largest Manufacturers of 

High Grade Engineering Specialties 

In the World. 

CINCINNATI 



Boston 



London 



1917 



READY NOW 



1917 



MORRISON'S MINING RIGHTS 

15th Edition — Enlarged and Revised to Date 

Lode and Placer Claims — Tunnels— Mill Sites and Water Rights — Statutes 
and Decisions — Forms and Procedure on Patent Applications 

By R. S. MORRISON and EMILIO D. DE SOTO 
of the Colorado Bar 



One Volume — 780 Pages — Price $4.50 Delivered in Postal Union 
THIN PAPER POCKET EDITION 



Abandonment 

Adverse Claim 

Alaska 

Aliens 

Angles and Variations 

Annual Labor 

Apex 

Application for Patent 



Bureau of Mines 

Circular to Applicants 

Coal Lands 

Conveyance 

Corporations 

Cross Lodes 

Departure From Side Lines 

Dip 

Discovery and Location 

District Rules 

Ditches and Water 

Drainage 



Dump 

Easements 

Ejectment 

Examination of Title 

Flooding 

Forcible Entry 

Foreign Corporations 

Forest Reserves 

Forfeiture 

Fraud 

Glossary 

Homestead Act 

Indian Reservation 

Injunction 

Inspection and Survey 

Interference of Claims 

Known Lode in Places 

Land Office Regulations 

Lease 

Length of Lodes 

License 



«. ■ CONTENTS. 

Liens, Judgments and Mortgages 

Location of Lodes 

Lodes, Veins and Ledges 

Measure of Damages 

Mexican Grant 

Mexican Mining Law 

Mill Sites 

Mineral Land 

Miners' Lien 

Miners' Rights, Congressional 

Recognition 
Mining Districts 
National Forests 
Negligence 
Nuisance 
Oil and Gas 

Oil Claims on Public Domain 
Ore Buyers 
Ore Contracts 
Patent 
Penal Provisions 



Philippine Islands 

Placers 

Placer Containing Lode 

Possessory Title 

Prospecting Contract 

Protest 

Record 

Relocation 

Replevin 

Right of Way 

Sales and Options 

School Claims 

School of Mines 

Severance 

Side Veins 

Soldiers' Claims 

Spurs 

State Lands 

Statutes, U. S., in Force 

Statutes, U. S.. Repealed 

Statute of Limitations 



Statutory Requirements, Lodes 

Statutory Requirements, Placers 

Surveyor General's Circular 

Surveyor General's Fees 

Tailings 

Taxation 

Tenants in Common 

Tide Lands 

Timber Act 

Timber and Stone Act 

Trespass 

Tunnel Sites 

U. S. License 

U. S. Patent 

Veins Uniting on Dip 

Vein Wider Than Patent 

Walls 

Width of Lodes 

Withdrawal Acts 

Working Contracts 



For Sale by MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market Street, San Francisco 



iHBHnnnm 



60 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



Dash Indicates Every Other WeeK or Monthly Advertisement- 



Page 

Aineworth & Sons, Wm., Denver 62 

Albany Lubricating Co., New York 52 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis — 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co.. Birmingham, Ala. 62 

American Locomotive Co., New York 27 

American Metal Co., Ltd., New York 47 

American Spiral Pipe Works, Chicago — 

American Steel & Wire Co.. Chicago 35 

American Well Works, Aurora. HI . — 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co.. St. Louis. 49 

Angels Iron Works, Angels Camp, Cal 57 

Assayers, Chemists and Ore Testing Works. . . .46 

Atkins. Kroll & Co., San Francisco 49 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co.. Cleveland, Ohio 62 

Bacon, Earle C, New York 62 

Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O., Cleveland, Ohio. . . .37 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co.. New York — 

Bemis Bro. Bag Co.. St. Louis 8 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne. San Francisco 62 

Braun Corporation. The, Los Angeles, Cal 47 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co., San Francisco. .36-47 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co., St. Louis 38 

Bullard. E. D,, San Francisco 37 

Business Men's Clearing House, Denver 51 

Cal. Perforated Screen Co.. San Francisco 62 

Cameron Steam Pump Works, A. S., New York. 55 

Cary Spring Works. New York — 

Cement Gun. New York 33 

Chalmers & Williams, Chicago Heights, HI — 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago 36 

Colorado Iron Works Co,, Denver 63 

Con. Min. & Smelt. Co., Trail. B. C, Canada. . .48 
Coop, Paul H., San Francisco 53 

Deister Concentrator Co., Fort Wayne, Ind 61 

Deister Machine Co., Fort Wayne. Ind 64 

Deming Co., The, Salem, Ohio 61 

Denver Engineering Works Co., Denver — 

Denver Fire Clay Co., Denver 38 

Denver Hydro Co., Denver 25 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co.. Denver. . . .36 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co., Denver 47 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph, Jersey City, N. J.. 62 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co., Mishawaka, Ind 24 

Dorr Company, The, Denver — 

Duplex Truck Co.. Lansing, Mich — 

Du Pont Powder Co., Wilmington, Del 12 

Du Val & Co., W. M., San Francisco 52 

Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co., Inc., New York. 49 

Eccleston Machinery Co., Los Angeles. Cal 12 

Elmer, H. N., Chicago ■ — 

Empire Zinc Co.. New York 49 

English Iron Works Co., The, Kansas City, Mo, 14 

Fate. J. D., Plymouth, Ohio — 

Frenier & Son, Rutland, Vermont 62 

Fulton Engine Works, San Francisco — 



Page 

GaUgher Machy. Co.. Salt Lake City. Utah. . . . — 

Gardner Governor Co., Chicago — 

Garratt & Co., W. T., San Francisco — 

General Briquetting Co., New York 48 

General Electric Co., Schenectady. N. Y 30 

General Engineering Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. 46 
General Naval Stores, New York 62 

Hamilton, Beauchamp, Woodworth. Inc., San 

Francisco 46 

Hammond Iron Works, Warren. Pa 14 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co., New York — 

Harron, Bickard & McCone, San Francisco.... — 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co.. Denver. 10 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua, San Francisco. . . .6-7 

Hercules Powder Co.. Wilmington, Del — 

Hunter- Johnson Co., San Francisco 62 

Ingersoll-Rand Co., New York 11 

International High Speed Steel Co., New York, .bo 

International Smelting Co.. New York 48 

Irving-Pitt Mfg. Co., Kansas City, Mo 36 

Jackson Iron Works. Byron. San Francisco. . . . — 
James Ore Concentrator Co., Newark, N. J. . . .62 

Jasper Quarry Co., Sioux City, Iowa 37 

Johnson Engineering Works, Chicago 61 

Justrite Mfg. Co., Chicago 16 

Koering Cyanide Process Co., Detroit. Mich... 36 
Krogh Pump Mfg. Co., San Francisco 10 

Ladysmith Smelting Co., Ltd., Victoria. B. C. . .49 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co., Los Angeles, Cal. .62 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co,, A,. St. Louis 57 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co., New York — 

Link -Belt Company, Chicago, 111. — 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co.. St. Louis 5 

Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw. Mich 62 

Lunkenheimer Co., The, Cincinnati, Ohio 59 

Marion Steam Shovel Co., Marion, Ohio 57 

MePherson, M. C, Deadwood. S. D 50 

Meese & Gottfried Co., San Francisco 64 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co., Denver 9 

Minerals Separation North American Corp., 

New York 13 

Mines Supply Co., San Francisco 50 

Moores, E. M„ San Francisco 52 

Morse Bros. Maehy. & Sup. Co., Denver 

35-50-52-53 

National Eng. & Equipment Co.. Seattle, Wash. 25 

National Tank & Pipe Co., Portland, Ore 57 

National Tube Co.. Pittsburgh. Pa... Front Cover 
Nevada Engineering & Supply Co., Reno, Ner. .53 
New Mex. State School of Mines. Socorro, N. M.46 

New York Engineering Co., New York 27 

Nichols-Lvang Chemical Co.. San Francisco. . . .51 
Nordberg Mfg. Co.. Milwaukee, Wis 15 

Oliver Filter Co., San Francisco 2 

Ozark Smelt. & Min. Co., The, Cleveland. Ohio. 48 



Page 
Pacific Audit & System Co., Inc., San Francisco. — 

Pacific Foundry Co.. San Francisco 35 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co.. San Francisco 28 

Pacific Western Com'l. Co.. San Francisco 52 

Pelton Water Wheel Co., San Francisco — 

Pensocalo Tar & Turpentine Co,. Gull Point. Fla.62 

Piatt Iron Works. Dayton. Ohio 37 

Powell Co., Wm.. Cincinnati, Ohio — 

Prest-O-Lite Co., Inc., Indianapolis, Ind — 

Price Pump & Eng. Co.. G. W., San Francisco. .35 
Professional Directory 39-46 

Reardon, P. H., San Francisco 60 

Redwood Mfrs. Co., San Francisco — 

Reeves Pulley Co., Columbus, Ind 34 

Remington Typewriter Co.. San Francisco 24 

Rix Compressed Air Drill Co.. San Francisco. . . — 
Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co.. New York. 34 

Sacramento Pipe Works, Sacramento, Cal 55 

San Francisco Plating Works. San Francisco. .35 

Sauerman Bros.. Chicago 18 

Schools and Colleges 46 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co., San Francisco 49 

Senn Concentrator Co., San Francisco 3 

Siebe. Gorman & Co., Ltd.. Chicago — 

Smith, S. Morgan. York, Pa — 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co., Jersey City, N. J 34 

Southern Pacific Co., San Francisco — 

Southwestern Wrecking Co.. El Paso, Tex 

50-51-52-53 

Standard Oil Co., San Francisco — 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co., Denver 37 

Stimpson Equipment Co., Salt Lake City, Uath.61 
Sullivan Machinery Co., Chicago 17 

Tay, George H., San Francisco 61 

Thompson Balance Co., Denver — 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co., Allentown, Pa 33 

Toch Bros., New York — 

Troy Wagon Wks., Troy. Ohio — 

Union Construction Co., San Francisco 62 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., Boston. 48 
United Filters Corp., Salt Lake City. Utah.. 20-21 
Utah Leasing Co.. Salt Lake City, Utah 51 

Vogelstein & Co., L., New York 48 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.. Cleveland, Ohio... 63 

Western Gas Engine Corp., Los Angeles 34 

Western Pipe & Steel Co.. San Francisco — 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh. 

Pa 23 

White Co., The. Cleveland. Ohio 19 

Wilcox & Co.. S. H., New York — 

Wildberg Bros., San Francisco 48 

Witte Engine Works, Kansas City, Mo — 

Wood Drill Works, Paterson, N. J 55 

Worthington Pump & Machy. Corp., New York. 18 

Yuba Construction Co.. San Francisco 34 



FIRST 
STREET 





HUB 



ki 

SAN FEANCISCO 






Wi 



(ulachinery cuw supplies jo/ 




II FIRST 

"street 



cgmn xt 




COLUMN -HOISTS 

Steel Split Pulleys 
Wood Split Pulleys 
Air Compressors — 



IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT 

WRITE FOR PRICES 



July 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



61 



IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 




Triplex 
Pumps 

FOR 

Mine 

AND 

Mill 




All Sizes 

Carried 

in Stock 

Write for 
Catalog 




GEORGE H. TAY CO., Mission Street, Cor. Second, San Francisco 



Janney Flotation Machines 

are not on experiment. They are in successful operation in some of 
the world's largest mills. Either 

Janney Straight Mechanical Machines 

or 
Janney Mechanical and Air Machines 

are adaptable to every class of ore that can be treated by flotation. 
Our testing laboratory is conducted by metallunriets who are ex- 
perts in the process. Let us tell you what JANNEY Machines can 
do with your particular ore. 

STIMPSON EQUIPMENT CO. 

Sole Selling Agents 
FELT BUILDING, SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 



INVESTIGATE THE 

DEISTER-OVERSTROM TABLE 

FOR CAPACITY AND EFFICIENCY 



- 



BULLETIN of this table just issued. 
The Deister CONCENTRATOR Company 

Office, Factory and Test Plant: FORT WAYNE, IND. 
Cable address: "RETS/ED." >. B. C. 5th Edif/on. Bedford McNei/l. 



THE EXAMINATION OF PROSPECTS 

By C. GODFREY GVNTHER, E.M. 

Author of "Electro-Magnetic Ore Separation." 



222 Pages. 79 Illustrations. Leather, Pocket Size. 
92.0O Postpaid. 



Mr. Gunther's book emphasizes not only the fundamental 
business aspects of prospecting, but also the applications 
of economic geology to the examination of prospects. 

The first part of the book covers the general considera- 
tions — tho preliminary phases of the work. The latter deals 
with deposits — types, distribution, structural features, ores 
and ore-shoots, etc. 

It is a compact practical book. 



Carried In Stock by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



MARATHON 

GRINDING 

MILL 

has demonstrated its su- 
periority over the Chilean, 
Pebble and other Mills in 
t an official test. 

Write for a reprint 
copy of it. 

Johnson Engineering Works, Chicago 
First National Bank Building 

Ferine Coejt Manner, H. L. Van Winkle. 160 Beele St., Sen Franciico 




MINE 

PUMPS 



There is a Deming Pump 
to meet your every pump- 
ing need most efficiently. 
Made in all types (verti- 
cal or horizontal, station- 
ary or portable), and tor 
operation by any power. 



A statement of your pumping specifications will enable 
our experts to recommend to you the proper pump. 

The Deming Co., Salem, Ohio 

General Distributing Houses: 
San Francisco, Cal., Simonds Machinery Co., 117 New Montgomery St. 
Denver, Colo.. - - - - Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Supply Co. 
Chicago, 111., - - Henion & Hubbell. 217-331 North Jeflereon St. 
New Tork City, - - - Ralph B. Carter Co., 153 Chambers St. 



600 Illustrations 



Over 850 Pages 



Twelve Folding Plates 



1916 New, Revised and Enlarged Edition 

The Modern Gasoline Automobile 

Its Construction, Operation, 
Maintenance and Repair. 



By Victor W. Page, M.E. 

A Complete Automobile Book, Showing Every 
Recent Improvement. 

Price $2.50 

For Sale by MINING and Scientific Press, 420 Market St.. San Francisco 



62 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 



AMERICAN CAST IRON PIPE COMPANY 

MANUFACTURERS OF 




BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 



ALES OFFICES 



Birmingham, Ala. — Box 908. 
Columbus. Ohio— 607 New Hayden Bldg. 
Minneapolis, Minn. — 712 Plymouth Bldg. 
New York City— No. 1 Broadway 



Chicago, 111—512 1st Nat. Bk. Bldg. 
Dallas. Tex.— 1217 Praetorian Bldg. 
Kansas City, Mo.— 716 Scamtt Bldg. 
San Francisco, Cal.— 71 1 Balboa Bldg. 



SEND FOR CATALOG 

A-9 OF BALANCES 
BX-9 OF ENGINEERING INSTRUMENTS 



WRAmSWOETB 

• arsons 



"||»IIJJ;irtHl.l!«:!^.| ; VHl i< i 



DENVER.C010. 
U.S.A. » 




LOCOMOTIVES 

and CARS 

FOB MINES, SMELTERS, ETC. 
ELECTRIC CARS 

Switches. Frogs, and Equipment. 

THE ATLAS CAR & MFG. CO. 

Dept. K, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 



BACON v FARREL 

ORE & ROCK 

CRUSHING v WORLD KNOWN 

ROLLS-CRUSHERS 



Dixon's (pilnee r ) Boiler Graphite 

The Boiler Graphite that gives results and saves money. 

Send for booklet No. 141-T. 

Made in JERSEY CITY, N. J., by the 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company 



&&3 




Established 1827 



FRENIER'S SAND PUMP 

THE MOST DURABLE FOR 

SLIMES, TAILINGS, BATTERY SANDS, Etc. 

AGENTS 
Allis-Chalmers Co. Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Chicago. 111. Denver, Colo. 

Harron. Riekard & McCone. San Francisco 
Frank R. Perrot. Sydney and Perth. Australia 

FRENIER&SON. RUTLAND. Vl 



FLOTATION 

PURE PINE OIL : : PINE TAR OIL 
HARDWOOD AND COAL TAR CREOSOTE 

General Naval Stores Co., 90 West Street, New York 



BLAKE, MOFFITT & TOWNE 

DEALERS IN PAPER 

S7 TO 45 FIR8T STREET, SAN FRANCI8C0, CAL. 
BRANCH HOUSES IN LOS ANGELES AND PORTLAND 



DREDGES FOR GOLD AND TIN 

UNION CONSTRUCTION CO. 

604 Mission St.. San Francisco, Cal. 

NEILL JIGS AGENTS FOR 

UNION CHURN DRILLS D „ 

bounder oil engines Hucyrus Lompany 



/UFK/N 



Backed by a record of 25 years 

of dependable service. 

CATALOG ON REQUEST 

th e /ufkin Pule (7a 



Measuring 
Tapes and 
Rules 



SAGINAW, MICH 

New York 




THE LANE SLOW SPEED CHILEAN MILL 

Simply Constructed — Strong — Dependable. It is especially noted for 
superior amalgamating ability, and is capable of delivering such 
a fine product for cyanide or flotation that it is often possible to 
avoid using a regrinder. Send for 52 page catalog describing this 
most efficient machine. 

LANE MILL & MACHINERY CO., w tfft£iC!\J8?»- 



California Perforating Screen Go. 




Manufacturers of perforated Sheet 
Metals of all kinds for Mining and 
Milling Machinery and other uses. 

16 Harrison St., San Francisco 



Jigs, Screens, Sand and Slime 
Tables, Classifiers, Automatic 
Ore Feeders, Etc. 

Manufactured by 
JAMES ORE CONCENTRATOR CO. 

35 Runyon Street Newark, N. J. 



PINE 



FLOTATION OILS 

Pcnsacola Tar & Turpentine Company 



F. E. MARINER, Pres. 



Gull Point, Fla. 



FLOTATION OILS 

Coal Tar, Coal Tar Creosote and Distilled Pine Products 

Prompt deliveries from the Coast. Write for Samples. 

HUNTER -JOHNSON CO., 3U s , S3fe£ir al 



West Australian Mining Practice 

By E. Davenport Cleland. 268 pages, 110 illustrations. 14 folding 
plates. Cloth. 88.00. 

A description of the mining methods followed by the principal 
gold mines of Western Australia. 

For Sale by 
MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 .MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO 



-i ii t x 7. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



63 



THE PORTLAND FILTER 




Ask for Bulletin 28-B! 



Continuous and Automatic 

A thin cake, quickly formed, thoroughly washed 
with little solution and water, and easily removed, 
is the basis of Portland Filter success. 

The capacity per unit of filtering area is very 
great, and the absence of manual labor and atten- 
tion, economy in power and reduced wear on 
cloths makes up a cost total which in fairly large 
installations does not exceed $0,035 per ton of 
dry solids. 

Patented features place the Portland Filter in 
a class by itself. Free and unobstructed drainage 
within the sections results in perfectly uniform 
suction and drainage over the entire width of 
face of the machine. Cake is loaded evenly, and 
is dislodged without clinging more to one part 
than another. 

The Portland is sold outright, and there are 
absolutely no royalties to pay. It is a completely 
finished machine, easy to assemble. 



Colorado Iron Works Company 

New York Office: 309 Broadway DenVeP, ColO. 




ELECTRIC MINE HOISTS OF EXCEPTIONAL QUALITY 

One of the Latest 
W-S-M Types 





Hoist Designed and Built for the Cananea Consolidated Copper Co., Cananea. Mexico 



The hoists which we build today are 
splendid tributes to the way in which we are 
utilizing our 30 years experience by tore- 
seeing the hoisting needs ot the mining in- 
dustry. The hoist shown, for example, is 
provided with machined herring-bone gears 
encased in oil-tight housing; steel drums; 
weighted steel safety brakes, and strong 
steel clutches, all operated by compressed 
air cylinders with cataract cylinders at- 
tached. The brakes are instantly applied 
upon failure of air pressure or if electric 
current is cut off. 

5 



You can secure continuous operating economy 
by letting us work out your lioisting problems. 

Wfmw-StMRllQKm Co. 



NEW YORK— Hudson Terminal 



CLEVELAND, OHIO, U. S. A. 

DENVER— 611 Ideal Building 



MEXICO, D. F. Apartado 1220 



64 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 7, 1917 




Single Deck Simplex Slimer 




Note: 



Double Deck Simple! 
Sand Table 



Single Deck Simplex 
Sand Table 



Simplex Rougher and Finisher (Large Size) 
GIVE US A TRIAL ORDER 



Our new patented feature on the tables consists of 
the cleaning or dressing zone being elevated or higher 
than the riffled portion of the table, but substantially 
parallel therewith. 

This will epable you to make a cleaner concentrate 
and lower tailing; also treat a much larger tonnage 
and gives the table an automatic control of the line of 
separation. 

This is the reason why the Deister SIMPLEX tables 
are the best you can buy today. 

MANUFACTURED AND SOLD EXCLUSIVELY BY 




Cone Baffle Classifier 
(Patented) 



WRITE FOR CATALOGUE TODAY 



DEISTER MACHINE COMPANY 



EMIL DEISTER, Pro. 

HOME OFFICE AND FACTORY: 



East Wayne Street, 



W. F. DEISTER, Vice-Pre.. 

FORT WAYNE, IND., U. S. A. 



:*.>> 



Ever been 

"up against it 

and wanted to put 
in a belt drive but 
couldn't find room 
to get sufficient 
distance between 
pulleys? 




Meeseco Belt Drive, 6 ft. 6 in. centers, transmitting 1 50 H. P. from motor at 700 
R. P. M. to air compressor at 140 R. P. M. 



Next time put in a Meeseco Belt Drive, the perfect 
short center silent drive for any speed or power. 



SEND FOR DATA SHEET 



JUmt kdottfriri* Company 



ENGINEERS AND MANUFACTURERS 



SAN FRANCISCO 
660 Mission St. 



PORTLAND 
67 Front St. 



SEATTLE 
558 First Ave. So. 



LOS ANGELES 
400 E. Third St. cor. San Pedro 



• 

EDITORIAL STAFF: 
T. A. R1CKARD - . Editor 
COURTENAY DEKALB. 

Associate Editor 
W. H. STORMS - Newt Editor 



Mining *s» Press 



ESTABLISHED i860 
PuMillud m JJO Mnrkfl Si.. San Francisco, by (lie Dewey FllblilMtul Company 



ill SINESS STAFF: 
C. T. HUTCHINSON. Meaean 

E. H. LESLIE 
600 Fuher Bdg.. Chlc.no 

w 

A. S. BREAKEY 

1760 Woolworlh Bds.. New York 



:;ili:ill!:i!ii;llll,:lli:u;i,;i;! I:';:,:::!.:.!. :;:ii;ril!iiini!i:i:!i in, 



Science has no enemy save the ignorant 



Issued Every Saturday 



San Francisco, July 14, 1917 



$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



EDITORIAL 



Paga 
. . 37 



Notes 

The Striking Miners 38 

Labor disturbances in Montana and Arizona; dissatis- 
fied aliens; extravagant ways of living; should the cop- 
per companies share their profits with their em- 
ployees? M. & S. P., July 14, 1917. 

The New Metallurgy 39 

Early development of hydro-metallurgy coincident 
with early development of the science of chemistry; 
mechanical improvements again gave smelting the 
lead; electro-chemistry now threatening to supersede 
pyro-metallurgy. M. & S. P., July 14, 1917. 

Opportunity fob Small Obe-Producebs 40 

Government's call for lead; shippers to smelters 
may require one-sixth of the lead to be sold to the 
Government; recognition of the rights of small pro- 
ducers; miners may force smelters to contract through 
associations for ore-selling. M. & S. P., July 14, 1917. 

DISCUSSION 

The Development of Flotation. 

By A. Schwarz 41 

Perspicacity of Dr. Gahl's comments in 1916; finds 
frothing due to water-soluble substances; reaction be- 
tween oil and sulphide minerals; reaction between the 
water-soluble 'frothers' and substances in the pulp 
forming soaps, thus modifying surface-tension. M. & 
S. P., July 14, 1917. 



Pibe-Pbotection in Shafts. 

By Frank A. Madson 

Two methods of fire-fighting in shafts; fire-plugs at 
intervals; modification of Grinnell automatic sprinkler 
system. M. & S. P., July 14, 1917. 

The Extra-Lateral Right. 

By Wm. E. Colby and Leroy A. Palmer 

Most of the apex-suits are appealed; such litigation 
most common where placer-claims are numerous; de- 
sirable to sever surface from mineral titles. Con- 
flicting surface-locations chief cause of litigation; any 
land-classification based on geologic opinion will pro- 
voke litigation; extra-lateral right an anachronism. 
M. & S. P., July 14, 1917. 



41 



42 



Hyobo-Metallubgy v. Smelting. Page. 

By A. E. Drucker 44 

Prophesies displacement of pyro-metallurgy by wet- 
methods. M. & S. P., July 14, 1917. 

Misfires. 

By Miner , 44 

M. & S. P.. July 14, 1917. 

ARTICLES 

Seale-Shellsheab 'Cascade' Process 44 

Method at Central mine, Broken Hill; reduction of 
power-cost; no propellors needed. M. & S. P., July 
14, 1917. 

Principles of Flotation — II. 

By T. A. Rickard 45 

Bubbles, conditions of formation and stability; thick- 
ness of the film; cause of the bubble's lifting power; 
the substance of the film; selective adsorption of oil on 
mineral; viscosity in relation to bubble-films; attrac- 
tion of mineral to the oil-water interface; air does not 
attach itself to mineral; statement of the flotation 
hypothesis. M. & S. P., July 14, 1917. 

What is a Metalliferous Mineral? 

By L. 0. Howard 55 

Ruling of Commissioner of General Land Office on 
carnotite ore; 61asses it with borax, salt, limestone, 
and potash for purposes of land-classification; bases 
opinion on fact of radium and uranium being used as 
salts, and denies that vanadium is a metal. M. & S. P., 
July 14, 1917. 

Obubo Tin-Silver District, Bolivia. 

By Francis Church Lincoln 57 

Age of the Oruro mines; the tin-silver vein-type; 
geological setting; order of the ore-minerals. M. & S. 
P., July 14, 1917. 

DEPARTMENTS 

Review of Mining 59 

The Mining Summary 63 

Personal 68 

The Metal Market 69 

Eastern Metal Market 70 

Company Reports 71 

Meeting Nevada Section A. I. M. E 72 

Mining Decisions 72 



Established May 24. 1860. as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 



Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg.: New York. 1760 Woolwortb 
Bdg.: London. 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price. 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance: 
United States and Mexico, $4: Canada, $5: other countries in postal union, 
25s. or ¥6. 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



Transporting Union Drill over 40 Mile Trail 

These Field Pictures 
Tell The Story 

The Union Prospecting Drill 

is incomparably light and can be transported, 
handled and operated with an ease heretofore 
unknown for a drill having its capacity. 

The Type B Drill shown in the bottom illustration 
weighs 2150 lb. Drills of this type are drilling 60 ft. 
ground and deeper, at the rate of 20 to 25 ft. a day, 
using 5-in. casing, which cuts a 6% in. diameter hole. 
The engine burns %o of a gal. of gasoline per hour. 

Every Drill guaranteed. 

Bulletin, giving' complete description, on request 

Union Construction Company 

604 Mission Street San Francisco 

H. G. PEAKE W. W. JOHNSON 

Engineers and Dredge Builders 

Agents for Bucyrus Placer Dredges on the 
Pacific Coast, in British Columbia and Alaska 




July It, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



37 



DITORIAL 



R I C K A R D 



Editor 



1 



NDKX for Vol. 114, January to June 1917, is now 
ready ami may be obtained by writing to this office. 



SEVENTEEN copper-mining companies distributed 
$91,669,281 in dividends for the first half of the cur- 
rent year, as compared with $65,046,051 during the cor- 
responding period of last year. 

W7TIAT kind of postal facilities exist in parts of Mex- 
" ico, such as Chihuahua, is illustrated by the fact 
that a letter sent from this office on March 5, 1912, has 
just come back marked, in French and Spanish, "Re- 
turned owing to interruption of communications." 

T) EFERRING to the use of alpha-naphthylamine in 
■*-*- flotation, as patented recently by Mr. Harry P. 

Corliss, we are able to state that since the use of it was 
introduced at the Magnia mill, in Arizona, the tailing 
has been reduced to 0.3% copper, as against 0.6% for- 
merly, on a 4 to 4^% feed. Mr. Corliss has another 
patent for the use of nitro-naphthalene. 

A NNOUNCEMENT is made from Petrograd that it is 
-^*- intended to place many Russian mines in charge of 
Americans. This is said to have been decided by the 
Mining Commission of the Ministry of Trade. It is also 
reported that American capitalists will be offered the 
island of Saghalien, or the Russian half of it, for ex- 
ploiting petroleum and coal deposits. All this is im- 
portant, if confirmed. 



OT. JOHN DEL REY, the deepest metal mine in the 
^ world, is, as our readers know, a gold mine in Brazil. 
According to the latest report the shaft is now 6800 feet 
deep, and yet the manager is able to state that ' ' a change 
has undoubtedly taken place in the lower horizons 
[levels] which seems favorable both as regards the 
quality of the mineral [ore] and also as regards the size 
of the lode, as shown by its sectional area." "We con- 
gratulate Mr. George Chalmers and his excellent staff. 

yiNC-PRODUCTION is far below the present capaci- 
*-* ties of the mines and reduction-works. This has 
led to a consideration of possible new uses. It is pointed 
out that the excessive demand for iron and steel has re- 
sulted in a shortage of galvanized sheet-metal; likewise 
tin-plate is harder to get, and sheet-copper is selling at 
almost prohibitive prices. Considering the applicability 
of sheet-zinc to many purposes for which galvanized and 
tinned sheet and sheet-copper have ordinarily been em- 
ployed, the New Jersey Zinc Company has decided to 
erect a sheet-zinc mill at Palmerton, Pennsylvania. This 



may encourage a permanent increase in the utilization of 
zinc in that form. The price of sheet-zinc averages to- 
day about 7 1 cents per pound more than the spelter 
from which it is made. The cost of rolling is small com- 
pared with this difference, thus indicating an oppor- 
tunity to enlarge the demand for the metal in that di- 
rection. 



"T" STIMATES of cost have been hard hit by the War, 
J - J especially if they were such as might be considered 
sanguine even in time of peace. Thus the Chile, or Chu- 
quicamata, forecast of producing copper for 4 cents per 
pound may be compared with the 9 cents that is declared 
as the average of producing copper "at the plant" dur- 
ing the last quarter. To this cost "at the plant" must 
be added 3.75 cents per pound for freight and insur- 
ance — both abnormal just now — and marketing, so that 
the real cost is 12.75, which is in violent contrast to the 
cheerful 4 cents of the prospectus. 

TF we have failed on occasion to be impressed by the 
-*- doings of the Mining and Metallurgical Society of 
America, we are all the more glad to express respect for 
the manner in which the leading members of the Society 
assembled to consider ways and means of doing patriotic 
service immediately after the declaration of war. We 
have read the account of that meeting as recorded in 
Bulletin No. 108 and confess gladly that it does honor 
not only to" the group of men participating but to the 
profession that they represented so worthily. Mr. W. R. 
Ingalls, as president and chairman, steered the meeting 
most happily and made a number of pertinent sugges- 
tions. He said, for example : "In this national crisis we 
professional men are anxious to know what we can do 
and to do what we can. Nobody yet knows. We must 
find out what we can do." Mr. Lawrence Addicks, with 
his experience as a member of the Naval Consulting 
Board, described the difficulty of making use of the tre- 
mendous volume of offers to serve. He quoted, from a 
recent proclamation of the President, the statement that 
"if the metal industries fail, the work of the statesman 
and the soldier is absolutely useless." A telegram was 
read from Colonel Robert M. Thompson in which that 
excellent citizen said: "My advice would be, pull to- 
gether to increase production and urge every individual 
to decrease his consumption." That is to the point; it 
combines the purposes alike of the organization identified 
with Mr. Bernard Baruch and of Mr. Herbert Hoover, 
of raw materials and food administration. Capt. Stuart 
Godfrey, of the Engineer Corps of the Army, made a fine 
speech crowned by the quotation of Henley's poem on 
'Peace and War.' Incidentally he stated that the av- 



38 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



erage normal size of the gallery made by the tunnelling 
engineers at the front, as at Messines, is 4 feet high, by 
2| feet wide, and that the average rate of progress is 12 
feet per day. Three men work at the face, one excavat- 
ing, one filling the sand-bags, and one resting. He said : 
"This is a day of great opportunity, not only for the 
individual, but for the Nation as a whole. We shall 
suffer, if the "War lasts; we shall feel it, but we shall 
grow." Yes, indeed, grow great and fine instead of big 
and fat. After Capt. Godfrey came Major Dwight, 
whom most of us know better as Arthur S. Dwight. He 
was one of the first to join the Engineer Officers' Reserve 
Corps and has taken an honorably prominent part in 
organizing the First Reserve Engineers, a volunteer regi- 
ment recruited in New York. Others contributed to the 
discussion, notably Mr. P. E. Barbour, who also holds a 
military commission. Then came an interesting sug- 
gestion, made by Mr. S. C. Thomson, well known in 
South Africa, that American coal-miners should be re- 
cruited, and sent under the direction of American mining 
engineers, to re-open the coal mines around Lens as soon 
as that district has been re-conquered by the British. 
Mr. Thomson had written to the Director of the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines and had received a sympathetic reply. 
Reference was also made to a resolution forwarded by 
the San Francisco section of the Society recommending 
that one or more representatives or commissioners be 
sent to Europe with a view to ascertaining what was the 
most useful service that could be rendered by the Society 
as a whole or by its members. 

rPHINGS are not always what they seem. Sometimes 
•*- we wish they were. Among the items of news that 
would be labeled 'important, if true' are two appearing 
in the daily press. The first states that the new 'grenade' 
employed by our destroyers has proved most effective 
against the Enemy's submarines, this grenade being 
sufficiently violent when exploded even within 50 feet 
of a U-boat to send it to the bottom. Therefore less 
accuracy of fire, as compared with an ordinary shell, 
suffices to destroy the assassin of the seas. This report 
is given some measure of dignity by being tagged as a 
'Special Dispatch' from Washington. Next we are told, 
from El Paso, that General Gonzales, commanding in 
Northern Mexico, has expressed sentiments friendly to the 
United States and to our Allies. "A well defined move- 
ment favoring an open break with Germany" has devel- 
oped, and it is predicted that Mexico will declare war 
against the Enemy within 30 days. Furthermore, the 
Mexican government intends to make the Tampico oil- 
fields safe as a source of supply for the allied fleets by de- 
claring a zone within which traffic will be restricted. This 
sounds cheerful, but the best is yet to come. It is an- 
nounced, from the same not wholly reliable source that 
the mines, mills, and smelters of Mexico are to be placed 
under the protection (or confiscation?) of the Govern- 
ment of Sefior Carranza in order that they may produce 
metals and munitions for the Allies. The introduction 
of a device to destroy submarines and the protection of 



American mining enterprise in Mexico would be two 
developments so gratifying as to border on the mar- 
velous. For such a turn of events we hope devoutly. 

The Striking Miners 

Since we wrote on this subject, last week, the trend of 
events has been all the wrong way. Strikes have multi- 
plied and spread in the principal copper-mining dis- 
tricts, particularly in the South- West. At Butte only a 
tenth of the pay-roll is at work. Circumstantial evi- 
dence would appear to indicate that the four recent un- 
derground fires in this district were of incendiary origin. 
The testimony of a survivor from the Speculator dis- 
aster shows that the fire in that mine was started by a 
sub-foreman who ignited the insulation of an electric 
wire, the lead-pipe covering of which had been broken, 
in the shaft. The managers have been slow to ventilate 
these facts because they feared that men would be in- 
timidated from coming to work. However, the suspicion 
of incendiarism was sufficient to cause many men to stop 
work several weeks before the strike. In the Globe- 
Miami district the three big mines are idle, and regular 
troops have arrived to prevent disorder. The mines of 
the Clifton-Morenci district are practically shut-down. 
Bisbee is much in the same plight. Austrians, who con- 
stitute a considerable part of the labor element in Ari- 
zona, have shown themselves truculent; they have at- 
tacked American miners and threatened violence to 
county officials. On July 5 the President telegraphed to 
ex-Governor Hunt asking him to use his influence as a 
mediator. Meanwhile a favorable sign is the evidence 
of jealousy and antagonism between the I. W. W. — the 
Industrial Workers of the World, known also as 'I Won't 
Work' — and the International Union of Mine, Mill, and 
Smelter Workers, which is headed by Charles H. Moyer, 
formerly identified with that anarchistic organization the 
Western Federation of Miners. Mr. Moyer has charged 
the rival organization, now the principal agent in fo- 
menting these unpatriotic proceedings, with being 
financed by German money and stimulated by German 
propaganda. We are slow to believe anything so damn- 
able, but Senator Charles S. Thomas, of Colorado, has 
come out with a positive statement that domestic war is 
being made behind our backs "by individuals in the 
employ of our enemies." The sheriff at Clifton has 
stated in print that it is difficult for him "to believe, 
especially at this time, that any loyal American would 
contemplate anything which might in the slightest de- 
gree cripple the Government of our country. The clos- 
ing down or hindrance of the great copper industry in 
this section would prove a direct blow, and a heavy one, 
to the Government of the United States. ' ' It would in- 
deed ; and yet, Mr. Sheriff, you must know that nearly 
50% of the men on the pay-rolls of the copper mines in 
Arizona are Americans only from the fact of domicile. 
They came to the United States to obtain higher wages; 
most of them do not speak our language ; and only a few 
of them have become citizens in spirit as well as in form. 



July 14, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



The problem of labor-control in these copper-mining 
districts is largely that of disciplining a mol> of un 
educated aliens, for whom the fact of the United States 
being at war is only an opportunity to make unreason- 
able demands upon their employers. In our last issue 
we published, under '.Mining News,' the demands made 
by the union at Miami and the straightforward reply 
made by Mr. C. E. Mills, the manager for the Inspiration 
Consolidated Copper Company. The demands indicate 
a 'hold-up' during time of war. That is all that need be 
said of them : they include the abolition of the contract- 
bonus and of the sliding-scale, besides a minimum wage 
of $6 for all men working underground. We are in- 
formed by an engineer, not now in the employ of the 
local companies, that two organizers of trouble at Miami 
were formerly members of the "Western Federation and 
one of them was a colleague of Moyer during the bitter 
strike at Houghton. Our correspondent listened to the 
open-air speech-making, and informs us that there was 
very little said about the scale of wages, but a great deal 
about the 'rustler's card,' which is simply the black-list 
of those known to be fomenters of trouble, sometimes 
legitimate labor-leaders, but usually lawless agitators. 
Our correspondent has talked with a great many Ameri- 
can miners, carpenters, and engineers and has ascer- 
tained that these had no wish to strike. The miners are 
"disgruntled over the cost of living and some blame it 
on the mining companies," he says. At Miami break- 
fast costs 30 cents; lunch (put up at a restaurant), 40 
cents; supper, 50 cents; $10 per month is paid for a 
xoom, 25c. for the round-trip fare in an automobile, and 
$1.35 for the hospital fee, making in all $56.30 per month 
for necessaries as against wages at $5.40 per day, or 
$151.20 per month. Our informant himself lived in this 
way; he asserts that a man and wife can live at Miami 
for nearly the same cost as the single man, so that he is 
of the opinion that the strikers are "unreasonable." 
It is not the cost of living but the spending for luxury 
that has impoverished the mine-worker. The statement 
has been made that the miner can save no more at $5.50 
per day than he could formerly when his wages were 
$3.50. This is untrue, if any idea of thrift be implicit. 
When wages were $3.50, the miner could save $1 ; now, 
granting an increase of 50% in the cost of living, he 
should save $1.75. He does not do so, but that is not 
the fault of his employer. The idea that the copper com- 
pany must increase its scale of wages in proportion to 
the dividends it pays is neither just nor practicable. It 
would work a hardship on other forms of industry, 
notably gold mining. The Ford system of paying ex- 
travagant wages may prove beneficial to a particular 
business while it is prospering, but it means the diver- 
sion of labor from other sources and the continuous 
fomenting of unrest. We agree that it seems inequitable 
that the copper companies should gain so greatly from 
the abnormal market created by the War while other 
businesses are suffering from the same cause, but we do 
not see why any further part of their dividends should 
go to laborers that are already receiving 60% more than 



before the War. If the profits of the copper companies 
are to be taxed, they should be taxed by the Govern 
tor the benefit of the nation ami for the success of the 
struggle in which we are engaged. 

The New Metallurgy 

Hydro-metallurgy of the common metals had a brief 
vogue about 70 years ago, and aroused the enthusiastic 
hopes of the mining world. There are fashions in 
technology as in other things, and back of them lies 
a compelling principle. It is a part of the spirit of 
progress, which the biologist would call variation. An 
invariable metallurgy would be possible only in a world 
of shrunken intelligence. It is associated with the em- 
piricisms of mastercraftsmanship, exaggerating the im- 
portance of the 'cunning' workman hedged about by 
secrecy. The earlier development of hydro-metallurgy 
coincided with the beginnings of conscious strength in 
the field of chemistry when men realized that they were 
exchanging the juvenilities of an art for scientific un- 
derstanding. Scarcely more than a hundred years ago 
the phlogiston theory of combustion still inflamed the 
imagination of scientific enquirers. Although over- 
thrown by Lavoisier near the end of the 18th century, 
the notion lingered far into the 19th. The first half of 
the last century was essentially a period of investigation 
into chemical laws and of weeding out the absurd medie- 
val conceptions of pseudo-science. It is not surprising 
that the chemists, in the flush of epoch-making discov- 
eries, should then have challenged the supremacy of 
Vulcan. It was at this time that Ziervogel worked out 
the delicate balance between iron and copper in an 
argentiferous matte, enabling him, by a complicated and 
equally delicate method of roasting, to extract the silver 
as a water-soluble sulphate. Augustin had preceded 
him with a chloridizing roast of copper matte to admit 
of leaching the silver chloride in hot brine. Following 
on the heels of these came the hyposulphite system, which 
endured until replaced by the cyanide process. For the 
treatment of copper the Longmaid-Henderson method 
was brought forward about 1842 in an effort to solve the 
problem of cheap and high extraction from cupriferous 
cinder coming from the pyrite-burners at sulphuric-acid 
works; this consisted of chloridizing the copper by a 
final roast with salt, condensing the gases and vapors, 
and leaching the residual 'cinder' with water and tower- 
acid, whereby the copper, gold, and silver were extracted. 
These are but examples of many hydro-metallurgic 
processes that aroused interest before the impetus of 
mechanical improvement, accompanying the reduction 
in cost of power-generation, gave to pyro-metallurgy a 
decided lead. The principle of mere bigness also had 
much to do with this development ; enlargement of shaft- 
furnaces, deeper blast-penetration, water-jacketing of 
the smelting zone, and finally the bessemerizing of copper 
matte, coming to its consummation in capacity and 
economy through the Great Falls type of huge basic- 
lined converter. Perhaps pyro-metallurgy may not have 



40 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



reached the limit of its evolution, but a new science has 
come to maturity as a lusty younger brother of chem- 
istry. Electro-chemistry has renewed the assault on 
smelting. Mr. A. E. Drucker says this week in our Dis- 
cussion department that "present-day smelting methods 
of extracting copper . . . will be replaced gradually 
by a combined roasting and hydro-metallurgical treat- 
ment on the spot." A similar prophesy was made boldly 
several years ago by Mr. Pope Yeatman. These opinions 
point the direction of metallurgic advance. Other con- 
ditions must soon give way to practices more scientific and 
savoring less of the muscular metallurgy of Tubal Cain, 
such as the forging of steel that will ultimately be set 
aside through control of the physico-chemical relations 
of its constituents to produce the qualities desired. 
Clearly the future development of metallurgy will be in 
the utilization of wet recovery and electrolysis on the 
one hand, and the direct use of energy in the form of 
high current-density in the electric furnace on the other. 
This seems to be indicated further by the growing possi- 
bilities not only of high recoveries from ores by flota- 
tion but by the possibility of producing cleaner concen- 
trate than ever before, and also by the making of suit- 
ably refined salts for reduction, all of which will be de- 
manded by the newer metallurgy. 



Opportunity for Small Ore-Producers 

Small producers of lead will be interested in the cir- 
cular issued by Mr. Clintpn H. Crane, the chairman of 
the Committee on Lead, a sub-committee of the Council 
of National Defense, calling for offers of that metal at 
the rate of 8 cents per pound. We reproduced the circu- 
lar last week, and we direct special attention to it as the 
embodiment of a principle that we hope will be expanded 
in the administration of the work coming under the pur- 
view of other committees for supplying raw materials to 
the Government. Complaint has been general because 
the organization of the committees on metals seemed to 
exclude participation of the independent producer in 
the prevailing high prices. As a result the agitation for 
State smelters, and for other means of control to ensure 
a fair deal, has been intensified recently. Now comes 
Mr. Crane, saying in his circular, ' ' If you do not own a 
smelter, may we ask you to instruct the smelter which 
smelts your ores to furnish one-sixth of the lead-content 
of the ore which it accepts from you in July on this Gov- 
ernment order and notify them that you will accept in 
settlement for that amount of lead in your ore the price 
that the Government is paying." That price is 8 cents 
per pound, a material improvement over the 4| cents 
that the smelters have been paying on acceptances. The 
small shipper will point sarcastically to the "one-sixth" 
of the metal-content to be paid at the higher rate, and 
to the joker in the phrase that limits this enjoyment to 
those whose ore the smelter "accepts." The imputation 
of favoritism apparently has a peg to hang on ; that must 
be admitted. Even Mr. Crane must concede it. Never- 



theless, it is a symptom that the Government recognizes 
its duty to treat equally the offerings of the great and 
the small. It would be interesting to see what would 
happen if shippers familiar with accurate sampling, but 
having no contracts with the smelters, were to offer ore 
of favorable composition in response to the Govern- 
ment's call. It is doubtful if it would be rejected. The 
difficulty is that the owners of small mines, who are 
being crowded out of the boom-market today, lack the 
financial nerve to maintain their rights. A man may 
have moral backbone enough to fight for his democratic 
privileges, but he must also have a large financial cord 
in his spine to carry the war into the smelting company's 
preserves so that it may become aware of the invasion. 
It is for this reason that we have urged organization as 
the surest and most rational means of gaining recog- 
nition from the smelters. In his inner consciousness the 
small shipper must realize that he rarely can deliver a 
large tonnage of ore on a long-time contract. He may 
talk about three carloads a week when making an offer, 
but when the time of delivery comes it too often happens 
that he may deliver three carloads in the first week and 
then stop until he has developed more ore. Likewise, 
having neither adequate means for sampling, nor proper 
training for doing it correctly, he over-guesses the metal- 
content of his ore. To the smelter, who must look ahead 
in calculating furnace-charges that will maintain a 
nearly uniform metal-burden and invariable slag-type, 
without which economical working-conditions are im- 
possible, it is of the utmost importance to have depend- 
able supplies of ore at command. Until the small pro- 
ducers can render themselves dependable by effective 
organization they will suffer as a class because of the 
general shortcomings of the individual. On the other 
hand, if 40 small operators with mines tributary to a 
single shipping-point were to form an association, main- 
taining a sampling-works, experienced samplers, and an 
assay-office, with a good business man as general man- 
ager, and this organization could guarantee 20 carloads 
of ore per week, of known composition, we believe the 
smelters would be ready to make contracts. Whenever 
dozens of such organizations in a State are associated for 
doing business on a larger scale, the moral force of num- 
bers and their consequent responsibility will soon make 
them a power in the metal world. We have sympathy 
with the hardships of the small worker; he is indeed 
crowded out of the banquet-hall, but effectiveness comes 
from momentum, and momentum is a product of factors 
in which mass is more easily attained than velocity. The 
power of democracies lies in the association of groups 
rather than in the possession of a potential. The ability 
of the small ore-producer to reach the market and to re- 
ceive respectful treatment lies in association. Through 
joining an organization he will be forced to take his own 
measure more correctly, and the development of such 
groups of independent producers, enjoying both tech- 
nical and financial credit, will lead to a recognition that 
men standing alone, and having but a driblet to offer, 
cannot expect to command. 



.Tulv 14. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



41 



DISCUSSION 

Our reader* are invited to um thie department for the diecustion of terluu'ml and other matter* jur/uhiim/ in 
mining and metallurgy. Tim Editor welcomes ejcpreteiont of views contrary to hie own, believing thai careful 

criticism it more ralmddr thou nisiml. rompliimnt. 



The Development of Flotation 

The Editor: 

Sir — On this late date I find in your publication an 
article written by Rudolf Gahl on the 'Future Develop- 
ment of the Flotation Process' in your issue of December 
30, 1916. Dr. Gahl's interesting observations still hold 
good, although they are at this time nearly one year old 
and that means a lot in the flotation process. He dis- 
cusses in this article my patent No. 807,501, and 1 would 
like to add a little to the cold legal language in which 
such patents are naturally written. 

In my work in the flotation process, which dates back 
to 1903. I never have been and I never am, up to this 
present date, a believer in what is known as the 'adhe- 
sion' theory of the flotation process. One of the detri- 
ments to the flotation process is our distinction between 
organic and inorganic chemistry. Of course, there is no 
such thing, and it is only a term of convenience. Students 
of the flotation process are mostly accustomed to either 
organic or inorganic work, and will often overlook the 
possible reactions between substances belonging to either 
class, yet the formation of compounds between organic 
and inorganic substances is very well known and I be- 
lieve plays an important part in flotation. The formation 
of insoluble soaps, such as those of magnesia, alumina, 
lime, and barium, will undoubtedly influence the process 
very materially. 

Dr. Gahl, in the latter part of his article, makes the 
observation that he finds a great deal of support for the 
assumption that froth is caused by water-soluble sub- 
stances. We have, like a red thread going all through the 
process, a combination of sulphide minerals and hydro- 
carbons or their derivatives. We can also take almost 
any flotation agent and extract something water-soluble 
out of it. We can take that same agent after the extrac- 
tion is made and its usefulness is materially decreased. 
This shows that the soluble substances are of great im- 
portance, and it is my theory that a chemical reaction be- 
tween the mineral and these soluble substances takes 
place. When I described in my patent a sulphide-coat- 
ing I had in mind not only a sulphide mineral but a sul- 
phide compound which I believe formed between the so- 
called organic oils and the so-called inorganic minerals. 

Since this patent was applied for I have spent close 
to 15 years more or less on experimentation on the flota- 
tion process and have practically verified this theory, 
that is, that the flotation process depends for its success 
upon the presence of water-soluble substances which 
actually react with the mineral and also form certain 



insoluble soaps. Insoluble oils may be present and may 
help the process, but solely through the action of modify- 
ing the surface-tension. 

The successful float means to obtain the proper reagent 
(mostly of organic character) to promote the proper 
chemical reaction between the mineral and this reagent, 
and to select modifying agents to obtain the right sur- 
face-tension, without, however, interfering with the chem- 
ical reactions of the water-soluble substances; and both 
reagents must be used in quantity insufficient to cause 
chemical enclosure of gangue-particles by excessive froth- 
ing. 



A. Schwarz. 



Webb City, Missouri, June 18. 



Fire-Protection in Shafts 

The Editor: 

Sir — I am interested in learning the best methods of 
preventing shaft-fires in vertical and inclined shafts. I 
have seen no recent articles on this interesting phase of 
mine-safety, and I would appreciate a discussion of fire- 
prevention in shafts. 

Take the case of an inclined shaft, say 68° dip, of 
three compartments, timbered with hemlock laths, dry, 
containing steam-pipes, pump-discharge pipe, and elec- 
tric cable ; the shaft is up-cast seven months in the year 
and down-cast the remainder of the time. In case of a 
fire the current of air would undoubtedly reverse from 
down-cast to up-cast. On the assumption that the shaft 
will be up-cast when fire breaks out, how shall we guard 
this shaft to control the flames? Two solutions present 
themselves. The first is the usual type of protection. 
The discharge-line from the pump is tapped at every 
level, a valve inserted, and a rubber hose, 15 to 50 ft. 
long, connected. Assume that fire has broken out on the 
15th level, and must be fought from the 14th. The head, 
if the valve were opened wide, would be over 1400 ft. 
Provided that two or three men could hold this hose with 
that terrific pressure and that the hose did not burst, 
could they play down on the fire in an up-cast shaft? 
The heat would be great and I believe that their efforts 
would be fruitless. We could only seal the shaft and let 
the men in the mine take their chances through the other 
exits. The other solution is a modification of the Grinnell 
automatic sprinkler system. Three sprinkler-heads 
would be placed every 25 ft. or 50 ft. in the shaft, one 
in each compartment. The sprinkler-lines could be con- 
nected to the discharge-pipe from the pump and thus 
have the advantage of the full head on the water-column. 



42 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



The heads could be so placed that when the fusible plugs 
melted the full play of the water would be on the hang- 
ing side and from there drop to the foot. The result 
would be a curtain of water. There is one strong objec- 
tion to this system. The fire could crawl up the cedar- 
blocking behind the laths before the laths would catch 
fire, and since the play of water would be on the laths 
the crawl of the fire in the blocking would render the 
scheme valueless unless blocking and laths were omitted 
from each set where the sprinkler-head is installed. I am 
desirous of knowing what other methods of fire-protec- 
tion in shafts are known. 

Frank A. Madson. 
Bessemer, Michigan, June 18. 



The Extra-Lateral Right 

The Editor : 

Sir — I am greatly interested in V. G. Hills' comment 
on my extra-lateral right article in your issue of June 23, 
for it was the desire to stimulate intelligent criticism and 
discussion of this subject that prompted me to write the 
series. I might suggest that if any of your readers are 
interested in contributing to this discussion I will gladly 
send each one addressing me in care of the Mining and 
Scientific Press, a re-print of a series of the four com- 
plete articles. I make this suggestion as it will save un- 
necessary discussion on points which are fully covered in 
the re-print, and which were necessarily eliminated to 
save space in the abstract of two of these articles which 
appeared in your columns. Referring to Mr. Hills' com- 
ment I thorouhgly appreciate that there are many extra- 
lateral complaints that cause trouble but which are never 
actually filed in court, and that many suits are filed and 
then compromised before determination by the courts. 
This, however, is an incident of all litigation no matter 
what its character. Intimate knowledge of these prob- 
lems in California and in other "Western States during 
the past 15 years or more leads me to state that the extra- 
lateral situation has no more than its proportion of this 
fringe or penumbra of threatened and compromised liti- 
gation which inevitably accompanies other equally im- 
portant property-right problems. The law yet remains 
to be devised that will be free from such difficulties. 

I would take exception to Mr. Hills' conclusion that the 
litigated cases are only a small proportion of "the host of 
cases which are not appealed;" it is certainly not the ex- 
perience here in California and neighboring States; nor 
do I agree with him when he states that the cause of the 
multitude of surface-contests "is directly traceable to 
the apex-law." An examination of the reported cases, 
and the experience with such cases covering a long period 
of years, does not support this conclusion. Disputes as 
to priority of location, exact position of surface-bound- 
aries, performance of the various acts of location and of 
annual labor, are the major causes underlying such liti- 
gation, and the fact that such litigation is common wher- 
ever placer claims are numerous is absolute proof that 
the extra-lateral right is not responsible for most of these 



surface eases. The moment the ownership of the sur- 
face controls ownership of the vein vertically beneath, it 
is inevitable that the right to the surface is going to be 
more frequently and more bitterly assailed and contested 
than in the ptst. To argue that dimunition of surface- 
litigation will result from abolishing the extra-lateral 
right is to ignore the logic of the situation. Even' foot of 
surface-ground will, in such event, have an added value, 
and there will be just as many 'jumpers' and 'black- 
mailers' left in the world. I am glad that Mr. Hills and 
I can agree so thoroughly on the importance and necessity 
of the complete severance of surface and mineral titles in 
the event that the extra-lateral right is abolished. In fact 
I gave Mr. Hills credit for and quoted his excellent state- 
ment of the advantage to be derived from this policy, in a 
foot-note to my original article which was necessarily 
eliminated from the Mining and Scientific Press ab- 
stract because of lack of space. 

San Francisco, June 23. 



The Editor: 

Sir — I have read with much interest Mr. Colby's dis- 
sertation on the extra-lateral right in your issue of 
June 2. My acquaintance with the mining law is chiefly 
from the standpoint of the engineer, and the mere engi- 
neer who ventures to discuss this subject with a lawyer 
of Mr. Colby's standing, may seem like one who rushes 
in where angels fear to tread, but I confess that I have 
found myself in much the same situation as that of the 
cynical Persian poet who evermore came out the same 
door wherein he went, a situation in which I felt that 
Mr. Colby's article also leaves us. Much of Mr. Colby's 
argument against the abolition of the apex law seems to 
be predicated on a fear that Congress will remove that 
part of the mining code as an offending appendix is re- 
moved by cutting it out and putting nothing else in its 
place. Many representatives of the mining industry and 
of mining organizations, however, are watching the situa- 
tion, so it is hardly conceivable that such an atrocity 
would be perpetrated, and an atrocity it unquestionably 
would be. 

I was surprised at the small proportion of cases due to 
apex litigation, but just what are considered as mining 
cases in this summary? I am writing where I have no 
opportunity to refer to Morrison's or any other reports, 
but I have seen many cases, such as trespass, master and 
servant, leasehold, and the like, reported and discussed 
as mining cases because they arose in connection with 
mining, but if we are to consider only such questions as 
are peculiar to mining, would not the proportion of apex- 
cases exceed the 1.9% quoted from Shamel? Mr. Colby 
quotes from Charles S. Thomas of Colorado: "Now the 
vast amount of mining controversy — and I am speaking 
of numbers of actions — has not been apex-litigation. 
They have been the most expensive and the most far- 
reaching. They have perhaps resulted in the greater 
proportion of injustice: but the conflicting (surface) 
locations have produced the multitude of cases, a small 



July 14. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



43 



percentage of which perhaps reach the Court of Appeals, 
hut whose aggregate has burdened the prospector and 
locator with an expense almost unbearable." Note that 
these cases "have been the most expensive and the most 
far-reaching. They have perhaps resulted in the greater 
proportion of injustice." Is not the fact that a law 
works an injustice a potent argument in favor of pro- 
viding means for its elimination? Instances of such in- 
justice are numerous and well-known. The Butte litiga- 
tion had its origin in the extra-lateral right. It has been 
stated that a certain wealthy Californian bought a run- 
down mine, simply because he realized the possibilities of 
an apex-suit against his rich neighbor. After the ex- 
penditure of thousands of dollars in attorneys fees, geolo- 
gists, and engineers, the defendant won the case, the 
judge deciding on plain common-sense grounds, although 
he stated that the plaintiff's contentions as to geological 
conditions were entitled to consideration. A more tech- 
nical judge might have decided differently. This case 
probably is not reported, as I think it was not appealed, 
the plaintiff having died before the decision. In an- 
other case a company spent many months and thousands 
of dollars developing a supposed blind-lead. After ob- 
taining a gratifying showing of ore, ordering new equip- 
ment, completing tests and making plans for a mill, they 
were served with notice of suit by their neighbor, on the 
pretense that their so-called blind-lead was merely the 
faulted portion of a vein having its apex on the neigh- 
bor's ground. "When any system opens the way to prac- 
tices that are little short of blackmail, and gives the 
strong a chance to oppress the weak by ruinous litigation, 
we are justified in taking steps to correct it, even though 
it appear drastic at the outset. 

It is a notable fact that many neighboring companies 
in different mining districts have voluntarily agreed to 
disregard the extra-lateral rights they might have against 
each other; they have accepted the vertical planes as 
their boundaries. Such agreements have been entered 
into by some of the large mining companies of the coun- 
try, not because they were afraid to stand up for what 
was rightfully theirs, but, as a straight business proposi- 
tion, because they recognized the futility and the ruinous 
nature of such litigation as apex-suits usually entail. 

Note the last sentence of the quotation from Senator 
Thomas. Why do we have conflicting surface locations? 
Aside from the man who goes out and deliberately jumps 
a claim, the one who makes a conflicting location does so 
for the purpose of obtaining an extra-lateral right on a 
vein which exists in the senior location and is so situated 
that it will cross one of the end-lines of the latter on its 
dip. A potent argument in favor of the abolition of the 
extra-lateral right is that it will do away with conflicting 
locations, excepting, of course, those made for the avowed 
purpose of claim-jumping. There can be no doubt that 
such a change would be radical and would call for other 
changes as well, but I do not see wherein the difficulties 
will be insuperable nor do I think that the laws need be as 
"profoundly amended" as Mr. Colby suggests. He him- 
self states, in his first conclusion, that in nearly every 



case where the extra-lat*»aJ feature has been incorpo- 
rated in the laws of other countries it lias I n abolished 

eventually. My own experience has been confined to this 
country, hut I have read ami heard many Btatem 
particularly with reference to British Columbia, thai 
such abolition has been accomplished without confusion 
and that the general effect has been beneficial. 

I have been told that in the boom-days of Leadville it 
was not uncommon to see several groups of mm within 
the area of one claim, each sinking madly in an effort to 
be the first to reach a vein and claim a discovery. I do 
not think any one would wish to impose such a require- 
ment under present-day conditions, but Mr. Colby seems 
to fear that such might be a necessity if the extra-lateral 
right were abolished. Every one, I think, must recog- 
nize the fact that the abolition of the extra-lateral right 
will entail a modification of the requirement of discov- 
ery ; but need this modification be so radical, or do away 
with such rights as a discovery would naturally confer? 
In other words, the fact that a discovery might not be 
required in every case need not do away with certain 
indisputable rights that it would confer if actually made. 
An actual discovery in a controversy over the character 
of land would have just as much weight as ever, and per- 
haps more. The discovery of a vein should entitle the 
discoverer to locate one or more additional claims on the 
dip. I believe that it might be practicable to carry the 
policy still farther and allow the location of mining 
claims on geologic evidence. It has been held before the 
courts and the Land Department as well that such indica- 
tions as would put a man of ordinary prudence on his 
guard as to the mineral character of a piece of land would 
preclude its entry under the agricultural law. This does 
not actually require the visible presence of mineral of 
value, and there have been numbers of coal-land cases so 
decided where there was no outcrop within miles. If 
such evidence is sufficient to preclude an agricultural 
location certainly it should be sufficient to sustain a min- 
eral location. 

I do not appreciate the weight of Mr. Colby's argu- 
ment that "such elimination of discovery would destroy 
the simplest test whereby mineral lands are now prac- 
tically and easily classified under existing laws so that 
mineral locators are able readily to obtain the same 
lands. ' ' The actual discovery would always be held to be 
the most conclusive evidence as to the mineral character 
of the land. The modification would be that where such 
an actual discovery were not feasible it would not be in- 
sisted upon; but other competent evidence tending to 
prove the character of the land might be accepted. 

In discussing the feasibility of a classification of min- 
eral lands by the Government, Mr. Colby says, "It would 
mean aggravating delays where mines were discovered in 
rugged or desert regions remote from centres of travel. 
Is it his idea that under a law providing for classification 
a man who might make a discovery in a remote region 
would be required to wait for Government classification 
of the land before he could perfect a location ? Such a 
law would be wholly inconsistent with past and present 



44 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



practice. Our laws provide for the classification of coal- 
lands, and land once classified as containing coal can only 
be disposed of by taking the coal into consideration, that 
is. by purchasing at the appraisal price under the coal- 
land laws or by making a filing under the non-mineral 
law which reserves the coal to the Government ; but this 
does not for a minute prevent a man from filing on coal- 
land that has not yet been withdrawn or classified as 
such. Anyone who makes a discovery of coal on land not 
withdrawn or classified may purchase it under the coal- 
land laws, provided he furnish evidence as to the likely 
existence of coal. He is not required to furnish evidence 
of outcrop or actual discovery on the tract that he seeks, 
provided he can show reasonable geologic evidence as to 
its character. This is submitted in the form of affidavits 
with the filing so that it readily can be seen that if we 
follow out this same principle in our mineral laws there 
need be no barrier to immediate location of a mining 
claim wherever an actual discovery is made. 

Nevertheless, any classification of land which depends 
on an opinion, geologic or otherwise, is bound to provoke 
litigation, and I am coming to agree with Mr. Colby that 
the proper solution is a separation of surface and under- 
ground rights. This should be done by incorporating 
into every agricultural patent a clause reserving to the 
Government all mineral existing in the ground conveyed, 
and making it available for prospecting, provided the 
claimant to the surface is properly secured against 
damage. This is only a step farther than the eoal-land 
act of June 17, 1910. It provides that anyone making an 
agricultural entry on lands withdrawn or classified as 
valuable for coal must reserve to the Government or its 
agents all coal therein, and the right to prospect and 
mine for the same. The act also fixes the means by which 
the agricultural claimant shall be secured against damage 
to the surface. The purchaser of the coal under an agri- 
cultural claim acquires such surface rights as are abso- 
lutely necessary to mining, but one who purchases a tract 
of coal-land on which no agricultural claim has been 
located obtains surface-title as well. 

My conclusion is that the extra-lateral right is an 
anachronism. It is bound to go sooner or later, and 
should be disposed of, as suggested by Mr. Colby, by 
segregation of surface and underground rights, and also, 
as he likewise suggests, revision must be general and only 
after careful consideration by most competent men. To 
this I might add : if eventually, why not now ? 



Leroy A. Palmer. 



San Francisco, June 25. 



Hydro-Metallurgy v. Smelting 

The Editor: 

Sir — The present-day smelting methods of extracting 
copper from table and flotation concentrates will be 
gradually replaced by a combined roasting and hydro- 
metallurgical treatment on the spot. Such is proving to 
be the case with zinc-blende and gold and silver-bearing 
concentrate. During the next few years we shall see 



some remarkable advances in the treatment of copper 
sulphides by hydro-metallurgical methods. 

Why go to the extra expense of handling and trans- 
porting copper concentrate to a smelter when it can be 
treated at the mine at a greater profit by combined 
roasting and leaching, producing refined electrolytic 
copper direct? Let us have some discussion on this im- 
portant subject. 



A. E. Drucker. 



New York, June 28. 



Misfires 

The Editor: 

Sir — Every miner, like myself, is interested in the 
matter of safety, and as misfires constitute one of the most 
dangerous elements of the miner's daily work this par- 
ticular matter has interested me greatly. I have read 
with unfailing interest the several contributions on this 
subject appearing under 'Discussion' in your paper, and 
it seems to me that another contribution analyzing all 
that has been said in the way of experience and sugges- 
tion would be timely and appreciated by all who realize 
the great importance of this subject. 



Miner. 



Angels, California, June 20. 



Seale-Shellshear 'Cascade' Process 



*This flotation process was invented by Seale and 
Shellshear, previously of the Junction North mine, 
Broken Hill. The patents have been acquired by the 
Minerals Separation and De Bavay's Process Co. 
Fleury James Lyster, of the Zinc Corporation, and 
James Hebbard, of the Sulphide Corporation, have 
modified and improved the design of the boxes. The 
latter company has installed the process on the lead 
mill of the Central mine, Broken Hill, and is making 
experiments with a view to adapting it also to the zinc 
mill. The plant consists of a series of five boxes ar- 
ranged above one another, the total height being about 
24 ft. The pulp is elevated to the first box and in cas- 
cading from one box to another the necessary agitation 
is provided without any revolving impellors. The only 
power absorbed is that involved in elevating the pulp 
to the top box. On the Central mine considerable sav- 
ings have been made possible, not the least of which is 
a reduction of fully 150 hp. in treating the same amount 
of material, while repair-costs are reduced to a mini- 
mum. This plant is displacing a large number of tables. 
The introduction of the process has widely extended 
the scope of flotation separation. The Broken Hill 
South mine is also experimenting with the 'cascades' 
in the lead-section of their slimes plant, where it is pro- 
posed to install six boxes in series, each containing 
three ll/16th in. water-jets. Lieut. H. V. Seale — one 
of the inventors — is at present on active service with 
the A. I. F., while Wilton Shellshear, the other inventor, 
is with the Burma Mines, Ltd. 



'Mining d- Engineering Review. 



July 14, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



4.". 



Principles of Flotation— II 



By T. A. RICKARD 



Bubbles. We saw how the floating of the needle was 
aided by bubbles of air attached to it. That suggests, but 
does not explain, the latest and most successful phase of 
notation. To understand it we must go back to the small 
boy 's soap-bubble. The man that understands the phys- 
ics of a soap-bubble has mastered the chief mystery of 
notation. The boy, who, as pictured by Millais, watches 
the birth, ascent, and disappearance of the iridescent 
sphere of his own making, is the type of our modern 
metallurgist, who makes the multitudinous bubbles con- 
stituting a froth and then wonders to what natural laws 
his filmy product owes its existence. 

To put it briefly, the hoy, having dissolved soap in 
water, holds a little of the liquid in the howl of his clay 
pipe while he blows through the stem. The soapy water 
forms a film that is distended by the boy's warm breath 
into a lovely sphere, which is lighter than the surround- 
ing air, and therefore rises, while the sunlight falling 
upon it undergoes refraction into the colors of the spec- 
trum. When the boy blows through his pipe into pure 
water, he makes bubbles likewise, but they burst in- 
stantly. The high tension shatters them. They do not 
burst explosively by expansion of the air within their 
envelope, but by lateral displacement of the substance 
composing their incompletely elastic films. To prevent 
such immediate collapse it is necessary to lessen the ten- 
sion, that is, to diminish the contractile force at work in 
the watery substance constituting the exterior of the bub- 
ble. This can be done by introducing an impurity or 
contaminant. Water has the highest surface-tension of 
any common liquid, so that the addition of almost any 
other liquid — such as oil, alcohol, or acid — will lower the 
tension. The boy rubs the soap between his wet hands 
and dissolves it in the water. The soluble soaps contain 
an alkaline base, such as potash or soda, combined with 
a fatty acid, such as oleic or palmitic, extracted from tal- 
low or oil. The boy uses oleate of soda, a compound of 
soda and oleic acid. The flotationist uses oleic acid, and 
much of the early work was done with this thick oil. In 
both cases, boy or man, playing at bubbles or working at 
metallurgy, the oil serves to lower the surface-tension of 
the water and to prolong the life of the bubbles that are 
made out of this modified water. 

Two phases of the subject may be compared : The. 
needle that floats on tap-water will sink in distilled 
water, because the latter lacks the air-bubbles that assist 
flotation. Although the tap-water has a lower surface- 
tension on account of its slight impurity, that effect is 
less decisive than the aeration. The bubble blown in 
pure water will break almost as soon as it comes into 
existence, but the solution of a little soap in the water 



will enable a boy to blow bubbles that sail away beauti- 
fully. The lowering of the surface-tension by tin- con- 
taminant lessens the tendency of the bubbles to collapse. 
We have seen, in the camphor experiment, how the oil 
would lower the surface-tension not only of the bubble- 
film but also of the water in which it might be gener- 
ated ; that lowering of the surface-tension promotes wet- 
ting, which is antithetic to floating. If, to water on which 
mineral particles are floating, an addition of alcohol or 
caustic soda be made, or even the vapor of alcohol be 
allowed to play over the surface of the water, the mineral 
particles sink. The intense local contamination of the 
water has decreased its surface-tension so much as to in- 
crease the relative effect of gravity. Instant wetting 
ensues. It is evident therefore that oil can be used 
effectively in flotation in two ways : Either in such large 
quantity as to raise the mineral by sheer buoyancy or in 
such small quantity as to coat the particles of mineral, in 
preference to the gangue, and also decrease the surface- 
tension of the water in such a way as to promote the 
formation of a stable froth. Luckily the increased wet- 
ting power of the water due to the solution or emulsifica- 
tion of the oil is rendered largely ineffective by the oil- 
ing of the mineral particles themselves, on the surfaces 
of which the oil displaces the water and thus prevents 
wetting, while the lack of adhesion between oil and 
gangue serves differentially to aid the wetting of the 
latter by the water. 

The changing colors of the bubble indicate that the 
thickness of the film is not constant ; on the contrary, it 
may vary within wide limits without noteworthy varia- 
tion of the surface-tension. That makes an important 
difference between a liquid film and any ordinary elastic 
membrane. ' ' The tension in a liquid film is independent 
of the stretching, provided that it is not so great as to 
reduce the thickness of the film below about five mil- 
lionths of a centimetre." 1 This result is promoted by the 
use of a solute that will be strongly adsorbed at the sur- 
face of the solution. 2 As the film is being stretched, the 
new surface formed at the thinner portion will contain 
less solute, owing to the time needed for adsorption, so 
that the new surface will be stronger than the old. Like- 
wise, when water has been modified by a relatively insol- 
uble contaminant, the components of the film can so 
dispose themselves that the surficial forces will be the 
same everywhere, that is, they tend to remain in equilib- 
rium, including the force of gravity, which otherwise 
would pull them apart. Thus the tension at the surface 

iPoynting & Thomson, op. cit., page 137. 
sHildebrand. Fig. 2, page 169, M. & S. P., July 29, 1916. 
Also Willard Gibbs' 'Thermodynamics,' page 313. 



46 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



of a contaminated liquid is able to adjust itself within 
fairly wide limits, and a film made of such a liquid can 
remain in equilibrium, whereas a film of pure liquid 
breaks at once. A soap-bubble will last for hours, a pure- 
water bubble persists for a fraction of a second. More- 
over, the presence of a contaminant in water may also 
affect its viscosity, or internal friction, whereby it offers 
resistance to change of shape. This strengthens the film 
of a bubble generated in modified water. It has been 
asserted 3 that a concentration of the contaminant occurs 
.it the surface of such a liquid, causing the viscosity to be 




also for the sides of the glass vessel. They last longer 
than the bubbles blown in oil because they are made out 
of a liquid containing a decided contaminant, the dye. 
Next, I blow ajr more energetically, and I note that when 
the bubble is about to escape from the blue water it raises 
the surface into a mound (A in Fig. 13), emerging at 
the point of it (as at B) as if the air had dragged the 
water in an effort to overcome a viscous layer. This in- 
deed is the fact. I caught one bubble in the act ; it came 
slowly through the little heap of water and remained 
poised at the top of the mound, finally breaking away, 

-~ jZ- Z- Z - L-8*i ~-- F ~-J~-Z 
- T+_- _~-_- _*- ~ ° -_ F ° "_ _ 

:-----_- F -:-:-:IS"r 

— I a F_ — _ o 

-_ -_ - _ -*:- _ f ~- z 

— - — — ~ 1 — o 
-: L _ r °- -g^ ~ AL ~ ~ 0IU 
5 o _ WATER 



Fig. 13 



Fig. 14 



magnified as compared with the body of the liquid. This 
statement is well founded. 

An interesting experiment to illustrate this phase of 
the subject can be made by floating kerosene over blue- 
colored water and then passing air into the lower liquid. 
When bubbles are formed in the oil, they are short-lived, 
but they last long enough to indicate that the oil is not 
a pure and perfectly homogeneous liquid. In such a 
liquid, the bubble would break on arrival at the surface. 
The fact that two bubbles touch without coalescing (K, 
K, Fig. 13 ) proves that there is a film of variable compo- 
sition between them. When I blow air gently into the 
colored water, 7 the bubbles that rise into the oil are 
colorless. They accumulate at the upper surface of the 
oil, where they show an attraction for each other and 

sSamuel S. Sadtler, in Minerals Separation v. Miami suit. 
1915. Emphasized recently in the Butte & Superior case. 

"How variously it can he seen and 'interpreted is shown by 
the descriptions given hy Messrs, Durell, Norris, and Rickard, 
in 'The Flotation Process,' pp. 137, 315, 35S; also by Messrs. 
Taggart and Beach in Trans. A. I. M. E., September 1916. 

"Some of these experiments may seem almost childish to 
the supercilious, but I can commend them not only as giving 
insight into fundamental principles but as likely to stimulate 
thoughtful discussion. 



while the water subsided sluggishly to its leyel. Finally, 
I introduced air more rapidly into the water. The bub- 
bles broke through the viscous water-oil interface and 
carried portions of water with them. These portions 
slipped from the north (B,B) to the south pole {F, F) 
of the bubbles and fell away, sometimes not until the 
bubbles had reached the upper surface of the oil. An 
intermediate stage is shown by C, C. This water that 
detached itself from the air-bubble was not a stable film 
but a viscous coating. It assumed various forms, cres- 
cent, hemispherical (D, D), lenticular, flatly globular 
{E, E), or even shapeless (£?). The retention of a form 
that is not spherical is proof that the force of surface 
tension is overcome by the high viscosity of the film at 
the water-oil interface. 8 Occasionally some of the blue 
water remains as a globule attached to the surface of the 
.oil, as at S. On reaching the oil-water interface the 
globule (as at W) will merge itself slowly with the liquid 
from which it originated. 

If a similar experiment is made with carbonated 
water, in which minute bubbles of nearly equal size are 
generated quickly, one can see the little bubbles, like 
bright colorless beads, leading a much bigger globule of 

»As elucidated recently by A. F. Taggart in the Butte case. 



July 14, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



47 



blue water upward ^is at .1'. .1' in Pig. 14) through 
tin- oil to the surface, where the babble breaks and the 
globule of water falls baek through the oil in oblately 
spheroidal shape (B, B). Sometimes two. or even three, 
couples rise tandem (as at A" and A'"). At the sur- 
face of the oil the coalescence of several bnbbles may 
leave one large bubble to which several small globules of 
water are attached (as at C), or globules of blue water 
(D) may remain floating in the oil, as if hanging from 
the surface of it. Sometimes the bubble may be over- 
weighted and, after rising a little way, it descends (K). 
If the couples collide, the bubbles are released and leave 
their freight of water, which drops back. The interest- 
ing feature is the air-bubble's ability to lift a water- 
globule so much larger than itself. This is due to the 
fact that the water comes from the water-oil interface 
and includes oil. 

The amount of the contaminant in the froth of a flota- 
tion-cell can be measured by analysis. The concentra- 
tion in a film may proceed so far as to form a solid, as 
when using hard water. The use of oil as a modifying 
agent is advantageous because it is not prone to enter 
into chemical reactions with impurities in the mill-water 
even when thus concentrated in the bubble-films; other- 
wise some other contaminant might be used. Indeed, 
it is likely that oil will be replaced by some contaminant 
that is cheaper and that may also induce some desirable 
chemical reaction. Several such substitutes are now 
being tried in flotation plants. 

The question has been asked, when a bubble is formed 
in a liquid, is it a spherical hole filled with gas or is it a 
sac ; in short, has it a skin or not ? The reply to this 
question involves the whole theory of surface-tension and 
bubble-making. "When a pure gas is blown into a pure 
liquid, the bubbles rise rapidly to the surface, where they 
burst instantly. The gas injected into the liquid is sub- 
ject to the gas-liquid tension, therefore the surface of the 
liquid enclosing the portion of gas assumes a spherical 
shape in obedience to that tension, because a sphere occu- 
pies the least space. The liquid in contact with the gas 
will have a different orientation of its molecules and it 
will be slightly denser than the internal liquid. These 
conditions will accompany the globule of gas in its pas- 
sage upward. The form of the liquid periphery persists 
but the substance of the liquid in contact with the gas is 
changing as the bubble rises. An analogy is furnished by 
the motionless cloud on a mountain. The cloud retains 
its shape, although its substance is fleeting. Ascend the 
mountain and you find yourself surrounded by a mist 
that is traveling at the rate of 20 or 30 miles per hour, or 
even faster; yet as seen from the valley the cloud seems 
fixed. The explanation is that the moisture-laden air 
sweeps into the cold area on one side, either the snowy or 
shady side of the peak, and there the moisture is con- 
densed to globules of water constituting a fog or mist ; 
these are visibly driven forward, to be expanded suddenly 
and dissipated into clear air as soon as they pass beyond 
the cold area, but their place is taken by others coming 
on behind, so the shape of the cloud persists although the 



substance of it is rushing forward at the speed of a rail- 
way-train. 

Now the important question arises: What is the sub- 
stance of the film of the bubble as it passes from one 
liquid into another? The attachment of blue water to the 
bubble in the water-oil experiment is confusing, because 
it obscures the fact that, as the coating of water slips 
away, the bubble acquires an oily film and when tem- 
porarily at rest on the surface it is enveloped in an oily 
film. No blue tinge can be detected, if the effect of reflec- 
tion from below be avoided. On the other hand, if the 
experiment be repeated with heavy oil (colored by 'oil 
orange') and alcohol, it will be found that the bubbles 
that come to roost at the upper surface of the alcohol are 
orange-colored. Thus, as scientific theory would suggest, 
the bubbles take a film of the liquid having the lower 
surface-tension or less molecular cohesion. In passing 
from water to oil or from oil to alcohol the bubble has an 
oily film at the end of its journey. If a bubble were gen- 
erated in water and passed successively through oil and 
alcohol, it would have a water, oil, and alcohol film in 

KV 4T6R I L 




WATER 




Fig. 15 



sequence. If the bubble passed in the reverse direction 
it would have an alcoholic film in the alcohol, the oil, and 
the water alike, because alcohol spreads over oil and oil 
spreads over water, the liquid having the less cohesion or 
surface-tension being pulled by the molecular attraction 
of the liquid having the stronger cohesion or surface- 
tension. There is this to be added, however, that the 
bubble generated in water would have some water in its 
oily film when in the oil, and some oil in its alcoholic film 
when in the alcohol. Each liquid in turn serves slightly 
to contaminate. On the return journey, the alcoholic 
film, contaminated slightly by the air and by any impur- 
ity in the alcohol-air interface, would resist modification 
by the oil and by the water (forming the lower layers of 
liquid) because the alcohol would spread over to the oil- 
air interface and over the water-air interface. Imagine a 
globule of oil in an air-bubble enclosed by water (Fig. 
15) : the oil spreads and forms a film to enclose the air. 
Now imagine a globule of water in an air-bubble sur- 
rounded by oil; the water does not spread, because the 
pull of the air-water and water-oil surfaces is greater 
than that of the oil-air surface ; therefore a water-filmed 
bubble will acquire an oil film when passing into oil ; on 
the other hand an oil-filmed bubble will retain its film 
in making the same entry through water. 

"We have seen that mineral has a selective adsorption 
for oil rather than for water and that in this respect it 
differs from gangue. Metallic particles adsorb air, but 



48 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14. 1917 



this fact is relatively unimportant in flotation because the 
air approaches them when it is enclosed within a liquid 
envelope that is contaminated by oil. Therefore the ad- 
hesion of oil for the metallic surface becomes the domi- 
nant factor. The older notion that the affinity of air 
for metallic surfaces played an important part in flota- 
tion has been set aside, because of the absence in the 
flotation-cell of any direct contact between air and 
mineral. Metallic surfaces, such as those of minerals, 
are supposed to adsorb air and that is why they are not 
readily wetted. It may be due to molecular density, 
coupled with reduction of inter-moleeular distance, 
which is practically the same thing as a reduction of sub- 
capillary porosity. Adsorption of air would also bear a 
relation to the higher density of the mineral. Such 
adsorption plays its part in the older surface-tension 
processes, such as those of "Wood and Macquisten, but in 
the later flotation processes there is present insoluble 
oil or a soluble frothing agent, and this renders it im- 
possible for the globule of air to come into direct eon- 
tact with the mineral. It is not the air, but the film 
around it, that provokes the attachment of the bubble to 
the mineral. 

Now let us consider the air-bubble made in water con- 
taining an impurity that decreases its surface-tension. 
In the language of flotation we would say that this im- 
purity is a contaminant modifying the water. As soon 
as the air enters the water it assumes a globular form as 
before, but when the bubble reaches the surface it per- 
sists ; it does not burst at once. The bubble in the water 
is a spherical hole occupied by air ; the air has displaced 
the water and is enclosed by it ; the water-surface in con- 
tact with the air is in a state of tension as compared with 
the interior body of water, and that causes contraction 
into spherical shape. The surface-tension lias been low- 
ered by the contaminant so that the bubble-film is in a 
state of less strain than a similar film of pure liquid, 
hence a diminution in the tendency to contract and to 
collapse. Moreover there is a tendency for the contami- 
nant, whatever it be, to concentrate at the air-water sur- 
face; there is a differentiation of the constituents of the 
liquid, causing the surface to differ slightly in composi- 
tion from the bulk of the solution and so to accentuate 
the modification due to the presence of the impurity. 
The bubble-film or air-liquid contact adsorbs the con- 
taminant until equilibrium is established, and the con- 
taminated liquid of the film carries some of the contami- 
nant all the way to the surface, despite the interchange 
between molecules or particles of the contaminant on the 
way up. This differentiation and concentration of the 
contaminant at the surface of the water in contact with 
the air-bubble ma3 r indeed be likened to a film or mem- 
brane, so that the bubble may be regarded as a sac, but it 
is a sac the substance of which is not fixed while the 
bubble is moving upward through the water. It cannot 
be regarded as enclosed within a definite film until it 
reaches the end of its journey, and even then the film is 
co-terminous with the surface at which it rests, and the 
play of light upon it shows that the re-arrangement of 



its substance is still in progress, as the excess of liquid 
drains to the south pole. The variability in the surface- 
tension due to the shifting of the contaminating particles 
is essential to the longevity of the bubble-film. That 
brings us to a recognition of an important factor: 
viscosity. 

Viscosity. This is defined as the internal friction of 
a liquid or its resistance to a change of shape. Two 
years ago the part played by viscosity in establishing a 
bubble-film was subordinated to emphasis on the lower- 
ing of the surface-tension of the water in the ore-pulp.* 
Since then this branch of the theory has been elucidated 
by Messrs. Taggart, Beach, and Bancroft. 5 

The addition of alcohol increases the viscosity of water 
up to about 47%, after which the further addition de- 
creases the viscosity. Alcohol, of course, lowers the sur- 
face tension of water, but an experiment" will prow that 
the change of viscosity is the dominant factor in making 
a. froth. If alcohol, to which 5% water has been added, 
be stirred violently in the glass-jar machine familiar to 
flotationists there will be no formation of froth, but if 
the experiment be repeated with tap-water, to which 1% 
of alcohol is added, then a froth is produced at once. 

Such an alcohol-water froth is non-persistent, because 
the absolute viscosity is low. To increase it we must 
have a colloidal suspension ; for example, the foam on 
beer. The colloidal protein of beer yields a froth that 
lasts longer than the bubbles on champagne, which are 
short-lived, like the alcohol-water foam of the experiment 
just described. To obtain a froth sufficiently persistent 
to serve a metallurgie purpose it is necessary to increase 
the viscosity of the bubble-films. This is one of the 
functions of the oil, and it is one that follows upon its 
affinity for metallic surfaces. It adsorbs or concentrates 
(at the surface of the bubbles) the mineral particles in 
the pulp so as to form an interface that is more viscous 
than either the oil or the water or the mixture of the 
two. 10 It is the presence of solid matter that contributes 
to the viscosity of the bubble-films in the froth. 

If a needle be floated on water by means of a raft made 
of wooden matches and if a chip of wood he floated to 
one side of it, one can use a magnet to turn the raft and 
needle on the surface of the water without moving the 
chip. This shows that the surface, or water-air inter- 
face, has no noticeable viscosity. " If, however, the sur- 
face be dusted with finely pulverized ore. then the mag- 
net will cause the chip to move with the rafted needle. 

^However, I pointed to the probability of viscosity con- 
tributing to the tenacity of the film, even in the needle experi- 
ment on tap-water, and quoted Boys to show that increase of 
viscosity was involved in the lowering of surface-tension in 
enabling a bubble to persist. M. & S. P., Sept. 11, 1915, p. 3S5. 

sMore particularly in their expert testimony at Butte, from 
which I have quoted already. 

^Described by Wilder D. Bancroft in his testimony at Butte. 

"Taggart. 

"Taggart. He pointed to the fact that the addition of the 
oil increased the viscosity of the surface so as to cause it to 
act as a solid within small distances, close to the raft, but 
considerably less than when the powdered ore was sprinkled 
upon the oiled surface. 



.lulv It. 191' 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



19 



I ■ 


ur 






_^^m 




Nik 






A 


1 




Wk^^* 


■ ^rf* 




. 


'k 


" ■ Aifr SB 








: ( 


- 





THE FEOTH IN A CALLOW CELL 



The viscosity lias been so greatly increased by the addi- 
tion of solid matter to the interfacial film that the sur- 
face behaves as if it were solid. Next, if a drop of oil, 
sufficient to lower its surface-tension, be added to the 
water, the chip will not turn when the rafted needle is 
moved by the attraction of the magnet. Such increase 
of viscosity as has been caused by the oil is insufficient 
to form a resisting medium. Finally, if powdered ore is 
dusted upon the oil-contaminated surface, again the chip 
does not move with the raft, because "the surface has 



been stabilized and made highly viscous." 12 

If water and kerosene be poured successively into a 
glass bottle, and if then finely-divided copper, called 
'bronze powder', be introduced and the contents of the 
bottle be subjected to vigorous shaking, and then allowed 
to remain quiescent, the copper powder collects at the 
oil-water interface and from it slowly a bronze film will 
separate itself and become pendant. This, when viewed 

"I am quoting from Mr. Taggart's testimony, from which 
the description of the experiment also is taken. 




ANOTHER PHOTOGRAPH, SHOWING THE FROTH OF TWO ADJACENT CELLS 



50 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



by transmitted light, is seen to be a lace-like fabric, like 
a cobweb that has been long exposed to dust. 13 It is a 
film of particles of kerosene and water so viscous, owing 
to the inclusion of the powdered copper, that it hangs 
like a curtain ; it is an adsorption layer of bubble-film 
matter hanging from the oil-water interface. The pres- 
ence of the powdered copper has stabilized the film. 

It is important to note that such increase of viscosity 
as prolongs the life of the bubble-film need not be metal- 
lic. When pine-oil is added to water, and the mixture is 
agitated, the froth that comes to the surface of the water 
is thin and evanescent. When to this there is added lyco- 
podium powder, which is of vegetal origin, being the 
spores of club-moss, the froth becomes thick and lasting. 14 
If the lycopodium be used without the pine-oil, no per- 
sistent froth is made. In this case, as with the bronze 
powder, the effect of the solid is to stabilize the froth by 
making the bubble-films more viscous. The gangue would 
serve for this purpose if the particles of gangue could 
pass into the oil-water interface, but it happens, as we 
have seen, that the oil exerts a preference for the particles 
of mineral, so that they are adsorbed preferentially. 

Another experiment : 1C When a needle was floated on 
water in a beaker and a drop of caster-oil was added, 
the needle did not sink. When another drop of the same 
oil was added, the globule moved to the needle and ad- 
hered to it. But it continued to float. When a drop of 
pine-oil was allowed to run down the side of the beaker, 
the needle sank as soon as the pine-oil touched the water, 
while the globule of oil remained afloat. Apparently the 
increase of viscosity due to the thick oil counteracted the 
lowering of the water's surface-tension. 

The effect of saponine, noted in Hoover's book as being 
so detrimental to flotation, can now be explained. Al- 
though it does not increase the surface-tension of water, 
but tends rather to decrease it very slightly, according 
to Freundlich. it causes a marked increase of viscosity. 
The result is a good froth ; but it exhibits no essential 
adhesion, that is, the saponine solution is not adsorbed 
by the mineral. Therefore the froth does not persist and 
the mineral is not floated. 

Any substance that is adsorbed into the oil, or the oil- 
water interface, of the bubble will pass into the film. If 
it does that the substance will be floated. Mineral goes 
into oil in preference to gangue. If a particle of sulphide 
is in the vicinity of oil a*nd water, the oil-surface of the 
sulphide grows larger and the water-surface grows 
smaller, until the sulphide at the last takes a position 
within the oil. Reversely, a particle of quartz takes a 
position within the water. The greatest possible area of 
sulphide that can be covered by the oil is when the sul- 
phide is within the oil; therefore the particles of sul- 
phide tend to encase themselves within the oily substance 
of the bubble-film and so not only stabilize it but give 

"F. E. Beach, who performed the experiment in the court- 
room at Butte. R. B. Yerxa repeated it for me at Miami. 

"Bancroft, who performed the experiment in the court-room 
at Butte. 

"Made for me by Mr. Yerxa in the laboratory at Miami. 



themselves the opportunity of being floated to the sur- 
face in the froth. 

Oil-Films. In the course of the first trial of the Miami 
lawsuit, at Wilmington, a series of demonstrations was 
made in court for the purpose of argument. These ex- 
periments were photographed and placed in the record. 
Some of them are of scientific interest. Fig. 16 shows 
the curved pipette employed to pass an air-bubble to the 
bubble-holder, which is a bell-mouthed glass tube. Fig. 
17 shows the play of a bubble on the oil placed upon a 
particle of galena lying at the bottom of a vessel con- 
taining water. In A the particle of galena and the 
bubble-holder are shown. In B a globule of oil rests on 
the galena. The oil is 1J times the volume of the galena 
particle. In C the air-bubble is adhering to the oil on the 
galena and drawing it up, forming a neck of oil between 
the bubble and the galena. The photographs exhibit the 
affinity of the oil for the air-bubble. If the bubble failed 
to raise the particle of galena, this should not occasion 
surprise, as it was much too large — several thousand 
times bigger than the average pulp treated in flotation. 
In Fig. 18 similar experiments on particles of unoiled 
galena of a reasonable size — about 20 mesh — are recorded 
photographically. In the first of this series the bubble- 
holder is approaching one of three particles, in the 
second it is moving away with one of them, and in the 
third with another. In Fig. 19 another series of experi- 
ments is shown, but with oiled particles of galena, of plus 
20-mesh size. In the third member of this group it will 
be noted that all of the galena particles are being car- 
ried away by the bubble. Two of the particles are ad- 
hering to the third particle, which is attached directly to 
the bubble. Ordinary tap-water was used. These experi- 
ments, and others like them, showed that particles of 
galena will adhere to an air-bubble, whether they are 
oiled or not. The adhesion takes place even when the 
mineral carries an excess of oil. Particles of chalcocite 
do not adhere so readily to the air-bubble when they are 
unoiled as when they are oiled, but the evidence given 
in this suit was incomplete ; moreover it was not shown 
whether a bubble made out of water suitably modified 
will, or will not, adhere to an unoiled particle of chal- 
cocite. The motion-pictures of these demonstrations cost 
a great deal of money, but it will be acknowledged now, I 
believe, that they threw but little light on the theory of 
flotation. 

The adhesion of air, as a bubble in water, to mineral 
particles is easy enough to prove, but such bubbles, as 
far as I have been able to ascertain by experiments, will 
adhere to almost anything that happens to be near-by. 
Trying some of these experiments recently with Mr. 
Yerxa, at Miami, I found that a large air-bubble would 
not lift an 8-mesh particle of chalcocite without a good 
deal of coaxing, but when a minute (accidental) air- 
bubble became poised on the chalcocite then the big 
bubble attached itself to the small one and thereby 
raised the mineral particle. When the chalcocite was 
oiled the bubble was lifted without hesitation. Examin- 
ing the bubble-film, it will be seen (Fig. 20) that the 



.lulv 14. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



51 



particle of ohalcoeite hangs from it when in the water, 

hut as soon as the babble is tuken out of tlic water into 
tin 1 air, the ohalcoeite is enclosed between an inner and 




The nature of this oily-water interface is shown by 
another experiment. If water and pine-oil are poured 
successively into a test-tube and a particle of chaleocite is 
dropped into it, we shall find (Pig. 21) the particle 
floating at the oil-water interface in such a way that 



Fig. 1« 









an outer surface,* in both of which the oily contaminant 
is so concentrated as to form an adsorption layer. 
*As elucidated by Taggart at Butte. 



the mineral seems to be in the water, when it is really 
enclosed within a downward protrusion of the oil. 

When a bubble is in oily water it has only one con- 
taminated surface, or adsorption layer, but when it 
emerges it has two. See Pig. 22. The oil is concentrated 
at the surfaces in contact with the air, outside and in- 
side, leaving the less modified water between. 

Again, when a globule of pine-oil was placed on the 






MIMV. and Scientific PKI SS 



,lnl\ 14. l!M7 



smooth surface of a lump of ohaleooite under water, the 
pine oil was held hj the nhalcoeite as against » bubble 
brought in contact with it, but when the globule of oil 

the pine oil was adsorbed hj 

the bubble A particle of minora! and a bubble sliow 
mutual attraction an. I if the mineral particle is minute 






1» 

the bubble-film.. 
That 

min- 
eral | 

That n 
s «ss - 

Thus 

Aoaiabiliiv :j»Hio par: 



Tlii' a. Ulu ion »f oil to water in a beaker, tor example 

causes an oily iiim to appear at the interface between 
water and air, When an air bubble meets an oil globule 
the) will lv mutual)} attracted and some o( tin- oil will 
pass into The interface between water and air. When air 
m i upiea a hole in water, forming what is called a bubble, 
the periphery of tliis hole presents a surface exposed to 
the air within like the surface of the water in the 
beaker, In eaoh oast the oil tends to oo&oentrate at that 
air surface, 

rhe old idea that the mineral particle attached itself 
direct)] to air is now relegated to one side; while this 
mutual attraction may ovist, it plays a minor part Ivo 
cause the air when it approaches the mineral in a pulp 
is always enclosed within i watery Rim contaminated 
by oil or a ar substance. 

It has been disclosed by micros samination* that 

tho mineral particle is not in direct contact with air, but 
so enclosed within the Dun as not to he in touch with air 
either inside or outside the bubble in a mass of froth. 
Tho tilm raises itself ovor the particle and wraps itself 
under the particle, so that the mineral is enclosed with 
in a watery interspace The tilm itself consists of an 
\ - in which the oil is concentrated, ami of 

an interior surfaoe in which oil also is concentrated, 
both of these oily concentrations grading toward the 
that lies between them. The oil is concentrated 
!>. gas-liquid interface, .ntst as oil ooncentrat - 
the surface of water in contact with the atmosphere 

The various experiments described in tho foregoing 
shown that the oil in a pulp, consisting of 
crushed ore and water, performs three distinct fnn< 

1 It lowers the surfa. e tension of the water. 

2 It assists in the selection of the mineral partk - 
It promotes the formation of a stable froth, 

w .. . - 1 convenient liquid for Rotation work k 
it has a surface tension so high that the addition of 
almost any other liquid will lower it. The lowering of 
the surface tension diminishes the contracti'.. 
water ami lengthens the life of the bubbles that arc 
,i l\v the inject - . of the 

ntsion has 
creates*., variable concentration of oil in 
film of the bubl - e film to adjus 

.• important than t: 

strengthen the film where 
aatinant at 
■ .11 concentrate at the 
the liquid beeaus 
•tential ei 
\ \ ics - s par- 

> film, T - aeral in pi 

mineral to be drawn int. 

- eugthened by reason erease 



-Inlv 14. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



5:i 



mineral particles. The electro-static hypothesis has been 
discarded in the latest investigations. 
Any substance that will lower the Burface-tenBion of 

water anil he adsorbed by mineral particles would ap- 
pear to promote flotation. The value of a flotation agent 





Film in ?— ' h ' ILM ,N 

e H »i'«".6iTe mate P, eN««oe.Te 4,/? 

Fig. 20 

depends upon its ability to 'adsorb' mineral. Most 
"f rot hers' or bubble-makers by themselves are not satis- 
factory because they laek this ability, and, in order to 
correct the deficiency, it is customary to add a 'non- 
frothing' oil, which is adsorbed strongly by the min- 



1 L 




Fig. 21 

eral, thereby promoting successful flotation.* A froth 
made with a relatively soluble oil, like pine-oil, can be 
stabilized hy adding a relatively insoluble viscous oil, 
like fuel-oil. The idea of agitation, whether of the vio- 
lent and mechanical kind or of the gentle and pneumatic 



/HH 




kind, is to bring the particles of mineral in contact with 
the oily films of the air-bubbles. Whether the oil is 
emulsified before or after it is added to the pulp does not 
matter at this stage, but the oil must have been presented 
to the bubbles in a minutely subdivided condition, so 
that they may acquire oily films and so that those films 
may come in touch with the mineral particles. In doing 
so the globules of oil and the bubbles that they con- 
taminate beneficially come in contact with particles of 
gangue as well as particles of mineral, but owing to the 
tendency of oil to replace water at the surface of the 

'Bancroft. In his testimony at Butte. 



mineral particles these »ill Be coated with oil and ad- 
sorbed into the oily film of the bubbles and rise, whereas, 
by reason of the tendency of water to displace oil on the 
surface of gangue-particles, those will become wetted and 

sink. 

'Mineral,' 'metallic,' even 'ore' are used interchange- 
ably in the technology of flotation. The misuse of 'ore' 
has caused great confusion, for the object of the process 
is not to recover the 'ore', but only the valuable min- 
eral in the 'ore', rejecting the valueless portion, called 
'gangue'. As between 'metallic' and 'mineral', the ref- 
erence is not so much to substances containing metals, 
for that would include much of the gangue, such as 
rhodonite and feldspar, but particularly to minerals hav- 
ing a metallic lustre, which feature appears to be favor- 
able to the adhesion alike of air and oil. 'Sulphide' is 
another synonym, because the sulphur compounds with 
the base metals are particularly the object of flotation, 
but ' sulphide ' would exclude the tellurides. At least one 
sulphide without metallic lustre is amenable to flotation, 
namely, cinnabar. So is graphite, which is neither sul- 
phidic nor metallic, except in lustre. Likewise certain 
forms of scheelite respond to flotation, and it has been 
shown by experiment that a stable froth can be made with 
lycopodium powder, which is of vegetal origin. So we 
must be careful in our use of terms. The use of ' metallic ' 
and 'mineral' as adjectives to designate floatable sub- 
stances is based on a concept of flotation that may soon 
be discarded. No classification of floatable minerals can 
be made yet and when it is made it must be based on a 
better understanding of the physical conditions govern- 
ing flotation. 

The amount of oil required in froth-flotation depends 
upon three factors : the proportion of mineral to be con- 
centrated, the amount of water, and the degree of aera- 
tion. Air and water are needed to make bubbles ; these 
bubbles must be oiled in order that they may engage 
the mineral in the pulp. The more numerous the min- 
eral particles the greater the number of oily bubbles 
needed to arrest them. If the amount of water is 
doubled, there will be only half the number of mineral 
particles in a unit of space ; therefore more oily bubbles 
will have to be sent in search of them than if they were 
herded within the smaller volume of water. The idea 
that a 'critical' proportion of oil — somewhere under 1% 
— is required to perform successful froth-flotation has 
no basis of evidence outside the imaginings of a group of 
patentees and it has been stultified by the operations of 
1000-ton plants using 22 or 23 pounds of oil per ton of 
ore, in Utah and Montana. As Wilder D. Bancroft has 
said: "The hypothesis of a 'critical point' rests on un- 
verified and unverifiable statements." 

The Hypothesis. Let us recall the principal points 
in the evidence before venturing upon a summary of our 
conclusions. I write in the plural advisedly, for the 
evidence has come from many sources and the sug- 
gestions explaining it have been borrowed from many 
writers; the theory, like the practice, of flotation is the 
joint work of a large number of investigators. 



54 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14. 1917 



(1) The needle that floats on tap- water will sink in 
distilled water. Although contaminants have lowered 
the surface-tensionf of the tap-water, it has more sus- 
taining power on account of its aeration. 

(2) The bubble blown in distilled water will break as 
soon as it emerges, but the solution of an oily substance 
will enable a boy to blow bubbles that sail away beau- 
tifully. 

(3) The addition of oil lowers the surface-tension and 
thereby promotes wetting, but the adhesion of the oil to 
the surface of the mineral particles causes the water to 
be displaced, so that the gangue preferably, not the 
mineral, is wetted, and drowned. 

(4) Emulsification of the oil provides a means, 
through the subsequent breaking of the emulsion, for im- 
parting oil in a minutely subdivided state, as needed, 
for oiling the bubble-films and the mineral particles. 

(5) The contaminant, such as oil, in water concen- 
trates at the air-surface and by doing so affords a sur- 
face-tension sufficiently variable to be adjustable to 
shock. 

(6) The oil-water interface is more viscous than the 
body of either liquid. 

(7) Oil is attracted and adsorbed by mineral particles, 
which therefore are pulled into the oily film of the 
bubbles. 

(8) Bubbles will break when they collide unless there 
is a stable film between them, preventing coalescence. 
Such stability is furnished by a dissolved substance that 
adjusts the surface-tension and also increases the vis- 
cosity of the film. 

(9) A multiplicity of bubbles, or 'froth,' will serve 
a metallurgic purpose if it floats valuable mineral mat- 
ter long enough to facilitate a separation from the 
valueless components of the pulp. 

The recent trend of hypothesis — it has hardly the 
status of a theory — is to subordinate sundry ideas promi- 
nent a year ago.* The direct 'adhesion' of air to mineral 
particles is not so vital as was supposed, because air and 
mineral rarely come in direct contact in the flotation 
process ; usually either the air-bubble has an oily film or 
the mineral itself has undergone oil-filming. The lower- 
ing of the surface-tension of water is still a fundamental 
factor, but this modification of the water is recognized 
as chiefly important not for the first consequence, which 
promotes the wetting of the mineral, but for its sec- 
ondary result, which is to create a variable tension on 
the surface of a bubble-film, and thereby strengthen it 
greatly. The addition of acid has ceased to be essential, 
it having been found that alkaline water is better for 
the treatment of many ores. The acid, like the oil, is 
supposed to serve more than one purpose : 

(1) To adsorb on the gangue and aid the wetting of it. 

(2) To promote the floceulation of gangue-partieles 
and the separation of them from the valuable mineral. 

tThe layer of liquid subject to surface-tension has a thick- 
ness less than the radius of molecular action. R. S. Willows 
and E. Hatschek. 'Surface Energy,' page. 8. 

*'The Flotation Process,' 1916. 



Pine grinding of the ore is recognized as necessary, 
not only to separate the mineral from the gangue, but 
to assist the making of a froth rich in mineral. No 
longer is the mineral supposed to be buoyed by the bub- 
bles, as if tftd to a cork, but the minute particles of min- 
eral are believed to be drawn into the bubble-film, so 
that, to pursue the simile, the life-preserver of cork sur- 
rounds and encases the thing to be floated. The idea that 
a fixed proportion of oil to ore is necessary has gone with 
the supposition that oil only will perform the absorptive 
function necessary to a stable froth. Colloidal sulphur, 
sulphur di-oxide, and salt-cake have been proved effect- 
ive agents in froth-flotation ; and we may expect a steady 
increase in the discovery of such substances until oil, 
which is expensive, is discarded. The part played by 
emulsification and the formation of colloid hydrates are 
becoming recognized as possibly important factors. The 
violent type of agitation has been found unnecessary, 
and, thanks to recent litigation, it is likely that the use 
of compressed air under low pressure will supplant the 
power-consuming devices of an earlier period. The 
trend is toward simplicity both of treatment and appa- 
ratus. When air and a cheap modifying agent are found 
adequate for the making of a mineral-bearing froth then 
the flotation process may be deemed fully developed. 

The geology of the Telkwa district in British Colum- 
bia has recently been reported upon by Victor Dolmage 
who finds occurrences of interest. Among these is a 
characteristic type of copper deposit, assumed to be new, 
although similar occurrences are not uncommon in the 
basin region of the south-western United States and 
north-eastern Mexico. This consists in magnetite segre- 
gations accompanied with chalcopyrite, bornite, and 
tetrahedrite often associated with native silver, the latter 
being disseminated through the magnetite in the form of 
rounded grains. The ore is found in veins varying from 
a width of a few inches to four feet, cutting the Hazleton 
group of andesites, quartz porphyries, and tuffs. They 
are mineralized as a result of two distinct epochs of vein- 
formation, one following the intrusion of the Coast-range 
batholith of quartz diorite, which was supposedly in- 
jected during Jurassic time, and the other following the 
Bulkley eruptives occurring in the Tertiary age and 
bringing in diabases, lamprophyres, and soda-syenite por- 
phyry. The earlier solutions deposited in the veins, in 
the order named, quartz, epidote, hematite, pyrite, zinc- 
blende, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, silver-bearing 
tetrahedrite, and galena. The later solutions deposited 
quartz, much hematite, epidote and calcite with pyrite 
and chalcopyrite. The district, as might be supposed 
from the description given of the characteristics of the 
veins, is one capable of yielding only moderate amounts 
of high-grade ore from pockets of superior enrichment 
and from the careful cobbing of ore derived from the 
wider veins. 



China-clay is in sharp demand at the present time, 
the domestic grades being quoted as high as $20 per ton 
at Eastern points. The best imported fetches $35. 



July 14, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



55 



What is a Metalliferous Mineral? 



By L. 0. HOWARD 



.Must persons would probably reply off-hand to the 
above query that a metalliferous mineral is a mineral 
containing a metal or metals. I might query further, 
"What is a metal?" I confess that I have always be- 
lieved that I knew the answers to these questions and 
that they were axiomatic. However, I have been dis- 
abused by a document recently sent out to one of my 
legal friends by the Commissioner of the General Land 
Office at Washington. 

For the past six years there have been mined in eastern 
and south-eastern Utah ores containing vanadium, 
uranium, and radium, present in the mineral carnotite 
in certain Jura-Trias sandstone beds. Lode locations 
have been the invariable method of entry. The shallow 
depth of most of the ore and the lack of deeper explora- 
tion have made the locators content to proceed without 
patent. This has been shown to be an unsafe procedure 
in certain cases. Lately, due perhaps to unsettled con- 
ditions, many claims have been surveyed for patent. In 
the Green River area in Emery county a petroleum re- 
serve was established on March 14, 1912, as Petroleum 
Reserve No. 25, Utah No. 2. This covered most of the 
carnotite area and antedates many of the locations. Ap- 
plication for a patent to a certain carnotite claim was 
filed on September 24, 1915, consequent upon a location 
made on January 4, 1914. On May 25, of this year, the 
Commissioner of the General Land Office states that the 
question "now arises of the metalliferous or non-metal- 
liferous character of the mineral sought." The entry 
was based on a location claiming a portion of a lode, 
vein, or deposit "bearing uranium and other valuable 
minerals," and it was stated in the application for patent 
that ' ' the mineral found is carnotite ore. ' ' 

The record appears clear up to this point. The claim 
was located and worked in good faith, assessment and 
patent work done, survey for patent made and accepted, 
and all requirements of the law fulfilled. The ground 
was undoubtedly open to entry and patent if containing 
metalliferous minerals, according to Section 2 of the Act 
of June 25, 1910, as amended by the Act of August 24, 
1912 (35 Stat., 697), which provides that "all lands 
withdrawn under the provision of this act shall at all 
times be open to exploration, discovery, . . . , and pur- 
chase under the mining laws of the United States as far 
as the same apply to ' metalliferous minerals. ' ' Now 
comes the answer to the query, "What is a metalliferous 
mineral?" or perhaps one had better say, "What is not 
a metalliferous mineral?" Let me quote from a letter 
of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey, of March 
7, 1917, to the Commissioner of the General Land Office 
in relation to this case. The Director says: "Deposits 



of carnotite or other radium-bearing ores are mined pri- 
marily for the production, not of the radium itself, which 
is chemically a metal, but of radium salts, which are non- 
metallic. Metallic radium is seldom, if ever, produced, 
and the non-metallic salts, chiefly the chlorides and bro- 
mides, constitute the article of commerce. The radium 
ores may be considered in the same category as potash, 
limestone, or common salt, which, though the salts re- 
spectively of the elements potassium, calcium, and 
sodium, classified chemically as metals, have uniformly 
been considered by the courts, the Department, and in 
mining law as non-metalliferous minerals, as are borax, 
. . . and similar substances. The question is some- 
what further complicated by the fact that the radium 
occurs only in extremely minute quantities in carnotite- 
bearing ore, carnotite being a mineral which contains 
uranium and vanadium. These ores, however, are earthy 
and non-metallic in chemical character. 1 Vanadium is 
not even chemically a metal, 2 and although uranium is 
chemically a metal, ... as are calcium, the basic 
element in limestone, and aluminum, the basic element 
in clay . . ., such limited use as it has in the arts is 
almost exclusively as an oxide or other salt. The Survey 
believes that carnotite is not a metalliferous mineral in 
the sense in which the term is used in this act." The 
Commissioner quotes, in further support of his ruling, 
Dr. George P. Merrill, head curator of geology, U. S. 
National Museum, who, in his treatise on 'The Non- 
Metallic Minerals, Their Occurrence and Uses,' says, 
' ' Uranium is never used in the metallic state, but in the 
form of oxides or uranates of soda and potash, and finds a 
limited application in the arts." 

On the basis of the above opinion the Commissioner 
has allowed the claimant 30 days in which to show cause 
why the entry should not be cancelled. The Commis- 
sioner apparently bases his ruling on the following 
premises : 

1. Radium is not used in the metallic state but in the 
form of certain salts, such as bromides and chlorides. 

2. Vanadium is not chemically a metal. 

3. Uranium, although chemically a metal, is prin- 
cipally used as an oxide or salt. 

4. Therefore carnotite, which is the economic mineral 
containing radium, vanadium, and uranium, is a non- 
metalliferous mineral, analogous to borax, salt, limestone, 
and potash. 

5. Land containing only non-metalliferous minerals is 
not subject to entry under the terms of the Act with- : 

lEqually true as to some forms of hematite, as for instance, 
certain Mesabi iron ores. 
2 What is a metal? 



56 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



drawing petroleum lands from entry as mining claims. 

With No. 5 we have no quarrel, since the law is ex- 
plicit in this respect. Considering first No. 1, although 
it is true that at present, for reasons well known to those 
familiar with radium and its uses, it is deemed expedient 
to market radium in the form of its salts, it becomes 
pertinent to enquire into certain phases of its use, con- 
sidered in a broader spirit than is shown in the opinions 
quoted. What is the function of the salt and to what 
does it owe its uses? For what is it valuable? "We may 
say without question that all its uses are due solely to 
the properties of the radium itself, without regard to 
the form in which it may be. It may be contained in 
barium chloride or common sand. The entire value de- 
pends wholly on the content in metallic radium. The 
salt, then, is not valuable owing to any particular prop- 
erty of its own. Convenience merely requires that, for 
easy and efficient use, the radium be carried in some con- 
tainer or packing. What this container may be is im- 
material, so that it be harmless. The barium chloride or 
other salt performs the function of a carrier or con- 
tainer, and this is its sole function. One might as well 
consider that nails were sold in kegs, because a keg of 
nails per se was especially valuable, rather than buy the 
keg of nails for the sake of the nails themselves. A keg 
happens to be a convenient container. An evidence of the 
importance of the metallic radium is the present in- 
sistence that all radium salts be rated in terms of the 
metallic radium, for it is the metallic radium that is 
important, not the salt. As to No. 2, it is obvious that 
a strict interpretation places the metallurgists, manu- 
facturers, and users of steel in the category of those who 
use meaningless and incorrect terms to describe their 
products. Docs No. 2 imply that ferro-vanadium is not 
a ferro-alloy I If it does, our definition of alloy needs 
revision. Webster gives it as a mixture of metals. Also. 
in whal category are we to place tungsten, molybdenum, 
nickel, aluminum, chromium, and other components of 
ferro-alloys'.' Would not the ruling apply to ores of 
these 'metals' as weU I 

A comparison of No. 1, 2, and 3 shows some interesting 
anomalies. No. 1 defeats the entry because, though 
radium is chemically a metal, its use is not as a metal; 
while vanadium is used as a metal, it is not chemically 
a metal: and uranium, while chemically a metal is not 
userl as a metal ; so that No. 2 and 3 arc also reasons for 
cancelling the entry. Furthermore, how long is uranium 
to be used principally as a salt? How long was tungsten 
used oidy otherwise than as a metal, and how recently 
was it found possible to make tungsten wire? Does the 
Survey intend to say that vanadium and uranium are to 
have, or do have, but slight use in the metallic arts? If 
we adhere to the time-honored definition of an alloy, we 
must admit that the use of vanadium and uranium in the 
form of ferro-alloys is strictly as metallic substances. 
Minerals carrying either of these metals are classed cor- 
rectly as metalliferous minerals. If not, pray, what is a 
metalliferous mineral? Wherein is the analogy to borax, 
salt, limestone, and clayl These are all valuable solely 



as such, and not because of the content in boron, sodium, 
calcium, and aluminum, whereas the salts af vanadium 
and radium are valuable solely because of their content 
in these metals. Ferro-uranium is being advertised ex- 
tensively today, and it is surely possible that uranium 
may find its greatest use in this form. 

Further, is it true that carnotite is, or has been, mined 
principally for its content in radium? It would seem 
that if it could be proved that at any time the carnotite 
ores had been diligently sought, and were exploited, as 
a source of vanadium and uranium for use in the metallic 
arts, without regard to, or thought of, the radium con- 
tained, this statement would lose its force. Early in 
1912 I had charge of certain carnotite mines in the area 
in question. What my clients sought, mined, and 
shipped was a material to be utilized as a source of 
uranium and vanadium, and not of radium ; in fact, 
radium was not even considered. Such a competent 
authority as Madame Curie had scouted the idea of these 
ores being a commercial source of radium. Work done 
by pioneers in Colorado was ridiculed and the term 
'radium king' was facetiously applied to the chief ex- 
ponent of the theory that these ores could be made to 
yield radium commercially. However, his persistence 
won success. It was only when the Utah ore was found 
to be slightly too low-grade for the extraction of vana- 
dium and uranium at a profit that attention was turned 
to the possibilities lying in its radium-content ; and it 
may be remarked that this particular ore was also rather 
too low-grade for profitable radium extraction. 

For many years previous to the attempt to extract 
radium, countless attempts were made in Colorado to 
treat these ores for their uranium and vanadium con- 
tents. That complete commercial success did not ensue 
was due to the process employed and lack of experience 
on the part of the exploiters, not to say unsuitability of 
the ore itself as a profitable source of these metals. Pre- 
vious to the discovery of the large Peruvian deposit, a 
mill was in successful operation in Colorado, furnishing 
vanadium salts for the manufacture of ferro-alloys, 
utilizing an ore as low in vanadium as many of the car- 
notites and containing no uranium or radium whatever; 
and much of the market was supplied from this source. 
This mill is still in operation. 

Finally, is there any doubt that the leading producer 
of radium is also utilizing the vanadium and uranium 
contents of his ore on a fairly large scale in the metal 
industry? In fact, the Standard Alloys Co., a subsidi- 
ary, markets both ferro-vanadium and ferro-uraniuin, 
for the latter of which claims are made that may lead to 
extended use. Is not, then, a mineral carrying uranium 
and vanadium a metalliferous mineral in the sense in 
which the term is used in the Act, as well as chemically? 
Is earthiness peculiar to non-metalliferous minerals? Is 
it in any sense a criterion ? Are not many hematites 
earthy, many oxidized ores of copper, of lead, and of 
many other metals? Are sulphide ores usually com- 
posed of metalliferous minerals and oxide ores not? 

And what is a metalliferous mineral? 



.Inlv 14. l!M7 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



57 



Oruro Tin-Silver District, Bolivia 



By FRANCIS CHURCH LINCOLN 



The mini's Of Oruro were worked by the subjects of 

the Ineas before the Conquest. Francisco Medrano, a 
Spanish curate, learned of them from an Indian, and in 
1595 opened the Socav6n de la Virgen and Atoeha mines. 
The mines were developed until their silver production 
rivalled that of Potosi, by the year 167S. With alter- 
nating periods of bonanza and borrasca, the mines of 
Oruro continued to flourish until the outbreak of the 
Bolivian war of independence. In the three years preced- 
ing this war. the silver mines of Oruro paid no less than 
$40,000,000 in taxes to the Spanish Crown. As these 
taxes were one-fifth of the production, the output must 
have been at least $200,000,000. The Bolivian revolu- 
tion resulted in a complete paralysis of the mining in- 
dustry. It was not until 1885 that revival occurred, 
when the Chilean Compania Minera de Oruro purchased 
the ancient Soeavon de la Virgen mine and began work. 
More recently, this company acquired the Itos property 
which is separated from the Soeavon by the San Jose 
mine. The latter mine was purchased by the Compania 
Minera San Jose de Oruro, also a Chilean corporation. 
These companies control the output of the district, which 
at the present time is of greater value for its tin than for 
its silver. According to M. G. F. Sohnlein, the silver 
production of the Oruro district in 1915 was 780,000 oz., 
while the normal monthly production of tin concentrate 
by the Compania Minera de Oruro is from 2500 to 3500 
quintales and that of the Cia. Minera San Jose from 800 
to 1000 quintales. 

Oruro, with its 25,000 inhabitants, is second only to 
La Paz in importance. It is on the Antofagasta- 
Bolivia Ry., 147 miles south-easterly from La Paz, and 
575 miles north-easterly from the Chilean port of Anto- 
fagasta. Railroad connection is possible also with the 
Pacific coast by way of Viacha over the Arica-La Paz 
Ry. to Arica, Chile, or over the Southern Railway of 
Peru to Mollendo, Peru ; while by way of Uyuni it will 
soon be possible to go by rail to the Atlantic coast at 
Buenos Ayres, Argentina. Oruro lies on the Bolivian 
plateau, at an elevation of 12,120 ft. above sea-level. To 
the westward, beginning at the outskirts of the town, the 
Oruro hills rise to heights of from 1000 to 1700 ft. above 
the plateau. 

The Oruro ore deposit is noteworthy as presenting the 
best-known example of tin-silver veins. Special interest 
attaches to this type of deposit both because of its rarity 
outside the Republic of Bolivia, and because it forms a 
connecting link between pneumatolytic and hydrother- 
mal deposits, tin being characteristic of the former and 
silver of the latter. The country-rock of the Oruro dis- 
trict is quartz porphyry intrusive through Paleozoic 



shales. The porphyry is probably of Tertiary age, and 
may be more closely classified as a dellenite porphyry. 
It contains large phenocrysts of quartz anil orthoclase 
and has been highly altered in the vicinity of the veins, 
as shown by micro-photographs made by Romana,* who 
has exhaustively studied the district. The shales are 
dark in color and frequently occur as included fragments 
and blocks in the porphyry. The veins worked on all 




three properties form a single linked system which ex- 
tends in a north-westerly direction diagonally across the 
northern part of the Oruro hills. The main vein, known 
as the Purisima, has a strike of about N. 15° "W. on the 
Soeavon ground, but has many bends and angles, and 
develops a westerly strike at the Itos mine. Its dip is 
likewise irregular, being at times as flat as 50°. The 
width varies from 3 to 8 ft. The vein splits into numer- 
ous narrow stringers around blocks of slate in the Itos 
ground which re-unite when the vein passes into the por- 
phyry on the further side. A depth of 1250 ft. has been 
reached on the San Jose property. The veins are gen- 
erally filled fissures with the filling 'frozen' to the walls, 
but occasionally a fault separates the vein from the 
country-rock and in places the filling penetrates the 
wall-rock without a distinct line of demarcation. As a 

*Boletin del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas del Peru, No. 
57 (1908). 



58 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



rule, when the veins enter the slates not only do they 
break up into stringers but the tin disappears, though 
the silver persists. The primary ore minerals are pyrite, 
eassiterite, argentiferous tetrahedrite, argentiferous 
jamesonite, and a little galena. The gangue-minerals are 
those of the country-rock with a little vein-quartz. The 
tetrahedrite contains about 5% silver and the jamesonite 
0.2 / . Cassiterite and tetrahedrite both occur as irreg- 
ular patches in the pyrite, at times separate and at times 
intergrown, but the tetrahedrite displays a tendency to 
occur as stringers, while the jamesonite is found mainly 
in the form of tufts of fine radiating needles in druses 
in the pyrite. In an interesting variety known as 'ring 
ore,' pyrite cores are seen encrusted with cassiterite, 
while the remaining spaces are filled with tetrahedrite 
and jamesonite. The order of the ore-minerals is there- 
fore as follows: pyrite, cassiterite, tetrahedrite, jame- 
sonite. The pyrite stage, however, overlaps both the cas- 
siterite and the tetrahedrite stages, while the cassiterite 
stage overlaps that of the tetrahedrite. Thus, while the 
deposition of tin was in part contemporaneous with that 
of the silver, the silver precipitation continued for a 
longer period. Rich silver chloride ores formerly oc- 
curred in the oxidized zon« extending downward for 
several hundred feet, but these were exhausted in the 
early days. Along with the hornsilver ores were present 
tin ores known as 'pacos' containing from 4 to 5% tin, 
and from 6 to 9 oz. silver per ton. These were cast aside, 
but recently have become the object of exploitation. They 
are soft and porous, and contain cassiterite, clay, and 
iron oxides. At times the eassiterite in the 'pacos' is 
white and pulverulent, and it is then called 'white tin'. 
Below the oxidized zone there was found a zone of sec- 
ondary enrichment from which high-grade silver-sul- 
phide ores were extracted in the Colonial period. Under- 
neath the secondary sulphide enrichments is the pi-imary 
ore which has shown no sign of impoverishment in depth. 
From the offices of the Cia. Minera de Oruro, in the 
city of Oruro, an ancient cross-cut tunnel, the Socavon 
de la Virgen, whence the mine takes its name, extends to 
the Purisima vein. The main workings of the Socavon 
mine extend to a depth of 725 ft. below this tunnel. The 
mine is worked through an incline-shaft which cuts the 
Socavon de la Virgen and extends to the third level, 400 
ft. below. Prom the third level a winze has been sunk on 
one of the branch veins, near its junction with the Pur- 
isima, to a depth of 325 ft. Ore from the Itos mine owned 
by the same company is brought across the Oruro hills 
by means of an aerial tramway. The San Jose mine of 
the Cia. Minera San Jose de Oruro has a depth of 1250 
ft., making it the deepest tin mine in Bolivia. The 
Socavon mine uses electric power, developed by oil en- 
gines. Jackhammer drills are employed in the mine. A 
considerable amount of the sloping is from ancient fill- 
ings and pillars. The mine timbering consists mainly of 
dry-walls. About 25,000 gal. of water per diem is 
bailed from the mine. Miners are paid three bolivianos 
per day, which, at the present rate of exchange, is equiv- 
alent to about $1.00. H. P. Grondijs is consulting engi- 



neer for the Cia. Minera de Oruro as well as for Abelli 
& Co. in the Paziia district. 

All the ore is hand-sorted on the surface and the picked 
ore shipped by rail to the mill. 

Owing to scarcity of water at Oruro, the mills of the 
Cia. Minera de Oruro and the Minera San Jose are sit- 
uated on the Antofagasta-Bolivia Ry. at Machacamarca 
and Poopo. The ore is given a chloridizing roast and the 
silver is extracted by hyposulphite lixiviation, at the 
same time leaching and precipitating what little copper 
is present. The lixiviation. tailing is then concentrated 
to recover the tin, the tin concentrate, locally known as 
'barrilla', containing from 65 to 70% of that metal. 
The Machacamarca mill is under the superintendence of 
M. G. P. Sohnlein. The extraction at this plant is about 
80% of the tin and 85% of the silver in the ore. 

Zinc ore for retorting is roasted to a low-sulphur con- 
tent. 'Faulty' sulphur, as it is known in the technology 
of the art, is the sulphur remaining in the calcine in the 
form of sulphide and as soluble zinc sulphate. This is 
distinguished by determining the sulphur combined with 
lead and calcium, and deducting that from the total sul- 
phur found. The metallurgist assumes that the 'faulty' 
sulphur exerts a deleterious effect on the zinc recovery, 
while the sulphur present as calcium sulphate and as lead 
sulphate is not released from combination in retorting. 
Edward M. Johnson, superintendent of the Eagle Picher 
Lead Co., says that it is still an unsettled question 
whether the detrimental effect of the sulphur held by 
zinc in the calcine is due to chemical reactions taking 
place in the retort, thereby retaining zinc as a sulphate, 
or whether it is because of poor condensation of zinc- 
vapor. He states as his experience that no means has 
been found for overcoming the difficulty, and the old rule 
remains true that "one per cent of 'faulty' sulphur 
retains two per cent of zine". Sulphide sulphur in the 
calcine has a bad effect in forming matte, which exerts a 
highly corrosive effect on the retorts. "The fireman, in 
order to save his retorts from 'butchering' does not carry 
the distillation as far as he might otherwise do, with a 
consequent loss of zinc in the residue. On the other 
hand, if the fireman insists upon working off the furnace 
a high retort-loss ensues through the absorption of zinc." 



Chemical industries will figure at the third National 
Exposition under the auspices of the American Chemical 
Society at the Grand Central Palace in New York during 
the week beginning September 24. The advisory com- 
mittee consists of Charles H. Herty, chairman, Raymond 
P. Bacon, L. H. Baekeland, Henry B. Faber, Colin G. 
Pink, Bernhard C. Hesse, A. D. Little, Utley Wedge, 
and others. This will be the most notable representation 
of American progress in chemical manufacture that has 
ever been made. There will be meetings of the Chemical 
and other societies, with addresses by the foremost scien- 
tists of the country. The United States government is 
also taking a hand in the exposition, and will contribute 
in many ways to the interest of the occasion. 



.lulv 14. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



59 



As seen at the world's great mining ceiUres by our own correspondents. 



wmemsmmmmmmmmBmmamxmmammiwmmmmmmmm\\mm\mmmmm\in.\ 



i :::...! 



ALASKA 

New iihiiih'«i.m on Knights Island ami Fidaloo Bay. — 'I'm 
Stbiki at the KoMiiin Copper Mine Is Stiij. in- Fohci 
but a Settlement is Anticipated. — Activity Neab Valdez. 

W. A. Dickey, of Landlock, is developing what is known as 
the Kua property near Rua cove on the east shore of Knights 
island. This property was bought by W. A. Dickey and Fred 
B. Snyder, the latter of Minneapolis, last fall. It is a large 
pyrrhotite vein carrying copper. The development to date 
consists of a 500-ft. adit and about 300 ft. of cross-cuts from 
this adit. The orebody is exposed on the surface at intervals 
by open-cuts for about 400 ft. and the outcrop can be traced 
for 2000 ft. Under ground 300 ft. of development has been 
done this spring under the supervision of Thomas Blakney, 
the engineer in charge. Fifteen men are regularly employed. 
A water-driven Ingersoll compressor furnishes power for two 
jack-hammers, which work effectively. Development will be 
continued during the summer, and it is expected that a large 
body of low-grade copper ore will be blocked out. 

At Fidalgo bay the Alaska Mines Corporation, under the 
management of Byron Wilson, is working what is known as 
the Schlosser property under a bond and lease. The com- 
pany is shipping to Tacoma from 400 to 500 tons of copper 
ore monthly that will average about 13% copper. Twenty-five 
men are employed, and all mining is done by hand. The ore is 
conveyed from the mine to the bunkers on the dock by a Tren- 
ton aerial tram. The ore occurs in irregular lenses in a shear- 
zone and is a very good grade of chalcopyrite. In prospecting 
for the high-grade lenses considerable low-grade ore is being 
found that may be milled at some time in the future. The 
mine is opened on three levels by adits. Recently a lens 
80 ft. long by from 5 to 10 ft. wide was found on the lowest 
level. This is the largest body of shipping-ore so far found 
during the intermittent working of the mine in the last seven 
or eight years. This discovery makes the future of the prop- 
erty look good. 

At Cordova the strike at the Kennecott Company properties 
is still on. The men are camped at Blackburn, four miles 
from Kennecott. Saloons at McCarthy nearby are closed 
tight and everything is peaceable and quiet. E. T. Stannard. 
general manager for the Kennecott company, is to return 
by June 25 and it seems to be the general opinion that the 
strike will be settled within a few days. A few of the Ameri- 
can and Scandinavian miners employed at the mines refused 
to affiliate with the strikers on the ground that the men did not 
keep faith with the company. These men are leaving, or have 
left the camp. The mill-men and all the men at the lower camp 
took the same view and are still working. The strike will not 
affect the mill-output for some time as there is a large stock- 
pile upon which to draw. 

W. H. Seagrave, formerly general manager for the Kenne- 
cott company, who now has an office in Seattle, is at McCarthy 
directing the preliminary work for the Tjosevig-Kennecott 
company, for whom he is consulting engineer. This company 
is building a horse-trail from McCarthy to the Tjosevig prop- 
erty, which is across the glacier from the Bonanza mine, pre- 
paratory to doing considerable development work during the 
coming summer. 

The Ramsey-Rutherford mine, a small gold mine near the 
Valdez glacier, nine miles from Valdez, shut-down on June 1, 



Some prospecting is being carried on and it Is expected that 
the mill will steirt up again in a couple of I the. This prop- 
erty has been a steady producer for the last three years. It is 
owned and operated by local people who installed a larger 
compressor last winter, at considerable expense on account of 
location, with which they had hoped to keep ore developed far 
enough ahead to operate the mill continuously. 

CRIPPLE CREEK, COLORADO 

Output of the Disteict Increasing. — Low-gbaue Ore Formerly 
considered as waste now being milled at a promt. — 
Cresson Consolidated Has a New and Rich Vein. — New 
Development Work. — Roosevelt Tunnel Drainage. 

The output of gold ores from the mines of the Cripple Creek 
district during the month of June, as compiled from the re- 
ports of mill managers and district smelter representatives, 
totaled 89,740 tons, with a bullion value of $1,064,465.50. 

As shown in the accompanying table, local mills of the Port- 
land Gold Mining Company treated the heaviest tonnage of 
record, 43,650 tons, with a low average value of $2,016 per ton, 
and a gross bullion value of $88,008. This tonnage of low-grade 
necessarily brought down the average, and it is the lowest on 
record, $11.86 per ton. Ore treated at the Independence mill 
of this company carried a gold content of only $1.80 per ton. 
The treatment figures of the several companies and plants 
follow: 

Average 
Tons value Gross 
Plant and location. treated per ton value 
Golden Cycle M. & R. Co., Colo- 
rado Springs 32,000 $20.00 $640,000.00 

Portland G. M. Co., Colo. Springs. 10,190 19.25 196,157.50 
Smelters, Denver and Pueblo.... 3,500 55.00 137,500.00 
Portland G. M. Co., Victor mill. . .18,150 2.32 42,108.00 

Portland G. M. Co., Independence 

mill 25,500 1.80 45,900.00 

Rex mill, Kavanaugh lease 1,400 2.00 2.S00.00 



89,740 $11.86 $1,064,465.50 

Including the June output the production for the six months 
of 1917 has totalled 431,738 tons with the gross bullion value 
of $6,201,668. The Roosevelt tunnel of the Cripple Creek Deep 
Drainage & Tunnel Company, according to the measurements 
taken by T. R. Countryman, consulting engineer for the tunnel 
company, was advanced 153 ft. in June. The flow of water 
from the tunnel, passing through the weir at the portal, and 
flowing thence into Cripple creek, measured 5152 cu. ft. per 
minute. This is the lowest flow recorded since the tapping of 
the C. K. & N. water-course in 1912. Work was commenced 
the last week in June, on a lateral to extend from the Roosevelt 
tunnel to a point under the Cresson Consolidated Mining & 
Milling Company's main shaft on Raven hill. A drift has been 
started from the west side-line of the Old Ironsides claim of 
the United Gold Mines Company, on Battle mountain, and is 
headed north-east for the objective point. Low-grade ore is 
found in the dike in which the drift is carried. 

Stock-transfer books of the Cresson Consolidated Gold Min- 
ing & Milling Company, and Golden Cycle Mining & Reduction 
Company closed on Saturday, June 30, preparatory to the pay- 



60 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



ment of the usual monthly dividends by these corporations on 
Tuesday, July 10. The Cresson dividend at the regular rate 
of 10c. per share will amount to $122,000; the Golden Cycle 
dividend at 3c. per share to $45,000. The directors of the 
Portland and Vindicator Gold Mining companies will meet this 
week, when the regular quarterly dividends of 3c. each are 
expected to be declared. 

The Granite Gold Mining Company has gone upon a bi- 
monthly dividend basis and will pay its first dividend of 1c. 
per share on July 5, to all stockholders of record on June 30. 
The amount is $16,500. It is the opinion of men in the confi- 
dence of the management that the Granite company will short- 
ly be placed on a monthly dividend basis. The Granite mine 
is at Victor. 

An important new discovery in the Cresson mine was 
authenticated by A. E. Carlton, president of the Cresson com- 
pany, the last week in June. A new vein has been opened up 
at the 14th level of the main shaft, at a distance of 29 ft. from 
the main Cresson vein. According to the president's statement, 
the vein is 7 ft. wide and he further states that the ore is of 
very good grade and will certainly average $35 per ton. 

At the annual stockholders' meeting of the Modoc Consoli- 
dated Mines Company, held in Denver the last week of June, 
the former officers and directors were re-elected as follows: 
Frank Cannon, president; A. H. Frankenberg, vice-president; 
Richard Roelofs, Thomas Arneal, Mark A. Skinner, E. D. 
Avery. 

The operations of the company, as shown by the company 
report, are being steadily enlarged and the upper levels of the 
old incline-shaft have been leased and are producing. The com- 
pany is sinking a new vertical shaft on the Battle mountain 
end of its property on Bull hill and Battle mountain, and has 
raised from the old workings at the 1100-ft. point to surface. 
The shaft is being timbered with Oregon-pine square-sets. The 
timber was held up by a Government embargo for several 
weeks but was recently released, and is now at the mine in 
quantity sufficient to square-set to the 1500-ft. level. The Ex- 
celsior Mining, Milling & Electric Company, holding a long- 
time lease on the Longfellow Gold Mining Company's Bull Hill 
mine, through the Stratton Estate control of that company, has 
sunk the new shaft to a depth of 300 ft. and has timbered it 
down to 2S0 ft. Laterals will be run out to connect with the 
workings of the Golden Cycle mine, extended into the Long- 
fellow at the 500 and 600-ft. levels, when these depths have 
been attained. The leasing company was operating through 
the Golden Cycle and has a large tonnage of ore in sight, but 
ceased operating through that mine and commenced sinking, 
conditional on the lease extension. The Stratton Estate will 
save the low-grade ore rejected by the company operating 
through the Longfellow shaft, and dumping this low-grade and 
waste ore on the ground. 

COBALT, ONTARIO 

Encouraging Pbospect for a Settlement or the Pending Labor 
Dispute. — Aggressive Work Going on in the Mines. 

During the fourth week of June ore and bullion shipments 
from the Cobalt continued comparatively heavy. A total of 10 
cars weighing approximately 763,190 lb. was sent out. Six 
companies contributed to the ore shipments, Nipissing with 
five ears leading the list. Bullion shipments for the week 
totalled 313 bars, weighing 363,250.97 oz. and valued at $288,- 
356.64. Bullion shipments so far during the current year 
aggregate upward of 5,250,000 oz. valued at over $4,000,000. 

The labor situation is still in a state of plasticity, and, al- 
though the strike-vote taken Sunday last resulted in a large 
majority in favor of striking, as a means of getting the 50c. in- 
crease in the present base-wage, the situation is, nevertheless, 
viewed with more or less optimism. It is generally believed 
the men will finally, and before calling a general strike, decide 
upon treating with their employers apart from their union 



affiliations either individually or by committee. Should the 
men follow this course, there would appear to be a possi- 
bility of getting a 'high cost of living allowance' instead of the 
present 'high price of silver bonus'. It was along these lines 
that a settlement was effected at the Dome and Mclntyre 
mines at Porcupine. 

The Kerr Lake Mining Company has declared a special divi- 
dend of 15c. per share, payable August 10 to shareholders of 
record July 5. Half of this dividend will be paid the share- 
holders and half will be devoted to patriotic purposes. The 
camp is comparatively well supplied with labor, and in a gen- 
eral way, developments are going forward aggressively. 



PORCUPINE, ONTARIO 

The Labor Situation Much Improved. — Wages Are Increased 
and a Better Class of Miners Will Now Be Available. — 
The Dome and McIntyre Have Hioh-grade Ore and Will 
Increase Output. 

The situation at Porcupine has improved during the past 
week or so, and it is now certain that there will be no general 
tie-up here. The Dome Mines company has decided to grant 
its employees approximately 50c. per day above the regular 
base-wage, which is along similar lines to the action taken 
over a week ago by the management of the Melntyre-Porcu- 
pine. Labor leaders have stated that although the Mclntyre 
management did not deal with and did not recognize the union, 
it nevertheless has dealt squarely with its employees and 
will from now on benefit by any favors within the power of 
the union to confer, in the way of sending the best available 
men to work at the mine. The fact of the Dome Mines com- 
pany having followed the lead set by the Mclntyre is expected 
to have a beneficial effect, not only at Porcupine, but at Cobalt 
as well. At present the Dome Mines employs only 350 men and 
the increase of 50c. per day will amount to $175 daily, or about 
$5250 per month. During 1910 the company paid $SOO,000 in 
divdends, and at present there is upward of $700,000 in the 
treasury, so that the $63,000 payable yearly under the recent 
increase in wages will not greatly affect the earning power of 
the company. In fact, the probable higher efficiency that will 
result will, it is anticipated, more than make up for the added 
outlay in wages. Early next week the cross-cut at the 700-ft. 
level of tne Dome will probably enter the orebody 119 ft. wide, 
that was indicated by the diamond-drill core and mentioned 
but not included in the estimate of the annual report of the 
company issued a few weeks ago. This ore is officially stated 
to carry an average gold content of $17 per ton. By early 
August the cross-cut will probably have crossed the entire 
width of the body, at which time driving, winzing, and stoping 
will be commenced. With ore once going to the mill from the 
stopes in this high-grade ore the grade of the mill-feed will 
probably immediately rise to new high-record for this mine. 
Hitherto the average grade at Dome has been below $5 per 
ton. When it is considered that the milling capacity of the 
Dome is about 1500 tons per day, it can at once be seen that 
every $1 added to the grade of ore treated would increase the 
daily output approximately $1500, which would be a large net 
profit. 

On June 27 mining and milling operations at the Schu- 
macher mine were suspended owing to the decision of the 
directorate and management not to grant an increase in wages 
to their men, and the impossibility of securing sufficient labor 
at the old rate of pay. Mill construction, however, is being 
continued at the Schumacher and the new mill will increase 
the milling capacity to about 280 tons daily. 

The four-weekly report of Hollinger for the period ending 
May 20 was somewhat disappointing, in that gross production 
had fallen off to $92,000 as compared with around $194,000 
during the preceding period. The management, it is under- 
stood, is now devoting more energy toward centralizing the 



July 14. MIT 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



CI 



underground work pending the return to more normal labor 
conditions and cost of supplies. This policy will ultimately 
result In added net profit to those interested In the mine, and 
with R return to pre war conditions a new high reeortl In the 
rate of dividends will probably he established. 

The Melntyre Is now employing about 350 men and pro- 
ducing approximately $150,000 per month. Net profits amount 
to nearly $90,000 monthly, which is almost on a par with the 
Hollincer. Recently, the main orebody was cut by diamond- 
drills at a depth of 1550 ft. and determined to be over 3U ft. 
wide of high-grade milling ore. The main body, at the 1000-ft. 
level, averages around $12.50 per ton. 

It is the general opinion that the period of prolonged strain 
through which the Porcupine district is passing is at an end, 
and that increasing prosperity is at hand. 

ELDORA, COLORADO 

character of the tungsten ores of bol eiier county, coi.o- 
r.viio. — An Important Change with Depth. — Operating 
Companies. — MTU, Methods Compared. — Duty on Tung- 
sten Ores SOUGHT. 

Tungsten ores follow the same law as the ores of gold, 
silver, and copper — free-milling at the surface, from which 
much high-grade ore can be cobbed. In the early days milling 
of tungsten was an easy problem, but as the ore-shoots in- 
creased in depth the ores became more complicated and more 
tightly bound to the rock in which they occurred and so more 
difficult to handle; and at the same time they did not offer 
the amount of free ore that might be cobbed from it as at the 
surface. 

Ores that have been sent to mills for milling have, up to 
about two years ago, averaged over 10% tungsten tri-oxide, 
where as now they are of an average of about 5% tungsten 
tri-oxide. This with the fact that they are of a more compli- 
cated nature has caused great changes in the method of 
milling. 

The depth to which tungsten goes is a problem. Some mines 
give promise of good ore to considerable depth and others do 
not. The Condor ot the Primos company was one that did 
well to the 900-ft. level. The Clyde mine has great bodies of 
low-grade ore at 300 ft. and all indications are that they will 
continue to greater depth, at least the Wolf Tongue company, 
which owns it, will continue to sink the shaft for investigation. 

The Primos company is running at full capacity. 

The Vasco Mining Co., associated with the Vanadium Alloys 
Steel Co., of Pennsylvania, is running steadily. It purchased 
the upper Rodgers tract and erected a 50-ton mill last year. It 
also purchased the Boyd mill at Boulder and remodeled it for 
tungsten ores, and it is running. 

The Rare Metals Co., at Rollinsville, has erected a 50-ton 
mill and is operating it, purchasing ores from the Beaver dis- 
trict. This company has leased mines on Beaver creek and 
will operate them. 

Mr. Caudray, of Denver, has leased the Lone Chance mine 
on Beaver creek, and also the Smith-Ardouel mill and will 
mine and mill the ore from this mine. 

Jack Clark, who has heen in the tungsten business for some 
time, is mining and milling ores at Stevens camp. 

The old Colborn mill, near Boulder, has been remodeled for 
tungsten ores and will handle it for lessees and from its own 
mines. 

The Wolf Tongue Mining Co., at Nederland, which has been 
in the tungsten business for 13 years and owns considerable 
tungsten land, is producing heavily. It mines its own ores and 
also leases ground. It has ten mines on the company pay- 
roll and 20 sets of lessees taking out ore. The Clyde mine is 
at present the heaviest producer. The Cross No. 1, operated 
by lease, gives promise of becoming a great producer. 

The Bonanza, Star, Orange Blossom, Hoosier, Tenderfoot, 



and Town 1...I arc all on the shipping list. Several setH of 
lessees arc running the float material over Jigs and tables and 
shipping concentrate. The same plan of operation is u 
the Primos company, the Vasco company, and others Id the 

district. 

The mills of the district vary in the methods of Dandling 
(he ores. Some believe, and no doubt have sufficient reason for 
it. that out one grade of concentrate should be made, and that 
of a 60% grade. The Wolf Tongue company from years of 
experience has arrived at the conclusion that two grades are 
necessary; one of 00% and one of about 20%, called second- 
grade; and, if necessary, to run the second grade through a 
mill in the same way as crude ore and thus get the first-grade 
from this second-grade. Some mills In one operation return 
all second-grade ore to the re-grinding machinery as soon 
as made and get the first-grade from it while the crude ore 
is also going through the mill. This difference of opinion 
has never been compared to see just which is the best, but the 
Wolf Tongue mill, from careful work in both ways, has suffi- 
cient proof to say that to mix the re-ground sand from the 
tables or the second jig-product from the jigs with the crude 
ore and mill both at the same time does not produce the best 
results. The above statement is based on very careful work 
and several trials. The best results con be secured by re- 
running the second-grade by itself and not by treating it 
with the crude ore. This, however, is a matter of difference 
of opinion between mill-men here, and each no doubt has se- 
cured results to prove his side of the question. 

The price of tungsten due to the War has varied. Cali- 
fornia with its large deposits of sheelite is ready to meet all 
excessive demands, as well as Bolivia and one or two other 
South American countries. The talked of tariff on tungsten 
seems to be coming along well. The opinion of all the old 
tungsten operators is that a tariff of $10 per ton will be 
sufficient to meet all demands and insure a permanent business 
for some years, and will enable the United States to meet 
foreign competition. The tariff is a broader question than is 
generally believed, for it involves the products in which tung- 
sten is used. 

Two or three companies are erecting refining laboratories at 
Boulder for the making of tungstic acid and the Rare Metals 
Co. at Rollinsville is going to make the acid also. 

The future of the tungsten business looks good for many 
years to come, or until the field here is worked out. As the 
Wolf Tongue and Vasco companies are directly and indirectly 
connected with steel companies in the East that will take their 
products they will be doing business for some time. The 
situation for the other companies is also good, from all that 
can be learned. 

All the dumps of former years of mining are being jigged 
by lessees and screened and sent to the various mills. Greater 
depth has increased the cost of mining, the necessity of pump- 
ing water being one reason. The Wolf Tongue company has 
been furnishing to lessees all equipments, pumps, pipe, and 
motors, and charging a royalty of 25% on ore taken out. At 
present it is not offering any more leases to anyone. 



MEXICO 

Effect of the New Constitution on the Mining Industry. — A 
Short-Lived Strike. — Increase in Wages Anticipates 
Trouble. 

Mining conditions at Pachuca are fairly stable, with the Real 
del Monte Co. milling 1800 tons per day, the Santa Gertrudis 
Co. 1000 tons per day, and La Blanca Co. 500 tons per day. 
Owing to the crazy labor provisions of the new constitution, 
and to the increasing independence of the Mexican workmen, 
the mining companies are anticipating a rough and stormy 
voyage. At a meeting of the laborers recently a str';ke wes 
called in which all the mechanics, hoist-men, pump-rr in, elec- 



62 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



tricians, and the rest participated. In sympathy with them 
most of the miners and mill-men walked out. The strike lasted 
about a week, at the end of which hunger and thirst for pulque 
forced them back to work. This is the usual outcome o£ these 
strikes. The Santa Gertrudis Company, however, granted an 
increase of pay to the workmen. This was probably a far- 
sighted move, as all the companies will undoubtedly be forced 
by the Government to accede to the demands of the workmen 
i . the near future. Santa Gertrudis has thus gained the 
goodwill of the powers that be. 



CLIFTON, ARIZONA 
The Arizona Copper Company Addresses an Open Letter to 
Its Employees in Reply to That Issued by the Miners. — 
Text of the Letter. 

The Arizona Copper Co. has replied to the letter from the 
union miners, the text of which appeared in the issue of the 
Mining and Scientific Press of July 7. Folowing is the letter 
of the company in full: 

TO THE EMPLOYEES OF 

THE ARIZONA COPPER COMPANY, LTD.: 

In order that you may be fully informed of the answer re- 
turned by this Company to the demands recently presented by 
your Employees' Committee, I desire to put a copy of it in each 
of your hands. The answer given was as follows: 

To the Members of the Employees' Conference Committee, or 
the Arizona Copper Company, Ltd. 

Gentlemen: The conference committee, representing the em- 
ployees of The Arizona Copper Company, Phelps-Dodge Cor- 
poration, Morenci Branch, and Shannon Copper Company, have 
presented for the consideration of the managers a number of 
demands. 

With regard to these demands The Arizona Copper Company 
has the following answer to give: 

No. 1. That any grievance arising among men working on 
contracts shall be taken up in regular form by the grievance 
committee. 

The agreement at present in effect between the employers 
and employees in this district provides that any employee, 
believing himself to be the subject of unfair or unjust treat- 
ment, has the right of appeal through the duly appointed griev- 
ance committee of the department or company in which he is 
employed, and that every employee shall have the right of 
ultimate appeal to the manager of such company concerning 
any conditions or treatment to which he may be subjected and 
which he may deem unfair: under the above provision this 
company recognizes the right of any employee working either 
by the day or under contract to use such means in seeking 
redress of any grievance which he may have. 

No. 2. That any employee refusing to accept a contract shall 
not be discriminated against or discharged for refusing the 
same. 

No men who are working in places where a contract is let 
shall be discriminated against or discharged, on account of 
same. 

The present agreement fully covers such cases and no further 
rule seems necessary. 

No. 3. That seniority rule must prevail both in increasing 
and decreasing the force. 

This company cannot adopt such a rule in the operation of 
its mines, as it would serve neither the interest of the em- 
ployer nor employees generally, and would be in direct conflict 
with the spirit of the agreement which provides that the 
right to hire and discharge, the management of the property, 
and the direction of the working force, shall be vested ex- 
clusively in the company. The practice of this company in 
the past when forces were increased or reduced has had regard 
both for the efficient prosecution of the work and for the 



personal claims of the workmen, as for instance: When prefer- 
ence has been given to married employees when it has been 
necessary to curtail the working forces. The adoption of any 
rule that would limit the company's rights in this respect 
cannot be considered. 

No. 4. That time and one-half be paid for all overtime, and 
that time and one-half be paid to all craftsmen and their 
helpers for all Sunday work, the 4th of July and Christmas. 

Inquiry amongst our employees developed the fact that a 
large proportion of those who would be affected were such a 
rule adopted is not in favor of this demand. We will, there- 
fore, defer consideration of it until we can be shown that sub- 
stantially the majority of those who would be directly affected 
by it are in favor of such a rule. 

No. 5. That the living conditions in this district are such 
that we are compelled to ask for the Miami scale of wages. 

This company recognizes the present conditions with respect 
to the cost of living, as given by the committee as a reason for 
the demand for an increase in wages at this time, such condi- 
tions being due to the European war. and it is prepared to offer 
as an offset to the present increased cost of living an increase 
of 50c. per day to those employees who are receiving on the 
present scale a base rate of wages of from 25e. to 46}c. in- 
clusive, per hour, and a raise of 25c. per day to employees re- 
ceiving a base rate higher than 46Ac. per hour. This offer to 
take effect July 1. 1917, and to continue in effect until after 30 
days' notice has been given its employees by this company. 
This offer is made upon the following conditions, viz: 

That its employees do not go out on strike, and with the 
further understanding that such offer will be withdrawn in 
the event of a strike occurring which shall have the effect of 
suspending the operations of the company. 

The company also desires to notify its employees that in 
event of a strike it will refuse all guarantees with respect to 
reinstatement of any employee, upon resumption of operations 
thereafter. 

THE ARIZONA COPPER COMPANY, LTD. 
By Norman Carmrtiael. General Manager. 

Clifton, Arizona, June 30, 1917. 

When demands upon a company are made on behalf of em- 
ployees through their committee and an answer is rendered, it 
is customary for such answer to be communicated to the em- 
ployees generally, especially when offers of compromise are 
contained, in order to ascertain the wish of the majority as to 
whether such answer is satisfactory or not. Such a course 
indicates a proper conception of responsibility on the part of 
the leaders and shows their respect for the intelligence of the 
employees they represent. 

A strike, involving loss of work to several thousand men and 
the suspension of operations which sustain a large community, 
is a very serious matter, and the hasty manner in which the 
present strike was called without giving you an opportunity to 
even read the reply which we made to your demands and with- 
out giving you an opportunity to show, by your vote whether 
you preferred to accept the answer given or to go out on strike, 
indicates that your interests were not consulted in the matter, 
and that your faith in your leaders is not well placed. 

The offer which this Company made of an increase of 50 
cents per day to those at present receiving from 25 cents to 
46* cents per hour, base rate, meant that the largest propor- 
tion of you would receive this increase to offset the present 
high cost of living, and which you would enjoy during the con- 
tinuance of such conditions. Do you realize that this offer was 
made upon condition there would be no strike, and that, in 
calling you out on strike without putting these facts before 
you, your leaders have deprived you of that offer? 

THE ARIZONA COPPER COMPANY, LTD. 
By Norman Carmichael, General Manager. 

Clifton, Arizona, July 2. 1917. 



.lulv 14. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



63 



THE MINING SUMMARY 

The newt of the week >i* told hy our special correspondent* and. compiled fn m ''<■ local press. 



i iiibiiihii ii 



.■■;■■! i: 



ALASKA 

(Special Correspondence.) — Secretary Lane has directed the 
Alaskan Engineering Commission to start mining operations 
in the Matanuska coalfields immediately. Federal mine in- 
spector, Sumner S. Smith, has heen named as resident engi- 
neer and will take charge of the operations o£ the mines. The 
purpose of the work is to furnish an immediate supply of coal 
to the Alaskan Engineering Commission for its use in the 
operation of its trains and construction work. It is expected 
that the mines will be opened up on a comprehensive plan and 
the work will be carried on under the supervision of Mr. 
Smith with the co-operation of George W. Evans, district engi- 
neer for the Bureau of Mines, stationed at Seattle, and who 
already has had experience in the field. The reason for this 
action is that the private operators not having commenced 
operations on a scale that would insure the Commission an 
adequate supply of coal, it was thought best for the Commis- 
sion to operate its own mines for the time being at least. 
Leasing Unit No. 7, with the equipment on the property, has 
been purchased by the Commission to obtain an immediate 
supply of coal and work will be started on Unit No. 12, at 
Chickaloon, to supplement this. With these two mines in 
operation the Commission will be assured of an ample supply 
of coal, not only for its use locally but to supply the Govern- 
ment boats visiting this harbor. 

Reports received at Anchorage from Lewis river are encour- 
aging and operators are satisfied that the camp will be pros- 
perous. Breunerman and Hamilton reached their holdings 
last week and will start operating on June 20. Peterson & Co. 
started work on June 11. Sam Wagner and partner are sluic- 
ing with good results. 

The Alaska Copper company has filed location notices in the 
office of the United States commissioner covering the Silver 
Dollar, Phoenix, and Black Bear lode mining-claims situated 
in the Harris mining district. 

The officers of the steamer 'Alaska,' which reached Juneau 
June 21, report that the people of Cordova have been unable to 
gain any news of the Kennecott strike. It is known that 200 
men walked out and that the ore is not arriving as rapidly as 
formerly, but otherwise there is no further news of the strike. 
E. T. Standard, manager of the mine, is returning north on 
the 'Northwestern,' having left Seattle June 19. The Alaska 
Treadwell company is contemplating the erection of a trestle 
around the 'cave in' as the most feasible means of getting out 
the heavy machinery. This will restore the transportation 
system to its former status and will do away with tramming 
over the 'high line' through the central crushing plant. 

Treadwell, June 30. 

ARIZONA 

Cochise County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Mascot Copper Co. of Will- 
cox, controlling 50 claims and operating a railroad 16 miles 
long between Willcox and the mines, has been taken over by 
the American Smelting & Refining Co. under a long-time lease. 
The Mascot company has been shipping between 500 and 600 
tons of ore per week. This production will probably be in- 
creased. 

Willcox, June 20. 

On June 27 about 2500 of the 5000 miners employed in the 
mines at Bisbee went on strike. They demand an increase in 
pay and better working conditions. The companies most seri- 



ously affected are the Copper Queen, the Shattuck-Ari/.ona, 
and the Calumet & Arizona. The managers of these com- 
panies are reported as saying they will close down every mine 
under their control in the district rather than submit. 

The Bisbee Review of July 3 says: Raising their sights, by 
some action, the I. W. W. at Bisbee, have decided that, in the 
words of one of last night's speakers at the City Park, "we 
will not sign peace terms until every other company which 
now has labor trouble on its hands acceeds to the demands of 
the strikers, In every part of the country." This action fol- 
lowed a similar announcement made by the Butte, Montana, 
organization. 

But for two mass meetings, held by the I. W. W. yesterday, 
one in the afternoon and one last evening, the day was quiet. 
No arrests were reported from any part of the district. One 
Slavonian resident of Bisbee, however, reports having been 
threatened with personal violence if he continued at work. He 
was standing in front of the Busy Bee restaurant when ac- 
costed by several men. He did not know any of them. 

More miners and other underground workers reported for 
work at the various mines in the district yesterday. The exact 
increase in the working forces was not obtainable, but it is 
said to be a substantial one. It is felt and expressed by many 
men, thoroughly conversant with the situation, that nearly 
complete forces will be on hand at the mines after July 4, on 
which day the two companies have declared a holiday. 

Many men continue to leave the district for other parts of 
the country. The railroad ticket offices are crowded before 
every outgoing train departs. It is estimated that upward 
of 500 men have left Bisbee in four days. There is another 
movement of the I. W. W. This seems to be in the direction 
of the Globe-Miami and Clifton-Morenci districts. During the 
first day or two of the trouble the influx of I. W. W.'s was 
considerable. For some reason, attributed by many to a feeling 
that the strike has been lost, the tide has set in an another 
direction. 

Gila County 

Telegrams received at I. W. W. headquarters at Miami late 
on the afternoon of July 2 assert that the metal-mine workers 
at Jerome will strike in sympathy with the branches that have 
walked out in the Globe-Miami district. The messages were 
from the secretary of the Jerome branch of the I. W. W. or- 
ganization. Local metal-mine workers say that many other 
camps throughout the country will shortly follow with strike 
orders in their effort to cripple the copper industry until their 
demands are granted. 

Mohave County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Three Dorr agitators are being 
installed at the United Eastern mill, which will increase the 
total daily capacity of the plant to 300 tons or more per day. 
The crushing capacity of the mill is 400 tons daily, but tank 
capacity was originally planned on a basis of 200 tons. Six 
months operation of the plant convinced the management that 
daily capacity should be increased to at least 300 tons. De- 
velopment is progressing on both the 565 and the 665-ft. levels, 
opening up new ore reserves. The main shaft is being sunk 
300 ft. deeper, a supplementary plant having been installed for 
that purpose. 

While a large amount of ore is being opened up at the Gold 
Road property, it is not probable that milling operations will 
be resumed there for some time. The increased cost of milling 
and mining is given as a reason. 



64 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Julv 14. 1917 



As high as 340 tons per day has been milled at the new Tom 
Reed plant. In a supplementary report to the stockholders, 
the board of directors stated that the company has ore reserves 
of over 100.000 tons, sufficient to supply the new mill for one 
year. Development is progressing on the Aztec vein, but 
shipping of ore to the mill is confined to motor-truck haulage 
pending the installation of the aerial-tramway. At the Adams 
Mining Company's property in the Black Range, two parallel 
ve'ns or fault-Assures have been explored by driving about 
350 ft. from where it was first cross-cut from the shaft at the 
400-ft. level. On one of them valuable ore has been opened 
up for 50 ft. In anticipation of a heavy flow of water the 
main cross-cut from the shaft is provided with a concrete 
bulk-head and a steel door which can be made water tight, 
thus protecting the pumping-plant on this level. 

Though gold is heavier than tailing dust, it has been proved 
at the Tom Reed plant that the heat of the sun will cause it 
to come to the surface. Assays made of the tailing-dump last 
year by Mr. Rabb, the superintendent, showed that the top 
half inch of the pond carried about $15 per ton in gold, while 
that below was practically of no value. Accordingly the pond 
was systematically scraped and about $10,000 in gold re- 
covered. This process is being repeated this year. 

Oatman. July 3. 

(Special Correspondence.) — On the 400-ft. level of the 
Adams mine a body of payable gold quartz has been opened 
up in a vein 350 ft. from the working-shaft. The vein is 14 
ft. wide and driving is in progress along the foot-wall. C. H. 
Palmer, Jr., is engineer for the Adams company and N. A. 
D'Arcy is manager. The vein parallels one that has been 
driven for 350 ft. without satisfactory results. 

Diamond-drilling will be done to explore the Telluride 
property adjoining the Tom Reed and the Sunnyside, by 
J. I... Mclver, one of the discoverers of the United Eastern. 
The same method will be tried at the Mohawk Central by 
M. J. Monnette. This is the first time this method of pros- 
pecting has been tried here, except on the old Moss mine, 
where the Santa Gertrudis Corporation ran two diamond- 
drill holes. 

J. P. Loftus and J. K. Turner have started operation of a 
new 30-ton ball and amalgamating-mill on the Oatman Gold 
Top property in the Secret Pass district. 

The Gold Ore Mining Co., adjoining the Gold Road, an- 
nounces that it has commissioned Otto Wartenweiler, of Los 
Angeles, to design a mill with a capacity of 200 tons per day. 
A unit of 50 tons will be built first. Mr. Wartenweiler de- 
signed the United Eastern mill. 

Oatman, June 24. 

Pima County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Growler mines, 16 miles 
south-west of Ajo, have been bonded for $250,000 by a group 
of Ajo capitalists. The Growler was owned by George H. Mor- 
rill, of Boston. It was formerly known as the Colonial Cop- 
per Co. There are 26 claims in the group. The mines are 
worked through a shaft 325 ft. deep and a 200-ft. incline. 

Tuscon, June 20. 

Yavapai County 

Ninety per cent of the day-shift at the United Verde copper 
mine at Jerome reported for work on Sunday, following the 
rejection Saturday by members of the Jerome local of the Inter- 
national Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers of a pro- 
posal to submit to the membership a strike vote on the question 
of joining the Metal Mine Workers' Industrial Union No. 800, 
of the Industrial Workers of the World, in a strike declared 
Saturday by the latter organization in the Jerome copper 
district. 

All of the smaller mines, which closed down on July 7 pend- 
ing announcement of the result of the vote, were at work with 
practically full forces today. 



Yuma Cuukty 

(Special Correspondence.) — Mining is active in the hills 
adjacent to Wenden and Salome. At Salome the Navajo Mines, 
Cobrita Verdi, Glory-Hole, and several others are coming into 
prominence. 

At the Navajo Mines there is an encouraging showing, and 
an adit on the main vein is being driven. Charles Redall, of 
the Cobrita Verdi, has recently shipped in machinery from 
Goldfield, Nevada, and is installing it preparatory to starting 
work. At the Glory-Hole, with a complete equipment of ma- 
chinery, including jack-hammers, Ernest Hall, in charge, has 
men developing that property. The Harqua Hala mine, under 
direction of John Martin, is developing and is expected to be- 
come as prominent again as in the bonanza days when over 
$2,000,000 was taken from one level. It is said that a con- 
siderable tonnage of ore has been opened up there, but it is 
of a different character from the ore on the upper levels. It 
is more base, and carries copper as well as gold. Formerly 
all ore taken from here was free-milling. The old 40-stamp 
mill and a complete equipment is on the property. There has 
been talk of putting in either a concentrating-plant or flotation, 
as too much of the value is lost by simple amalgamation. 

George Easton and E. A. Stent, lessees of the Critic mine, 
which, is owned by George B. Layton, of New York, are steadily 
operating their property in Cunningham pass and have dis- 
continued leasing to miners and will work the mine them- 
selves. The last car shipped from there returned 1.05 oz. in 
gold and 19.84% in copper per ton. From two to three cars is 
shipped from there monthly, and the former lessees were 
making big money. 

The superintendent of the Black Reef mine in Cunningham 
pass, has been getting chalcopyrite from the bottom of his 
shaft, which is now down 300 ft. Mr. Scott, one of those in- 
terested in the Black Reef, and who is also interested in the 
Superstition and known among his friends as 'Lucky Scott,' 
has been called to Canada to join his regiment. 

Mr. Ormsby, of the Wenden Copper Co., is steadily sinking 
a shaft to reach the permanent water-level. He is backed by 
Globe people who are interested in the Old Dominion. 

Wenden, June 28. 

CALIFOh'XIA 

The amount of oil available in the various areas of Cali- 
fornia has been summarized in a report made to the State 
Council of Defense by R. P. McLaughlin of the State Mining 
Bureau. The visible supply of oil has been rapidly decreasing 
during the past year. A special committee, headed by Max 
Thelen, of the Railroad Commission, has, for several weeks, 
been engaged in investigating the oil-supply of the State, which 
furnishes power for railroads and many other industries of 
vital importance at the present time. The report dealing with 
the oil remaining underground has been compiled from pro- 
duction records and well-logs filed with the Mining Bureau 
during the past two years incidental to the work of protecting 
the fields from damage by improper well-drilling. Future use 
of the information will be determined entirely by the State 
Council of Defense. 

El Doeado County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Cincinnati gold quartz 
mine, situated 10 miles by auto-road north-west of Placerville, 
in the Kelsey mining district, now has 10,000 tons of friable 
free-milling quartz practically blocked-out, and the manage- 
ment is proceeding to have installed a 5-stamp mill of 1000-lb. 
stamps, to be operated by an oil-engine. Burr Evans, the local 
mining engineer, states that such a mill will readily crush 25 
tons per day of the kind of material to be reduced. No rock- 
breaker or concentrator will be required. The free-gold will 
all be recovered on the battery-plates. 

The ore consists of a yellow ochre-like material, stratified 
with numerous small stringers of crumbly quartz, with an 



July 14. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



65 



occasional egg-shaped lena ol high-grade ore about the Bice ol 
a football. The pay-shoot averages 18 ft. wide, and will run 
nut leas than $3.50 free-gold per ton, without Including the 
high-grade lenses. The ore can be mined by auger-bo 
light blasting, and picking, and conveyed by gravity through 
ft. ailit ti> the mill at a cost Of 28c per ton. 

The cost of milling the ore is estimated not to exceed 54c. 
per ton; thus making a total cost of SOc. per ton for mining 
and milling. Then, after allowing 70c. per ton for continuous 
new development work and overhead expenses, it is figured 
that it will net not less than $2 per ton. The mine is being 
operated by Berkeley and San Francisco capital. In this dis- 
trict in the SO's the ECelsey mine was operated for some time 
at a cost of less than 50c. per ton for mining and milling. 

Placerville, July 3. 

Fresno County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Dan Yokovich, of Shawmut, 
Tuolumne county, has discovered what may prove to be a 
valuable vein of molybdenite-bearing rock in the granite at 
or near the Inyo-Fresno county line in the Sierra Nevada. 
Analyses of samples have returned 3.4% of molybdenum sul- 
phide. 

Shawmut, July 2. 

Modoc County 

At Copper Peak, the Valley View Mining Co. is reported as 
ready to start a new adit at the foot of the mountain. This 
will cut the shaft and the orebody from which ore was ex- 
tracted last year at about 1200 ft. depth. There is from 5 to 
7 ft. of azurite and native copper. The adit will also cut the 
white metal nickel-cobalt veins before it reaches the copper 
veins. The copper ore averages 45% copper and $4.50 gold. 
The nickel veins give 14% copper and $S.40 gold on assay. No 
assay was made for nickel. Owners of the copper group on 
the east of the Valley View prospect have given an option on 
their property to R. Kemp Welch. 

Parties in the East are negotiating with Mr. Welch, owner 
of the Copper Gold group, 16 claims, with from 12 to 14 ft. of 
oxidized copper ore at surface. In the group are several veins 
which pan copper. Two veins pan gold. 

The mines are within three-quarters of a mile of the foot of 
the mountain, and are reached from Alturas, 34 miles, on the 
N. C. O. R. R„ by auto-stage, or 14 miles distant from Miller's 
Ranch station on the same railroad. 

Colorado people came in last week and are at work, having 
secured options and paid some cash on a claim seven miles 
south. There will be great activity here this summer. 

Shasta County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Noble Electric Steel Co. is 
constructing a blast-furnace at its Heroult iron-smelter, with 
a capacity of 30 tons per day. It will be operated in conjunc- 
tion with the electric-furnaces and is scheduled to go into 
service within 30 days. Difficulty in securing electrodes is in- 
terfering with electric-smelting and plans have been prepared 
for manufacture of electrodes at San Francisco. It is planned 
to keep five electric-furnaces in constant operation for the pro- 
duction of pig-iron, ferro-chrome, ferro-manganese, and sim- 
ilar products. 

The Afterthought Copper Co. has arranged for the immedi- 
ate building of a large roaster at its Ingot plant. The copper- 
zinc ore will be treated by leaching and flotation, according to 
recent advices. Several buildings are under construction and 
the mine has been placed in condition for a heavy output. Be- 
sides copper and zinc, the developed ore is said to average 
better than $1.50 per ton in gold and silver. 

The Mammoth Copper Co. has acquired the Keystone copper 
property on Flat creek, from Robert Strenson, George A. Groto- 
fend, and William Slennon, of Redding. Four thousand dol- 
lars has been paid and the balance will be met in installments. 
The deal calls for extensive development pending consumma- 
tion of the purchase. 



Prospecting ol dredglng-ground is active around Redding. 
The El Oro company is vigorously exploring a wide area north 
of town, and the fiardella int. tests arc Iiiib.v along Clear creek. 
Construction of fum- dredges by this company will be pressed 
as fast as lumber and other material can lie secured. Several 
other companies are testing gravel with promising results. It 
is reported another effort will he made to work the extensive 
gravel deposits in the vicinity of Igo. 

Redding, June 28. 

COLORADO 

San Juan County 

The Lackawana mine near Silverton has been cleaned out 
and promises to become once more a substantial producer. 
The J. B. Smith tunnel, which is in 1200 ft., is once more in 
good condition. A cross-cut was run at the face of the old 
tunnel and a vein was found in 15 ft., which has now been 
followed for 200 ft. The vein is from 3} to 5 ft. wide, and a 
stope has been carried up 90 ft. Net returns on a carload of 
ore recently sent out were $10S in excess of any carload that 
has been shipped from there. There is also in another place 
3i ft. of galena. 

San Miguel County 

Manager Barnhart of the Mountain Top Mining Co. says that 
the new mill, recently completed 400 ft. underground in the 
Mountain Top mine, is doing good work since it was finished 
several months ago, says the Ouray Plaindealer. He is work- 
ing three shifts each 24 hours and getting about 80% of the 
possible capacity of the mill. He has ordered steel-chrome 
balls for the mill and as soon as they arrive he expects to be 
able to put through approximately 50 tons of ore daily. Ed- 
ward Treweek, former mine superintendent of the Wanakah 
and Vernon mines at Ouray took charge of the mine and mill 
about one month ago, and the results of his experience and 
executive ability are already apparent in increased production 
of both the mine and mill. 

IDAHO 

Shoshone County 

(Special Correspondence.) — As a result of the sale of the 
Keystone mine, also known as the Blacktail, on Pend Oreille 
lake, nearly $250,000 is being distributed to the former stock- 
holders on an issue of 1,746,440 shares at the rate of 13Jc. 
per share. There are upward of 50 beneficiaries, nearly all of 
whom are residents of Spokane. Washington, and of British 
Columbia. Volney D, Williamson sold the property to Henry 
H. Armstead for $250,000 several months ago. The Keystone 
mine was acquired and developed to the point of important 
production by Mr. Williamson and associates, and is now in 
the possession of the Armstead mines, of which Henry H. 
Armstead is the controlling owner. Associated with Mr. Arm- 
stead is a group of the foremost tobacco manufacturers of the 
East and South. 

The Tamarack & Custer Consolidated Mining Co. will add 
$900,000 to $1,250,000 to the production of the Coeur d'Alene 
region in the last half of this year, according to estimates. 
It has been estimated that the equipment is capable of han- 
dling 300 to 400 tons per day and of producing 60 to SO tons 
of concentrate containing 40 to 48% lead. 

The average content of the ore is 8 to 10% lead, 6 to 8 oz. 
silver, and a small quantity of zinc. The zinc will be saved 
by flotation. About 250 men will be employed in the mine and 
mill when operations are under way. The labor and other 
costs will be $1500 per day. The cost of production has been 
running close to that of other large properties of the district, 
although hauling has been a large item of expense. It is be- 
lieved tnis item will be reduced now that a tramway has been 
installed, especially if a means is found of handling timber 
on the tramway. 

The mill of the Hercules Mining Co. at Wallace is receiving 



66 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



ore at the rate of 700 tons per day, according to a report re- 
recieved this week. This is 50 tons in excess of its expected 
capacity. If the report is correct the company is producing 
in excess of its production for 1916. The official figures for 
that period show a shipping product of 87,179 tons having a 
gross value of $7,278,258. This is at the rate of nearly 250 
tons per day and $90 per ton. The Hercules paid $1,501,129 
for extraction in 1916. This cost now will be greater as a re- 
sult of higher charges for labor and supplies. It is believed 
ihe net profits will be greater than those of 1916, notwith- 
standing an exceptionally low grade of ore. Much ore from 
the Hercules mine has gone to the Consolidated smelter at 
Trail, B. C, and the Day smelter at Northport, Washington. 
Some of it will now go to the Bunker Hill & Sullivan smelter 
at Kellogg. 

Spokane, July 1. 

The Snowstorm Consolidated produced 7400 tons of ore in 
May. the first month of its operation. The rate of production 
was a little better in June — probably 7600 tons. The mill has 
been receiving 240 to 250 tons daily since the start. The ex- 
traction was good from the beginning. 

The Dreadnaught Mining Co. has cut an orebody and the 
conditions are favorable for the development of an important 
tonnage. The first orebody opened in the Dreadnaught, 3J ft. 
wide, was cut at a depth of 730 ft. The average content is 10 
oz. of silver, 12% lead, and 4 to S% zinc. In a better part of 
the shoot it runs 36% lead, 19% zinc, and a larger quantity of 
silver. 

NEVADA 
Humboldt County 

(Special Correspondence.) — In the spring of 1916 Lovelocks 
was much excited over the discovery that tungsten minerals 
occurred at many places in the vicinity, and many claims were 
located, followed by the construction of two large concen- 
trating mills. Now Lovelocks is again excited over a new 
discovery — this time potash. J. C. Smith, Herman Markes, 
E. F. Hunter, and C. Offers, who had located several claims at 
the mouth of Cole canyon, 6 miles north-east of Lovelocks, at 
the south end of the Humboldt range, discovered potash on 
their claims. L. B. Snipes who saw the rock thought it con- 
tained potash, and an analysis proved his guess to be correct. 
The owners told their friends, and Lovelocks was promptly 
practically deserted, all hands hurrying to the scene of the 
new discovery, at the place that has been called Kopatka, 
where many claims have been located. There is a little soft 
earthy incrustation, but the best ore. which occurs in large 
amount, is hard and compact, resembling rhyolite. 

Lovelocks, June 26. 

It is reported that a discovery of importance has been 
made in the Seven Troughs Coalition mines at Vernon, where 
2 ft. of ore running $600 per ton in gold has been found. 

Nye County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The shaft-sinking at the White 
Caps has progressed steadily during the past week. The bot- 
tom of the shaft is 120 ft. below the fourth level. One more 
set of timbers will be placed and then the fifth-station set will 
go in. The ground has been so hard that piston-drills have 
been used in the shaft. The east drift on the 300-ft. level has 
been advanced 15 ft. during the week, through marbleized 
limestone, and this characteristic has been observed in the 
vicinity of the orebodies both east and west from the shaft. 
It seems probable that a new orebody will shortly be reached. 
In the west drift 300 ft. has been made with no material change 
in the face. The water has decreased to some extent during 
the week, and is now easily handled by the pumps. The total 
flow is 115 gal. per minute. Seven hearths of the roaster have 
been completed and the drying-hearth will be finished shortly. 
The crusher-house is complete and ready for operation. The 
mill will be ready to crush ore by July 1. The cyanide de- 



partment of the mill also is ready for operation. The roasting- 
flue and stacks are not yet completed. Dahl oil-burners will be 
used for heating the roaster and the material for the burners 
is at the mill ready for installation. In mill-construction 
little remains to be done except as noted above. 

The manager of the White Caps Extension, O. McCraney, 
has returned from Goldfield, where he purchased a Hendrie 
& Bolthoff No. 4 electric-hoist. A 40-ft. head-frame was also 
obtained. Negotiations are on for a large air-compressor. 
The first round in the Extension shaft has been shot, and as 
soon as the machinery is installed, shaft-sinking will be 
urged as fast as possible. 

The installation of the 40-hp. electric-hoist at the Morning 
Glory No. 1 shaft has been completed and shaft-sinking is 
proceeding. The shaft has been sampled each day. The last 
assay, taken from the shaft bottom, shows an average of $5.65 
in gold. The 4-drill compressor is about complete and as soon 
as the necessary air-pipe reaches the mine machine-drills will 
be used in the shaft. The development in the No. 3 shaft of 
the Morning Glory has reached a depth of 40 ft. This shaft 
is close to the White Caps west side-line, and about 100 ft. 
north-east from the No. 1 shaft of that company, which for the 
past 15 ft. has been in pay-ore, with considerable calcite in 
the hanging wall. The past three days work in the shaft has 
been in ore with assays of $40. Two samples assayed $200 
and $140 respectively. This shaft is being sunk on a lime 
and shale contact and is developing ore underlying the various 
orebodies developed in the White Caps property west of the 
old White Caps Leasing Co. shaft. 

In the Amalgamated property the east drift on the 600-ft. 
level has been extended 16 ft. and is out 364 ft. from the shaft. 
Work was retarded during the early part of the week by a 
heavy flow of water from a longitudinal fault carrying good 
gold ore, evidently the edge of an orebody. 

At the Manhattan Consolidated a drift was started along the 
ore on the foot-wall to determine the length of the shoot, 
which on the second level was So ft. long and 25 to 40 ft. wide. 
One round was fired in this drift, breaking 6 ft., and the 
greatest high-grade ore-pocket ever developed in Manhattan 
was exposed. To a depth of 6 ft. and for 8 ft. in the vein 
from the foot-wall, manganese mixed with yellow oxide, a 
soft gouge-like material shows full of free gold. Some of the 
gold is in crystals, but it is mostly wire and flake-gold. One 
panning made from the soft material, without mortaring pro- 
duced $20 worth of gold with strings of wire-gold welded to- 
gether. Eliminating the pockets where the gold shows, a sam- 
ple of the ore was taken, two ore sacks being filled, to get an 
average of the 8 ft. This sample assayed $53! in gold. 

White Pine County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Nevada Consolidated Cop- 
per Co. has started up the north half of its new crushing-plant 
and it is running satisfactorily, handling between 600 and 700 
tons per hour, reducing the ore to about J-in. size. Formerly 
the ore went to the rolls, in lumps the size of one's two fists. 
The ore carries normally 3 to 4% moisture. 

The Consolidated Copper Mines Co. is shipping two cars 
of $' , ore to the McGill smelter per day from the old Alpha 
workings. It is an oxidized silicious ore. The mill is han- 
dling between 500 and 600 tons per day of 2% ore from the 
Morris workings. The other unit is expected to be in com- 
mission this month. Two drills are in operation. 

The old Ward mine is shipping 50 to 75 tons daily. It is 
being hauled with the Knox auto-trucks. 

Several lessees are working on lead-silver ores throughout 
the county; there are five separate leases on the Hunter mine, 
18 miles south-east of Cherry creek. The man in charge repre- 
senting the Eastern owners charges each shipper $15 per car 
shipped. This is paid him by the smelting company as an 'in- 
spection charge.' which the shippers consider exorbitant. 

The ores from Hamilton will be hauled to Kimberly and go 



July M. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



67 



out over the Nevada Northern railroad because Mr. Sc\ton, the 
manager of the Hurekal'allsades railroad, refuses to handle 
it. The State Railroad Commission will probably make an in- 

-i (ion 

Steve Pappas, who made t lie lirst discovery of gold ore in 
Willow creek, 100 miles south-west of Ely. a few years since, 
recently made another discovery on the extension of one of 
the known veins. On the surface he took out a pocket of 1100 
lb. for which the smelter paid him $501. 

Some Salt Lake people have made him a small cash pay- 
ment and taken a bond on it. Some of the same people did 
the same on the original discovery, did a little work and 
quit. There have been several small pockets of rich ore found 
there during the past three or four years, but they have all 
been dug out quickly. 

The Consolidated Copper Mines Co. has closed contracts with 
the Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. to mine by August 15. 
191S, from its Oro claim, at the entrance of the Liberty pit, 
425.000 tons of ore and to mill and smelt the same. At the 
end of this period the company will continue to mine and treat 
at least 75,000 tons per annum from the same place for a 
period of five years. 

The Nevada Consolidated also will treat all of the concen- 
trate made by the Consolidated Copper Mines Co. for a period 
of five years from May 1. 1917. This latter includes sufficient 
high-grade smelting-ores (equal to about two carloads per day) 
to make the total 150 tons per day. 

The Copper Mines Co. (old Giroux) is treating in its new 
mill upward of 15.000 tons per month of its ores that average 
around 2 r <- copper, from the Morris workings. The second 
unit, of equal size, is expected to be ready for operation some 
time during July. Delay has been caused by non-delivery of 
material. On the basis of 25c. copper, with costs at 121c, 
when the other unit is in operation, this company should make 
over $2,500,000 net during the next year. 

The direct-smelting ore, now going to the smelter, runs 
about 12% copper. The development from the Giroux shaft, 
on the west side, in and beyond the old Alpha workings, is 
showing up some rich oxide in bodies up to 50 ft. wide. 

The management appears to be in good hands, where the 
stockholders will get a square deal. Humphreys, Burgess, 
and Merritt, who have the operating control, are good business 
men, who desire to develop the property as an investment. 

Ely, July 1. 

NEW MEXICO 

Dona Ana County 

El Paso men have taken one year's bond and lease on the 
Atlas Apex group in the Quartzite mining district. The Atlas 
and the Apex are the principal mines in the group. Twenty 
tons of ore was shipped this week from the "Willow Creek mine 
on the upper Pecos to the smelter at Salt Lake City for a 
test run. D. C. Jackling and other owners of the Salt Lake 
smelter are reported to have interested themselves in the 
upper Pecos and Dalton districts. The extensive development 
work now going on within 30 miles of Santa Fe is said also 
to be at their behest. 

Sierra County 

The famous Bridal Chamber mine, at Lake Valley, is again 
being worked, but for high-grade manganese ore of which three 
carloads per day are being shipped to the steel mills at Joliet, 
111. One hundred men are employed and two new hoists have 
been installed. 

The Empire Zinc Co. is making a topographical survey of 
its 42 claims in the Kingston district in the Black range. The 
Kangaroo Mining Co. will install a gasoline-compressor and 
machine-drills for the driving of a tunnel S00 ft. from Saw Pit 
canyon. 

Socorro County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Socorro Mining & Milling 



Co. cleaned up 1800 lb. of gold and silver bullion for the first 
half of June. New ore-biiiB are being added to take care of 
the Increasing custom imsineBB. 

The Oaks Co. has increased ore shipments from the Maud S. 
property. Another lot of burros has been added to tho pack- 
train. The new wagon-road to the Central shaft has been com- 
pleted and lumber is being delivered at the shaft collar. The 
head-frame is nearing completion. 

Complete surface and underground surveys are being made 
on the Confidence property and the indications point toward 
an early resumption of operations at this old producer. 

Mogollon, June 28. 

TEXAS 

Burnet County 

(Special Correspondence.) — It is announced that the Texas 
Graphite Company soon will be re-organized and taken out of 
the hands of the receiver. The company owns a large deposit 
of graphite, situated near here, upon which it invested more 
than $200,000 in improvements. It is planned to resume the 
development of the property about August 1. McCarty Moore 
has installed a graphite-concentrating mill and other equip- 
ment upon a large deposit of graphite which he is developing 
near Llano. He is making shipments of the graphite concen- 
trate to Cincinnati and Cleveland, Ohio. 

R. H. Downman, of New Orleans, who is developing a deposit 
of graphite 30 miles north of Burnet will construct a mill for 
the purpose of treating the raw material. This property con- 
sists of 2450 acres of perpetual mineral rights. 

Burnet, July 1. 

CANADA 
British Columbia 

Ore valued at over $350 per ton in gold, after payment of all 
freight and treatment charges, has been discovered by the 
operators of the Emancipation group of claims near Hope. 
The group from which this ore was obtained is situated on the 
Coquahalla river, 16 miles from Hope, and close to Jessica 
station, on the Kettle Valley railway. The property is owned by 
Michael Merrick, Herbert Beech, and William Thomson, who 
are the discoverers. It is bonded to C. H. Lighthall at $125,- 
000. Mr. Lighthall represents New York capitalists. 

Recently a shipment of ore was sent to the Taeoma smelter, 
and after freight and treatment charges were deducted, $18,295 
was netted from 53 tons. The vein is at the contact of slate 
and diorite and can be traced for almost 2000 ft. It pans free 
gold for almost the entire distance and in places is 12 ft. wide. 

At 23-mile camp, on the Princeton road, large bodies of 
copper and silver-lead ore are awaiting development. At Jones 
Lake the Foley, Welch & Stewart interests are diamond-drilling 
their property recently bonded for $100,000. 

Ontario 

(Special Correspondence.) — The La Rose directors have 
voted $30,000 for development work on their Violet claim ad- 
joining the O'Brien mine at Cobalt. 

The Buffalo Mining Co., of Cobalt, is this year helping its 
employees to defeat the high cost of living. The mine cleared 
up the Watash claim for farming purposes, supplying teams, 
explosives, and labor free for the work. The married em- 
ployees organized into squads under shift-bosses and each 
individual in the organization is required to do at least 50 
hours work on the farm. The mine furnished the seed and 
the produce is to be divided among the men in proportion to 
the size of their families. Sixty miners are in the association 
and about 20 acres of land has been cleared. J. G. Dickenson 
of the O'Brien mine is in Nova Scotia; Stanley Graham of the 
Technical College, at Halifax, is in the Cobalt district; the 
Huronia Gold Mines are being re-opened by a syndicate com- 
posed of Quebec and Cobalt men. J. Young, underground super- 
intendent of the Hollinger mines, has returned from Montana. 



68 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



The flotation-process is becoming increasingly important at 
Cobalt. The present users of the process are the Buffalo mines, 
McKinley-Darragh-Savage mines, the Nipissing mines, the 
Coniagas mines, the Dominion Reduction Co., the Northern 
Customs Concentrators, the National mines, and the Trethe- 
wey mines. The Buffalo mines, with a 600-ton per day plant, 
has the largest installation. 

Cobalt, June 30. 

MEXICO 

SONORA 

An official of Green-Cananea Copper Co., at New York, says 
he doubts correctness of dispatches from Mexico attributing 
certain accusations to Secretary Nieto of Mexican department 
of finance against the Cananea Consolidated, the operating 
company of Greene-Cananea, as the company is acting and has 
always acted entirely within mining laws of Mexico. State- 
ments purporting to have been given out by Secretary Nieto 
state that the Cananea Consolidated Copper Co. had refused 
to pay taxes on 7702 mining claims, which were overdue and 
owing to the Mexican government, had moved machinery 
across the border, closed up its hospital and ejected its patients. 

It is true the company has abandoned these 7702 mining 
claims. This was done in accordance with laws of Mexico and 
followed the inauguration of the high-rate mining tax put 
into effect more than a year ago. Failure to pay taxes on min- 
ing claims constitutes an abandonment of all rights, and there 
is no provision in the law calling for any specific notification to 
the government. The company has paid taxes on all claims 
retained. 

Last April a representative of the stamp-tax office and the 
principal administrator of the tax at Nogales conferred with 
officials of the company in Nogales. Nothing further was 
heard until June 12, when Secretary Nieto telegraphed that 
if t"he taxes (which would have been due if the claims had not 
been abandoned) were not paid within 15 days the right of ex- 
port of bullion would be withdrawn. As it was manifestly im- 
possible to operate if the company was not permitted to ex- 
port metals, and as it was an illegal and arbitrary action, it 
was decided to cease operations before the date set. As to the 
other charges the official says: "There is no truth in the charge 
that the company secretly sent out some of the machinery nor 
in the charge that the hospital was closed and patients ejected. 
The company left its own physician and staff in charge of 
hospital patients, and the local Mexican officials arrested them 
and put a Mexican physician in charge, but the following day 
released the American physician and attendants and they are 
now in charge of the hospital under direction of a Mexican 
agent." 

Edward Steidle, engineer in charge of Rescue Car No. 1 of 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines, announces that Car No. 1 will be at 
the several places named below, at the times specified: Salt 
Lake City, Utah, July 1 to July 10; Park City, Utah, July 11 
to July 25; Bingham, Utah, July 26 to Aug. 11; Milford, Utah, 
Aug. 12 to Aug. IS; Eureka. Utah, Aug. 19 to Sep. 1; Sandy, 
Utah, Sep.- 2 to Sep. 15; Scofield, Utah, Sep. 16 to Sep. 22; 
Castlegate, Utah, Sep. 23 to Sep. 29; Hiawatha, Utah, Sep. 30 
to Oct. 6; Sunnyside, Utah, Oct. 7 to Oct. 13. 

In case of mine disaster Car 1 can be reached indirectly 
through the University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, (headquar- 
ters) ; A. J. Stinson, Nevada State Mine Inspector, Carson 
City, Nevada; Henry M. Rives, Secretary Nevada Mine Opera- 
tors' Association, Reno. Nevada; ,P. A. Thatcher, Utah 
Industrial Accident Commission, State Capitol, Salt Lake City, 
Utah; A. G. Mackenzie, Secretary Utah Chapter American 
Mining Congress, also representative of Coal & Metal Producers 
Association of Utah, Boston Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah; H. M. 
Wolflin, California Industrial Accident Commission, Under- 
wood Bdg., San Francisco, California; and Robert I. Kerr, 
Secretary, California Metal Producers Association, Merchants 
National Bank Bdg., San Francisco, California. 



P©ir§©2asiH 



Kote: The Editor invites members of the profession to send part icntars of their 
work and appointment*. This information ia interesting to our readers. 



D. M. Rioedan is in New York. 

D. V. Keedy is in French Guiana. 

H. Foster Bain writes from Shanghai. 

Morton Webber has gone to southern Arizona. 

John Ross, Jr., is in San Francisco from Nevada. 

W. S. Notes has returned from Ashland, Oregon. 

Albert Burch has returned from the Coeur d'Alene. 

H. G. Cannon is mining in Mono county, California. 

A. Chester Beatty is traveling in China and Japan. 

C. S. Galbraith has opened an office at Webb City, Missouri. 

Ernest A. Hebsam has returned from New York to Berkeley. 

E. B. Reese has returned to Los Angeles from San Franc'sco. 
George J. Bancroft, of Denver, passed through San Fran- 
cisco on his way to Idaho. 

C. Yabe, engineer to the Sumitomo Besshi copper mine, is 
visiting our mining districts. 

C. W. Purington lectured recently at King's College, London, 
on 'Pacific Routes to Siberia.' 

C. E. van Babnevfxd passed through San Francisco on his 
way from Salt Lake City to Tucson. 

C. T. Griswold, geologist of The Associated Geological Engi- 
neers, of New York, has gone to Wyoming. 

J. B. Tyrrell has been appointed Canadian representative 
of the Consolidated Mines Selection Co., London. 

Francis A. Thomson has been appointed dean of the School 
of Mines of Washington University at Pullman, Washington. 

Herbert G. Thomson has been appointed superintendent for 
the Nevada Packard Mines Co., at Lower Rochester, Nevada. 

Jay A. Carpenter has resigned as general superintendent for 
the Nevada Packard Mines Co. and is now at Wonder, Nevada 

Robert C. Sticht has had to go to Butte, so his address 
before the local section of the A. I. M. E. is postponed until 
further notice. 

E. S. King has been appointed manager for the Waihi Grand 
Junction mine, in New Zealand, succeeding William F. Grace, 
who has retired owing to ill health. 

H. C. Hoover has been awarded the Cross of a Commander of 
the Legion of Honor by the French government in recognition 
of his services in provisioning Belgium and northern France. 

A regiment of artillery is being organized in San Francisco 
as a part of the National Guard of California, but with the in- 
tention of mustering it into the Federal service on August 5. 
Mining engineers are invited to enlist. A few commissions 
are available. Further particulars will be given in our next 
issue. Communications may be addressed to W. G. Devereux, 
care of this office. — Editor. 

Obituary 

W. Guy Scott died at his home near Soulsbyville, Tuolumne 
county, California, June 24, Mr. Scott with his brother, Proctor 
Scott, for many years operated the Black Oak mine, near Souls- 
byville. He was a native of California, having been born at 
Diamond Springs, in El Dorado county. For some years past 
Mr. Scott has been employed by the Government as forest 
ranger. 

James E. Dye, well known as a mine manager in Amador 
county, California, died at the home of his son at Vancouver, 
B. C, June 25, at the age of 62 years. He was manager for the 
Exploration Company, of London, in Amador county for several 
years, where he had charge of the Amador Queen mines. More 
recently he had been identified with the Bank of Amador, at 
Jackson. 



July 14. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



THE METAL Mii^I^f 



■HMMBUMHBMHHBH 



MKTAI. PRICES 

Ban Francisco, July 10 
Antimony, Cttnta par pound 18.50 — 22.00 

Electrolytic copper, canta per pound 34.60 

Pip lead, ccnta per pound 12.26— IS. 00 

Platinum, sort imd hard metal, per ounce... $105 — 111 

Quicksilver, per flask ol 76 lb $100 

Spelter, cents per pound 11.50 

Tin, Cents per pound 59 

Bine-dust, cents per pound 20 

OBE PRICES 

San Francisco, July 10 

Aluminum-dust (100-lb. lots), per lb $1.00 

Aluminum-dust (ton lots), per lb $0.95 

Antimony. 60% metal, per unit $1.35 

Chrome. 40 l 7r and over, fob, cars California, cents per unit. . 50 — 55 

Magnesile. crude, per ton $8.00 — 10.00 

Tin. cents per pound 00 

Tungsten. 60% W0 3 , per unit $25.00 — 30.00 

Molybdenite, per unit for MoS 2 contained 40.00 

Manganese. 4696 (under 35% metal not desired), cents, unit. 33 — 37 

Manganese prices and specifications, as per the quotations of the Car- 
negie Steel Co. schedule of prices per ton of 2240 lb. for domestic man- 
ganese ore delivered, freight prepaid, at Pittsburg. Pa., or Chicago, 111. For 
ore containing 

Per unit 

Above 49% metallic manganese $1.00 

46 to 49% metallic manganese 0.98 

43 to 4696 metallic manganese 0.95 

40 to 43% metallic manganese 0.90 

Prices are based on ore containing not more than 8% silica nor more 
than (!■_;•; phosphorus, and are subject to deductions as follows: (1) for 
each l9t in excess of 89, silica, a deduction of 15c. per ton, fractions in 
proportion; (2) for each 0.02% in excess of 0.2% phosphorus, a de- 
duction of 2c. per unit of manganese per ton, fractions in proportion; 
i3l ore containing less than 40% manganese, or more than 12% silica, or 
0.225% phosphorus, subject to acceptance or refusal at buyer's option; 
settlements based on analysis of sample dried at 212° F.. the percentage of 
moisture in the sample as taken to be deducted from the weight Prices 
are subject to chance without notice unless specially agreed upon 

Tungsten has taken a sharp advance, owing to continued and increasing 
demand, and scarcity of the supply to meet it. From a nominal price of 
$20 to $22 per unit for 60% ore. the price has risen to $25 to $30 per 
unit, and unless indications are misleading it will go still higher. Some 
ore of low grade has been shipped from the mines at Atolia to Boulder 
county. Colorado, for concentration. 

EASTERN META1. MARKET 

(By wire from New York) 
July 10. — Copper is dull and weaker at 31c. Lead is quiet and lower 
at 11.12c, Zinc is dead and lower at 9.12c. Platinum remains un- 
changed at $105 for soft and $111 for the hard metal. 

COPPER 

Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 
Date Average week ending 

July 4 Holiday May 29 

5 32.00 June 5 

6 31.75 

7 31.50 

8 Sunday 

9 31.25 

" 10 31.00 



July 



32.50 
32.62 

12 32.75 

19 33.58 

26 32.42 

3 32.25 

10 31.50 





1915 


1916 


1917 


Jan. . . 


. . .13.60 


34.30 


29.53 


Feb. . . 


. . .14.38 


26.62 


34.57 


Mch. . 


. . 14.80 


26.65 


36.00 




. . .16.64 


28.02 


33.16 




. . .18.71 


29.02 


31.69 


June . . 


. . .19.75 


27.47 


32.57 



Monthly Averages 

1915 1916 

July 19.09 25.66 

Aug 17.27 27.03 

Sept 17.69 28.28 

Oct 17.90 28.50 

Nov 18.88 31.95 

Dec 20.67 32.89 



June copper dividends approximated 529.000,000. For the half year 
ended June 30 a new record was established in the payment of copper 
mining- company dividends; the total disbursement having been 591.669,281. 
The amount paid in the first six months of 1916 was 565.046,051. 

SILVER 

the average New York quotations, in cents per ounce. 



Below are given 
of fine silver. 

Date 
July 4 Holiday 

5 

6 



8 Sunday 

9 

10 



.78.50 
.78.37 
.78.37 

.78.75 
.79.50 



Average week ending 

May 29 74.62 

June 5 74.80 

•' 12 75.83 

19 77.00 

26 78.12 

July 3 77.98 

•' 10 78.70 



Jan. 
Feb 
Mch. 
Apr. 

May 



1915 

.48.85 
.48.45 
.50.61 
. 50.25 
.49.87 



June 49.03 



191S 
56.76 
56.74 
57.89 
64.37 
74.27 
65.04 



Monthly Averages 
1917 



75.14 
77.54 
74.13 
72.51 
74.61 
76.44 



1915 

July 47.52 

Aug 47.11 

Sept 48.77 

Oct 49.40 

Nov 51.88 

Dec 55.34 



1916 
63.06 
66.07 
68.61 
67.86 
71.60 
75.70 



The weekly letter of Samuel Montagu & Co. of London, dated June 14, 
contains the following regarding silver: The market has at last left the 
doldrums in which it has remained for more than a month past. The 
change was accompanied by an abrupt movement of the price upward. 

Disquieting news from China, where the political horizon is overcast, 
has aggravated the firmness of the market. Whether the Chinese posi- 
tion will clear without civil strife or not, the evident unrest must affect 



'"" ■"»» " la "' "■■"!'■■ and. also to a certain extent, the mean, of com- 
munication, particularly the railways now upicd by mini u 

H inns! n. ,1 be assumed thai the n i the heavy transfers ol silver in 

inn ..I sycee from China to bulla and elsewhere, that have taken 
i.i.i.v during the period ol the War, will neceasarllj have to bo re- 

|,l;i,v<l :it .i subsequent date. Much .i[ the sllvir was derived Irom hoards 
in the interior, when it has been drawn by the tempting rise in its ex- 
,-!i.iuge value Moreover, substitules have been :idnpled one ol whieh by 

iiu means the least important, is llius indie: 1 by the North China Herald' 

under date o( April 21. Tim, is :inother factor contributing to the 
depletion of silver in China, and that is, the imports of gold-bars and 
gold coins to China by exporters to pay for their purchases, as this way 
of settling bills has been found cheaper than sending the while metal 
here." 

On the other hand, quantities of copper cash arc being smelted under 
private auspices in Shanghai. Such an operation was a serious crime 
under the Ching dynasty, and is also a puniBhable offence under the Re- 
publican regime. Of course a scarcity of copper cash would probably 
create a local demand for silver currency. 

LEAD 

Lead is quoted in cents per pound, New York delivery. 

Average week ending 

May 29 10.93 

June 5 11. 46 

12 11.83 

" 19 12.00 

" 26 11.75 

July 3 11.57 

" 10 11.25 



Date 
July 4 Holiday 
5. 



6 11.37 



8 Sunday 

9 

10 



.11.12 
.11.12 



1915 
. 3.73 
. 3.83 
. 4.04 
. 4.21 
4.24 



1916 
5.95 
6.23 
7.26 
7.70 
7.38 
6.88 



Monthly Averages 
1917 



7.64 


July 


9.01 


Aug. 


10.07 


Sept 


9.38 


Oct. 


10.29 


Nov. 


11.74 


Dee 



1915 

. 5.59 

. 4.67 

. 4.62 

. 4.62 

. 5.15 

. 5.34 



1916 
6.40 
6.28 
6.86 
7.02 
7.07 
7.55 



1917 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Mch. 
Apr. 
May 
June 5.75 

The Standard Silver-Lead Mining Co. declared a quarterly dividend of 
5100,000. payable July 15 to stockholders of record July 1. This dis- 
bursement will be the second of 5100.000 made this year, the first having 
been made on April 15. The rate of disbursement is 5% per quarter on a 
capitalization of 52.000.000. The forthcoming dividend will raise the 
total to 52,600.000, a greater part of which was paid at the rate of 
5600.000 per year in monthly disbursements of 550.000. The report of 
the company for April showed earnings of 534.911 in that month and a 
surplus of 5230,420. The property is at Silverton, B. C. 

ZINC 



Zinc 
in cent 

Date 
July 


is quoted as 
b per pound 

4 Holiday 

5 

6 

7 

8 Sunday 

9 

10 

1915 


spelter 

1916 
18.21 
19.99 
18.40 
18.62 
16.01 
12.85 


standard 

9.25 
9.25 
9.25 

9.12 

9.12 

Monthly 

1917 

9.75 

10.45 

10.78 

10.20 

9.41 

9.63 


Wester 

May 
June 

July 

Averag 

July 

Aug. 

Sent. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 


n bn 

Av€ 

29. 

5 

19. 


nds, 
rage 


New York delivery, 
week ending 
9.66 


" 










>. 


26 
10 

38 










" 












1915 
.20.54 
14.17 
14.14 
14.05 
17.20 
.16.75 


1916 
9.90 
9.03 
9.18 
9.92 
11.81 
11.26 


9.20 
1917 


















Apr. . 
May . 
June . 




. . 9.78 

17.03 

. .22.20 



The United States government has closed negotiations for 23,000,000 
lb. of high-grade spelter at 13 %c. per lb. The transaction was conducted 
through the spelter committee, representing zinc producers, and was the 
second effected in the past few weeks. When the zinc committee was 
formed a few weeks ago a small amount of spelter was purchased ap- 
portioned among the various grades, known in this connection as A, B, C, 
and D. The total approximated 4500 tons and the prices ranged ac- 
cording to grade. 

QUICKSILVER 

The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds: 
Week ending 

Date | June 26 80.00 

June 12 90.00 July 3 85.00 

19 82.00 | " 10 100.00 

Monthly Averages 
1915 

Jan 51.90 

Feb 60.00 

Mch 78.00 

Apr 77.50 

May 75.00 

June 90.00 



1916 


1917 




1916 


1916 1917 


222.00 


81.00 


July . . 


. . . 95.00 


81.20 


295.00 


126.25 


Aug. . . 


. . . 93.75 


74.60 


219.00 


113.75 


Sept. . . 


. . . 91.00 


75.00 


141.60 


114.50 


Oct. . . 


. . 92.90 


78.20 


90.00 


104.00 




. . .101.50 


79.50 . . . 


74.70 


85.50 


Dec. . . 


. . .123.00 


80.00 



PriceB in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly Averages 





1915 


1916 


1917 


Jan. . . 


. . .34.40 


41.76 


44.10 


Feb. . . 


... 37.23 


42.60 


51.47 


Mch. . 


. . .48.76 


60.50 


54.27 




. . .48.25 


51.49 


55.63 






49.10 


63.21 


June . . 


.. .40.26 


42.07 


61.93 



1915 

July 37.38 

Aug 34.37 

Sept 33.12 

Oct 33.00 

Nov 39.50 

Dec 38.71 



1916 


1917 


38.37 




38.88 




36.66 




41.10 




44.12 




42.55 





70 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



Hasftesraa MmMl MmUm 



New York, July 3. 

Almost complete stagnation describes the market of practic- 
ally all of the metals. The continued uncertainty of any de- 
cisive Government action regarding purchases and prices, that 
will give some idea to the trade as to what to expect for some 
definite and relatively lengthy period, instead of spasmodic 
buying for a month's needs or less, is acting as a decided drag 
on the market. 

Copper manifests a weaker tendency and prices are nominal. 

Tin is steady but inactive and dull. 

Lead is unsettled and lower, with the tendency soft. 

Spelter is absolutely dead and weaker. 

Antimony is quiet and unchanged. 

The steel market is also more or less at sea awaiting some- 
thing definite as to what measures are to be taken regarding 
its regulation both as to prices for materials and as to taxes 
on excess profits. The coal fiasco has not tended to lessen 
anxiety. An end to the chaos is earnestly desired and abso- 
lutely necessary. Pig-iron output for June was lower than 
that of May because of coke-troubles. The total for June was 
3,270,055 tons, or 109,002 tons per day, against 3,417,340 tons 
in May, or 110.23S tons per day. The output for the first half 
of 1917 is less than that of the first half of 1916, or 19,069,892 
tons against 19,410,453 tons. 

COPPER 

Daily-press reports are persistent that the Government has 
purchased 60,000,000 lb. of copper at 25c. per lb., the price 
being a tentative one subject to change later if it is decided 
that it is necessary as a result of Government investigations. 
This scale is credited by some in the trade and discredited by 
others. It is also rumored that a purchase of about 15,000,000 
lb. is to be made at any moment. The whole matter seems to 
be shrouded in mystery and secrecy. It would be better for 
the trade in this and other metal markets if some definite con- 
clusion could be arrived at. The entire copper market is quiet 
and easier, with the general tendency downward. No business 
is reported worth talking about outside of the Government 
order referred to, and the market is a drifting and nominal 
one, with early-delivery metal quoted at 31.75 to 32c, New 
York, third quarter at 30c. and fourth quarter at 29c, New 
York. Small lots have changed hands but quietness rules. 
Reports of strikes and excessive wage-demands among copper 
miners in the West are attracting more attention than any- 
thing else, but in some quarters these are regarded as ex- 
aggerated for political and economic effect. The London 
market is unchanged at £142 for spot electrolytic and £138 
for futures. 

TIN 

The absence of regular receipts of cables from London until 
late in the day, or more often until the next day, is exerting 
an unsettling influence. Sellers are in the dark each day as to 
what quotations to make, and buyers are in doubt as to what 
action to take. As a result business is held in check. The 
entire market is slow and permeated by extreme cautiousness 
on the part of everyone. Yesterday, July 2, no spot business 
was reported, but about 100 tons of futures were sold in the 
shape of September-October shipment from the East at 56.25c. 
Inquiry for June shipment from the East developed a scarcity 
for this position and none was to be had. The spot market 
came to a standstill. Last week business for any position was 
meager. A little spot-business was done on June 2'i at 62c, 
New York, but on the 28th no sales were reported, though in- 
quiry on that day and the day following was fairly good, 
amounting to probably 100 tons in all. There are no develop- 
ments as to what the sub-committee on tin has done or is 



doing, and th« entire market is quiet and dull with quota- 
tions at 62c, New York, on every day since our last letter. 
Deliveries of tin for June, according to the New York Metal 
Exchange, were 6398 tons, of which 2798 tons arrived at Pacifies 
ports. The quantity afloat July 2 was 3081 tons, with the 
arrivals on that day 280 tons. The London quotation for spot 
Straits was £244 on July 2, a decline of £1 from the previous 
quotation. 

LEAD 

The reaction, which was forecasted last week, has developed 
in a mild form, and today the market is quoted at 11.25c, St. 
Louis, or 11.37Jc, New York. It is bare of features, however, 
and the tendency is to lower levels if anything. More metal is 
being offered than the demand seems to be able to absorb, and 
business generally is dull and unsatisfactory. Late last week 
a little business was done as low as 11 to 11.25c, St. Louis, 
but at the close of the week better inquiry developed, and a 
fairly good business was reported. The sale to the Government 
of S000 tons at 8c per lb. as its July requirements, with nothing 
settled as to future needs and prices, has not been a stabilizing 
influence, and the continued uncertainty has acted as an un- 
settling factor. Further reaction is looked for by some. 

ZINC 

Unconfirmed reports are to the effect that the Government 
has purchased 11,000 tons of high-grade spelter at 13.50c per 
lb., St. Louis, or 2c per lb. above the price paid for the 6700 
tons bought early last May. Definite information regarding 
the whole question of Government needs and buying seems un- 
obtainable, and in the meantime the market is growing 
weaker almost daily. The continued suspense and uncertainty 
is acting as a great drag on initiative and enterprise, and soon 
will become serious unless something is settled. One daily 
trade paper is responsible for the above report but no one in 
the trade has definite knowledge regarding it. Also it is 
stated that the Government has bought sheet-zinc at 16c per 
lb., as compared with the present quotation of 19c This has 
not been confirmed. Prices have declined recently. Early de- 
livery of prime Western is quoted at 9c, St. Louis, with August 
and September metal at 9.12Jc, St. Louis, but sales have been 
very few. It is acknowledged that many producers cannot 
operate at a profit at these prices and it will not be surprising 
if numerous small ones are obliged to shut-down before many 
weeks unless the situation clears decidedly. Exports of spelter 
in May were large — IS, 533 tons. 

ANTIMONY 
Conditions are unchanged, and demand is light, with Chinese 
and Japanese grades quoted at 19 to 19.50c, duty paid. New 
York. A consignment of Cookson's antimony from England, 
the first to be released to this market in a long time, has been 
sunk by a submarine. It was quoted at about 22c, New York. 

ALUMINUM 

Demand is not active and the market is a little easier. No. 1 
virgin aluminum, 98 to 99% pure, is quoted at 5S to 60c, New 
York, for early delivery. 

ORES 

Tungsten: The ore market is quiet, with demand reported 
as only of moderate volume. Quotations are unchanged at $20 
to $22 per unit for 60% concentrate. The ferro-tungsten 
market is also dull. Offers to sell at $2.20 per lb. of contained 
tungsten have been made for export, with quotations generally 
varying from that to $2.50 per pound. 

Antimony and Molybdenum: There have been no changes 
reported, and conditions and quotations are unchanged from 
those prevailing in last week's letter. 



July H. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



71 



Cvm-pmiy 'H&p-vT&g 



NORTH BtJTTH MINING COMPANY 

The annual report of the North Butte Mining Company for 
the year ended December 31, 1916, shows that during the year 
there was shipped 560,673 wet tons of ore and L20 wet tons of 
precipitate, and there was treated at the smelter 544,305 dry 
tons of ore and S9 dry tons of precipitate. Of this ore 49,252 
dry tons, or 9.1%, was first-class, 423, US dry tons, or 77.7%, 
was secoud-elass, and 71.995 dry tons, or 13.2%, was third-class. 
This ore produced 24.49S.1S1 lh. of fine copper, 1,047,063.56 oz. 
of silver, and 1,712,004 oz. of gold. During the months of 
November and December there was also mined 1652 wet tons of 
zinc ore and there was treated 1625 dry tons, which produced 
412,953 lb. of zinc and 2510.24 oz. of silver. 

Deliveries of copper, silver, gold, and zinc made during the 
year, in amounts and at average prices received, were as 
follows: 

Copper, pounds 21,505,584 23.295c. 

Silver, ounces 960,246.62 66.371c. 

Gold, ounces 1,712.004 $20.00 

Zinc, pounds 412,953 10.674c. 

Four dividends were paid during the year, as follows: 

No. 37, January 26, 1916 $ 215,000 

No. 38, April 26, 1916 215,000 

No. 39, July 29, 1916 322,500 

No. 40, October 23, 1916 322,500 

Total $1,075,000 

The mine was in operation 349J days, the average number of 
men employed was 1160, and tbe average tonnage hoisted 
daily was 1605. 

The net cost of producing copper was 15.51c. per lb. as shown 
in the following statement: 

Classification Cost per lb. 

Mining and development work $0.1087S4 

Freight on ore 0.002749 

Concentrating, smelting, freight on bullion, refining 

and selling expenses 0.075352 

General and miscellaneous expense, personal and fed- 
eral taxes 0.002539 

Total $0.189424 

Less value of silver, gold, and zinc 0.033724 

Net cost $0.155700 

THE BROKEN HILL PROPRIETARY COMPANY, LIMITED 

The half yearly report of the Broken Hill Proprietary Com- 
pany, Limited, for the year ended November 30, 1916, shows the 
following: 

At the mine operations were carried on continuously, ex- 
cept on several occasions of 'stop-work' resolutions carried by 
the miners. Costs show a material increase, due to this cause, 
and to the higher cost of supplies. The quantity of ore mined 
was 110,276 tons. Exploration was carried on during the half- 
year period, but nothing of value was disclosed. 

The zinc concentration plant was again operated during the 
last month of the half-year, and produced 2805 tons ot zinc 
concentrate of a slightly higher grade than had been pre- 
viously obtained, the average being 47.41% zinc. The installa- 
tion of a slime-flotation plant was completed and operations 
started in the middle of the half-year. The results obtained 
were eminently satisfactory, a lead concentrate of about 56% 
lead and 80 oz. silver; and a zinc concentrate of about 46% 
zinc being produced. 



At the Newcastle steel works s succession ot strikes of 
workmen greatly hampered production and Increasei 
while the Bhlpmenl ol finished products available for delivery 

was seriously hampered, Since the Issue of the last report the 

Imperial Qovern nl has completed the purchase ol 

tons of shell-steel, steel rails, and fish-plates. The successful 
issue of £400,000 of 6';; debentures enabled tin sent to 

decide upon the duplication of the blast-furnace plant; and 
everything is being urged forward as rapidly as possible. 

The gross profit for the half-year amounted to £171,698 16a 
3d., which after deducting £15,169 4s. for depreciation, leaves 
a net profit of £156,429 lls.3d. During the term the sum ot 
£325,969 4s. was expended in construction, the principal item 
being in connection with the Newcastle steel works, which 
amounted to £318,732 6s.Sd. 

After providing for all outstanding liabilities there remain 
liquid assets in cash, bullion, and other convertible stocks, 
representing a total value of £326,322 16s.6d. 

CANADA COPPER CORPORATION, LIMITED 

The annual report of the Canada Copper Corporation for the 
year ended December 31, 1916, shows the following: 

Operations at the Greenwood smelter were continued during 
the year. After writing off to depreciation $235,238.37, a 
profit of $215,304.85 remained. The total amount of ore 
smelted during the year was 306,450 dry tons, of which 23,243 
tons was custom-ore. From this was produced 5,196,239 lb. of 
fine copper; 49,928.71 oz. of silver, and 12,366.24 oz. of gold. 
It was only possible to operate the smelter profitably because 
of the high price of copper. High costs resulted due to the 
ore being taken from pillars and caved areas remaining in the 
mine and also to the high cost of labor and supplies. The 
smelting operations were interfered with, due to continuous 
shortage of coke, which condition still exists. 

In the last annual report, reference was made to the decisioa- 
to proceed with underground work at the Copper Mountain 
property, the purpose of which was to confirm the results pre- 
viously secured from diamond-drilling. It was also planned to 
lay out the work as part of the permanent programme, looking 
to the underground development of the mine, for extraction of 
ore on a large scale. 

In order to provide for the rapid completion of the amount 
of underground work planned, a power transmission-line 13.6 
miles long was brought in from Princeton, B. C, where a 
lease upon a power-plant had been secured. Ample compressor 
facilities, machine, blacksmith, and carpenter-shops were in- 
stalled, also warehouses, bunk-houses, and additional dwellings. 
Heat, light, water, sewer, and telephone-systems were also 
provided. 

A permanent pumping plant has been installed at the river 
and a Gould triplex pump is operating under a head of 1700 
ft. in one lift. 

Since the first of the present year, a 50-ton experimental 
flotation mill has been placed in operation. The purpose of this 
plant is to outline definitely in advance the metallurgical pro- 
cedure which is to be adopted in the large mill. 

A tunnel 9 ft. by 9 ft. in the clear was driven 2100 ft. on the 
3950-ft. level. In addition to this, numerous lateral drifts and 
raises were made, the total amount of driving and raising up 
to the end of the year amounting to 5206 ft. As soon as it 
became apparent that the results secured from diamond-drill- 
ing were reliable, drilling from the surface was resumed, and 
8007 ft. of diamond-drilling was accomplished during the year. 
In addition to this 2364 ft. of surface-trenches was sunk on 
newly located claims. 

The net cash expenditure during the year on the develop-* 
ment of the Copper Mountain property was $396,000. This 
includes payments on account of the purchase price on claims 
under bond as well as administrative and engineering expense. 

There remains a total of $18,000 not yet due, to complete pay- 



72 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Julv 14. 1917 



ment for all the mining area at present desired on Copper 
mountain. 

The development work at Copper Mountain during the year 
demonstrated the accuracy of estimates previously made and 
upon which tonnage estimates had been established. 

No material increase in ore reserves can be reported because 
the underground work was directed along the line of diamond- 
drilling previously performed. However, since the beginning 
of the year, underground diamond-drilling was started, which 
work could not be undertaken until underground work had 
been advanced sufficiently for the purpose. New ore is being 
found. 

Prior to the underground development campaign, it was 
deemed expedient to class the ore as reasonably assured and 
probable. It is now estimated that there are 10,000,000 tons of 
definitely assured ore and 2,000,000 tons of probable ore. The 
average grade of this tonnage is 1.74% copper and 20c. per 
ton recoverable in gold and silver. 

The possibilities for still further increases are considered 
excellent, in view of the results being secured at the present 
time, and in view of the existing geological conditions. 

Allen H. Rogers made an independent report on the proper- 
ties, and his report confirms our estimates with regard to ton- 
nage and value of ore. His conclusion is that the property 
is sufficiently developed to warrant the erection of a mill hav- 
ing a capacity of 3000 tons per day. He estimates the cost of 
producing copper at 9.57c. per lb., based on existing smelting 
contracts for the treatment of similar product elsewhere in 
British Columbia. A conservative figure for the cost of trans- 
portation is assumed. 

ST. JOHN DKL REY MINING COMPANY 
The 86th annual report of the St. John Del Rev Mining Co. 
for the year ended February 28, 1917, was submitted by the 
directors at a meeting held in London, June 21. and shows the 
following: Tons of ore hoisted, 198.5S6. Tons of ore crushed, 
in 130-stamp mill, 187,400. Recovery in gold and silver, 110,- 
552 oz. Value realized in London. £471.247. The proportion 
of mineral rejected was but 2.89%. The yield per ton was 
50s. 3*d. The profit for the year was £155,593 and a balance 
of £7574 was brought forward. 

The superintendent's report states that a favorable change 
has taken place in the lower levels, both as regards the size 
of the lode and the value of the ore. 

During the year the amount of new ore blocked out greatly 
exceeds the amount of ore extracted. 

Nevada Section A. I. M. E. 

The second annual field-meeting of the Nevada section of the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers was held at Ely, 
McGill, and Ruth, Nevada, on June 22 and 23. The meeting 
was highly successful and the various visiting engineers and 
their ladies were loud in their praises of the hospitality of the 
engineers of the Ely district. The first day's session was held 
at McGill. where 45 members from various parts of the State 
were present. This was a technical session; it opened with 
an address of welcome by C. V. Jenkins, business manager for 
the Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. After a response by the 
chairman, J. W. Hutchinson, five papers prepared by members 
of the Nevada Consolidated staff were read and discussed. The 
titles of these are: 

'Present operation of steam-shovel mines'. By Robert 
Marsh, Jr. 

'Branch-raise system at the Ruth mine'. By Walter S. Larsh. 
. 'Ball-mill practice'. By Geo. C. Riser. 

Coarse-crushing practice'. By Curtis H. Lindley, Jr. 

'Handling and roasting fine-slime concentrate at the Steptoe 
plant". By R. E. H. Pomeroy, and J. C. Kinnear. 

'Water supply'. By Lindsay Duncan. 

An adjournment was then taken after which lunch was 



served at the company mess. During the afternoon an in- 
spection was made of the smelter, concentrator, and crushing 
plant of the company. In the evening a banquet was tendered 
to members and their ladies at the Steptoe hotel at East Ely, 
after whichjthe 54 guests participated in a dance. On the 
following morning the party proceeded to Ruth, where many 
went underground in the Nevada Consolidated mine, while 
others inspected the operation of the churn-drills and the 
steam-shovels in the great pit. After a lunch served by the 
company, a paper was presented by Edward Steidle. engineer 
in charge of the U. S. Bureau of Mines Rescue-Car No. 1. An 
inspection was then made of the rescue-car stationed tem- 
porarily at Ruth, after which a demonstration by rescue-teams 
of the Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. and Giroux Consoli- 
dated Mines Co. was presented. The ladies, who on the pre- 
vious day had been entertained at luncheon by Mrs. C. V. 
Jenkins of McGill, attended a luncheon given by Mrs. Walter 
Larsh of Ruth. 

The officers elected for the ensuing year were R. E. H. Pom- 
eroy of McGill, chairman; J. C. Jones of Reno, vice-chairman; 
Henry M. Rives of Reno, secretary-treasurer. The new execu- 
tive committee, which includes the chairman and vice-chair- 
man, consists of the following: Emmet D. Boyle, Governor of 
Nevada. John G. Kirchen of Reno. J. W. Hutchinson of Gold- 
field, C. B. Lakenan of McGill, Whitman Symmes of Virginia 
City, Frederick Bradshaw of Tonopah, and W. H. Blackburn 
of Tonopah. 

In the evening, after the return from Ruth, members at- 
tended the Red Cross dance at Ely in lieu of one that had been 
planned for the visiting engineers and their guests. 



Mining Decisions 



Severance of Mineral Rights — Adverse Possession 
One who purchases surface rights to land and then forms 
the intention of holding the mineral interests therein, does 
not establish adverse possession unless his claim is open and 
notorious. The mere use and possession of the surface is not 
enough to constitute adverse possession of the mineral rights, 
even if he actually mines coal for domestic purposes only, 
where he is entitled to mine for domestic purposes under his 
deed. Paying taxes on the surface raises no adverse claim 
to the minerals beneath it in such a case. 

Pond Creek Coal Co. v. Hatfield (Kentucky), 239 Federal, 
622. February 6, 1917. 



Oil and Gas Lease — One Dollar Consideration Sufficient 
An oil and gas lease was granted upon $1 consideration, 
together with a covenant on the part of the lessee to drill a 
test well within a year and pay royalties thereafter based on 
minimum rentals. Five months later, nothing having been 
done under the lease, the land owners declared the same void 
and without consideration and made new leases which were 
assigned to defendants. Held, on suit by the first lessee to 
enjoin any assertion of rights by the assignees of the second 
lease, that the one dollar consideration paid for the first lease 
was sufficient to support the same during the period in which 
test wells were to be bored and an injunction was awarded. 
Lindlay v. Raydure( Kentucky), 239 Federal, 928. Febru- 
ary 3, 1917. 



Adverse Claim — Abandonment 
In an action brought on an adverse claim in patent pro- 
ceedings, the defendant abandoned his application for patent 
to the area alleged to be in conflict after the suit was com- 
menced and the plaintiff waived his right to secure patent to 
that area also. Held, that as the action then became merely 
one for possession and there being no proof of a conflict, it was 
an error for the court to direct a verdict for plaintiff. 

Lucky Four Gold Mining Co. v. Bacon (Colorado), 163 
Pacific, 862. March 5, 1917. 



Joly 14. mi: 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



28 



INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



Compressed Air on a Measured-Service Basis 

The Yak Mining, Milling & Tunnel Co. owns the Yak tunnel 
at Leadville. Colorado, and operates its own properties, leases 
and operates other properties adjacent to the Yak tunnel, and 
also sub-leases parts of the ground controlled by them to other 
operators. The Yak company provides practically every serv- 
ice and supply necessary to the sub-lessee, except labor and 
capital, for a reasonable charge. 

The evident advantage of this service to a miner who wishes 
to lease is that he can operate with all the facilities and 
economies of large, modern mining conveniences for the gen- 




THE EXCELSIOK AIBOMETEK 

•eration and distribution of power, with a well-equipped store- 
room at the tunnel portal, with mechanical haulage; all ready 
for instant service, without any outlay of capital on his part. 
The charges for this service are based on the actual cost of 
such service to the company, which expects to derive its 
revenue from the discovery and extraction of ore rather than 
to exploit the sub-lessees for the service rendered. Hugh 
C. Watson, superintendent of the Yak company, says of this: 
"One of the principal items of power-service to sub-lessees is 
compressed air. For many years the company sold air to those 
who wished to purchase it on a flat-rate. This rate was made 
as accurate as possible, by a comparison, made in the office, 
of the cost of air for a machine-shift to the company. It will 
be apparent that this method and basis would never be abso- 
lutely accurate. 

"In the first place, it is not a simple thing to determine ex- 
actly what the air for a machine costs a company per shift 
"without a measuring-device, because the air-drills, even when 
new and of the same pattern, vary considerably; because the 
actual running conditions are exceedingly variable; because 



the foremen who collect the original data are not generally 
given to research work; and also, because air-leaks are dis- 
tributed and charged to the drills. On the other hand, it did 
not seem fair to charge a lessee for a full shift of air when it 
is almost a certainty that at some time during the month his 
machine would only be in use a fraction of the shift. This 
brings up the question of keeping track of the drills used by 
the lessee. At this mine (which is so large that a personal 
visit every shift by a company representative was imprac- 
ticable) a compromise was introduced. A lessee was charged 
for air each working-shift regardless of whether he used his 
machine or not, unless he signified his intention of not using 
his machine on certain shifts, in which case he was not 
charged for air on those shifts. 

"It was decided that, if the air could be sold on a measured- 
service basis, it would obviate all the objections mentioned, 
make a fair basis of settlement, and that it would be satis- 
factory to all parties. 

"It was also felt that the introduction of meters would effect 
other economies not so apparent on the surface, not large in 
most instances, but in the aggregate making an important 
saving. 

"Anyone who has had any experience with lessees or con- 
tractors who buy their own supplies will testify to the tre- 
mendous saving these men make when they know that they 
themselves are paying for the extravagance and waste. Their 
economy in these matters amounts to parsimony. 

"It is a well-known fact to mine operators that the ordinary 
mine employee considers a leak in the air-line as a small mat- 
ter, rather beneficial than otherwise, and a continual fight on 
the part of the supervisor to stop such leaks is considered as 
a finicky characteristic of bosses, which occasionally degen- 
erates into nagging. 

"The next question was the cost and kind of a meter to use. 
Several meters for air are on the market, and at first the 
cost of the cheapest of these was considered prohibitive. 
However, the need was so urgent that this company felt that 
a few should be bought and installed, and then to buy the 
balance if the results justified the expenditure necessary. 

"It may save someone considerable trouble to start in where 
we left off, so I will state that, after careful analysis, we found 
the Excelsior airometer to be accurate and not to reduce the 
air-pressure by its passage through it, and consequently de- 
cided to adopt the Excelsior made by the Denver Hydro Com- 
pany. 

"Having purchased the meters, the next question was to de- 
termine the cost of the air. This was accomplished by con- 
necting several of the small meters in parallel and exhaust- 
ing air from the compressors through these meters. The air 
was kept at a constant pressure during this test, and meter 
readings were taken from the motor which drives the com- 
pressor simultaneously with the readings of the air-meters. 
It was then a simple matter to factor the power, labor, and 
oil-costs into cents per 1000 cu. ft. of compressed air. At about 
the same time a meter was connected to various air-drills, 
under variable but ordinary conditions, for long periods, to 
determine the actual daily consumption of air per shift. In 
this way the actual air-cost per drill per day was determined. 
It is not claimed that this method is absolute, nor were there 
any hair-splitting factors introduced, the idea being to get a 
commercial comparative basis on which to sell air that would 
be reasonable and just to both sides. 

"Due to the fact that the company still operates drills on 
its own account with no meters attached as yet, and also 



24 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 14, 1917 



because the original cost-data were inaccurate, it has not been 
possible to say how great the saving has been, but this much 
is apparent: That previously there was a scarcity of air; at 
present, an abundance, and this notwithstanding the fact that 
we are now operating four more large drills than ever be- 
fore with these compressors. 

"The air problem had resolved itself into selling the air at 
the least cost that would protect the company in its power and 
ui -keep. This figure having been determined and the meters 
installed, the difference to the lessees was a general reduction 
of the air-bill, which immediately led some lessees to buy 
machines, who had previously calculated that they could not 
afford them, with a net result for the company that the 
revenue from the meters was about the same as from the flat- 
rate schedule. However, the big advantage came, as antici- 
pated, from the economy and prevention of leakage. 

"An incidental benefit which might be credited to these 
meters was the discovery that one of our compressors cost 
nearly twice as much per 1000 cu. ft. as another. This led to 
the installation of a more modern and economical compressor. 
This saving soon became apparent and was shown on the 
power-bill. 



"The company keeps one meter to test the conditions of the 
different drills. It is known to everyone that the depreciation 
on an air-drill is one of the contributing factors of the high 
cost of mining; but unless one has a specially constructed and 
expensive dynometer, it is difficult to tell when it is time to 
scrap old drills and buy news ones. We have adopted the 
following scheme: 

"When the machine is new, we drill a hole at a convenient 
place in the mine and record the time, air, size of bit, machine, 
etc., then this record is filed away and later, six months or 
more, this same machine is again tried in the same place 
under similar conditions. The loss of efficiency is shown by 
comparing the number of inches drilled with the same amount 
of air and in the same time as when the machine was new. 
By assuming that when the drill was new it was 100% 
efficient, and reducing the hole drilled to a common denomi- 
nator, we get a good idea of the efficiency of the same, or dif- 
ferent machines, and also the depreciation of the different 
makes of drills. This method is a great help in knowing 
when to change drills, because the price of the drill is but a 
small part of the cost of the work done while labor and power 
are at the top of the list. 



Matteson Mine Ore-Cars 



Every miner is interested in mine-cars, particularly 
in a common-sense serviceable car, that will stand 
up to the requirements of continued service without 
requiring the frequent attention of the blacksmith 
or the foundry-man. Such a car is that here illus- 
trated. It is known as the Matteson car, and it 
. is a car that will appeal to every miner that uses it, 
particularly the man who has to handle it. Its low 
cost of up-keep also makes it a favorite with the 
manager who has an eye to economy. It is supplied 
with a roller-bearing turn-table, making it easy to 
turn the body of the car in any direction when ready 
to dump it. The bearings of the wheels are provided 
with an excellent lubricating device, the axles being 
wholly enclosed and rolling on bearings which make 
running smooth, with a minimum of friction, and as 
grit is absolutely excluded a car after considerable 
use runs as easy, if not easier than a new one. 

Another excellent feature is the compound hinge 
that controls the dumping arrangement. When the 





hinge-latch is released the car-body tilts forward at 
an angle of 10°, so that when ready to dump the 
loaded car it is readily accomplished without lifting 
at the rear end of the car, as is commonly the case 
with mine cars. 

The car is made in two shapes; one being the rect- 
angular, with a nearly vertical front; the other, 
called the scoop car, which has the receding front, 
permitting the ready discharge of wet sticky rock, 
wet concentrate, and similar material. The car can 
be had with either side or end-latch, as preferred, 
and with either side or end-dump. The miner can 
select the car best suited to his requirements, as the 
cars are made in various sizes from 25 to 40 cu, ft. 
capacity. The wheels are 12-in. diameter and the 
car is made 18-in. gauge, though other sizes and 
gauges are built to order. These cars are made by 
the Joshua Hendy Iron Works of San Francisco. A 
well illustrated pamphlet, Bulletin No. 125, descrip- 
tive of this car, will be sent on application to those 
interested. This firm makes a specialty of many 
machines that are peculiarly suited to the needs of 
the small miner; small hoists, small stamp-mills, 
ball-mills, and other devices required in the early 
development of mines. 



V 

EDITORIAL STAFF: 
T. A. R1CKARD - - Ediiot 
COURTENAY DE KALB, 

Aaociate Editor 






Mining sci, Press 


BUSINESS STAFF: 

C. T. HUTCHINSON. Muwet 

« 

E. H. LESLIE 
600 Fuhei Bdi.. Chicaso 

« 

A. S. BREAKEY 
1760 Woolworth Bd«.. New Yotk 


W. H. STORMS - Ncwi Ediiot 
0> 


ESTABUSHBD 1860 
PuMulinl .11 4-'" M.irlj.t Si., Son Frunct'ico, by l)u Draw? PuMMtltu] Company 



Science has no enemy save the ignorant 



Issued Every Saturday 



San Francisco, July 21, 1917 



84 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



EDITORIAL 



Notes 



Page. 
. . 73 



The Mexican Menace Again 75 

Threatened confiscatory laws affecting oil-lands; what 
nationalization of the oilfields signifies; uncertainty 
of Mexican law subject to modification by decrees; 
what Carranza desires. M. & S. P., July 21, 1917. 



The Physics of Flotation 



Lack of finality in theory; the supposed critical point. 
What is metallic? Teaching the principles in mining 
schools; the effect of oiling on minerals; divergent 
opinions. M. & S. P., July 21, 1917. 



MlSFIBES 



76 



77 



How to load a hole; economic waste of misfires; prin- 
ciples of propagation of the detonating wave; how the 
fulminate initiates an explosion; why the cap should 
be at end of cartridge; proper use of fuse; efficiency 
of tamping. M. & S. P., July 21, 1917. 

ARTICLES 
Butte Re- Visited. 

By Robert E. Brinsmade 79 

Changes in 16 years; development of rich oxidized 
ores; rise of the basic-converter practice; discovery 
of the Butte & Superior zinc deposit; Butte rivaling 
Broken Hill as a producer of zinc; changes in stoping 
systems; effect of hydro-electric power on mining and 
metallurgic methods; labor problem. M. & S. P., July 
21, 1917. 

SOUBCES OF SULPHUB IN OILS. 

By G. Sherburne Rogers 85 

Sulphatic waters abundant in Californian oil dis- 
tricts; reduction by hydro-carbons supplies sulphur to 
the oil; oxidation of H 2 S may take place in deeply 
buried sediments; pyrite may react directly with oils; 
bacteria reduce sulphates yielding H = S. M. & S. P., 
July 21, 1917. 

Subvey of Inclines Without Auxiliabies. 

By A. J. Sale . : • 87 

Method, by the use of the calculus, for generating a 
vertical plane down the incline, avoiding the use of an 
auxiliary telescope. M. & S. P., July 21, 1917. 



Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific PresB; name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 



Page, 

Mine Found by Thieves 86 

M. & S. P., July 21, 1917. 

A Blast-Furnace Record 86 

Record at Humboldt smelter, Arizona, of smelting 10 
tons per square foot of hearth-area. M. & S. P., July 
21, 1917. 

Chromite. 

By J. S. Diller 92 

Sources of supply; importations; mines in Oregon, 
California, and Atlantic States; ferro-chrome. M. & S. 
P., July 21, 1917. 

Missouri Zinc and Lead 1915-16 93 

M. & S. P., Jlily 21, 1917. 

Quicksilver Industry of Texas. 

By Wm. B. Phillips 93 

Output of Terlingua mines; geological occurrence of 
the mercury; comparison with Californian deposits. 
M. & S. P., July 21, 1917. 

C yanidation v. Flotation at Pachuca 94 

Recent tests at Santa Gertrudis, and Pachuca & Real 
del Monte; Minerals Separation, Callow, and 'K. & K.' 
machines used. M. & S. P., July 21, 1917. 

Tungsten Mines of Inyo County, California 95 

M. & S. P., July 21, 1917. 

Zinc Situation in Australia 95 

M. & S. P., July 21, 1917. 

DEPARTMENTS 

Recent Patents 96 

Review of Mining 98 

Special Correspondence from Lordsburg, New Mexico; 

Platteville, Wisconsin; Mexico; Leadville, Colorado; 

and Kennecott, Alaska. 

The Mininq Summary 102 

Personal 106 

The Metal Mabket 107 

Eastebn Metal Market 108 

Company Reports 109 

Recent Publication HO 

Book Reviews HO 



Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 1760 Woolworth 
Bdg.: London. 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price. 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance: 
United States and Mexico. S4; Canada, $6; other countries in postal union, 
25s. or $6. 



20 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 




Speed up witnsElectrie Power 



G-E Equipment is reliable and economical 



HERE are some of the ways in which modern 
industry has been speeded up by putting 
electric power to work in the right place. 

Metal mineshaveboosted output to meet world- 
wide demands. Great central power plants in 
place of small local plants in coal mining areas 
now supply cheaper electric power per ton out- 
put for each mine. All tonnage records have 
been smashed in the steel industry. Greater 
automobile output has lowered prices and given 
better road transportation. More and better 
cloth has been produced at lower power costs. 



The engineering problems solved in putting 
electric power to work in these and other indus- 
tries were many and intricate.' Production of 
electrical equipment suited to this work and in 
quantities required is an important part of this 
company's service to American industries. 

Any problem involving the use of power can 
be simplified by the application of electricity. The 
General Electric Company is well equipped to 
lend valuable assistance in working out such 
problems and is glad to co-operate with manu- 
facturers and engineers in every possible way. 



Motor Drive 

j General Electric Company J 




(kneral Office, SdienectadqN.Y. 



Sate^Offices^ihalLHaygelcitied 



July 91, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



73 



E D I T O R I 

T. A . RICKARD, Ed 



RIA L 

, Editor 



/"CONGRESS as yet has not taken final action to relieve 
*~* locators from doing annual labor on their mining 
claims during the War. The Senate has agreed to the 
House resolution exempting those persons who may be 
mustered into service in the Army or Navy from the obli- 
gation of doing the statutory $100 worth of labor, and 
the Senate has adopted another resolution, introduced 
by Mr. John F. Shafroth of Colorado, which provides 
for acceptance, in lieu of the required assessment work, 
of an equal expenditure in producing supplies needed 
for the support of the Army or Navy or of the people of 
the United States. 



"DE ACTIONS between sulphur and oil are discussed 
-*-*- by Mr. G. Sherburne Rogers in an article appear- 
ing in this issue. The source of the sulphur is of inter- 
est to the student of ore deposits as well as to the special- 
ist in petroleum. For the most part it is traceable to 
waters carrying sulphates in solution, coming under the 
influence of reducing substances in the sediments and in 
the oil itself. A point of particular significance is the 
statement that oil will also reduce sulphur from pyrite. 
This has been suggested also by investigations in connec- 
tion with the flotation process, it having been claimed 
that this reaction may exert an influence upon the sur- 
face of sulphide mineral particles, making them more 
readily floatable. 



A LUMINUM has been selling during the War at ap- 
■**■ proximately 60 cents per pound. In June, 1914, it 
sold for 17.5 cents, and the upward trend, beginning in 
April, 1915, was like a balloon ascension. This was 
occasioned by its demonstrated value in the making of 
explosives. It is significant of the general inflation of 
prices, in no wise corresponding to increases in the cost 
of production, that Mr. Arthur V. Davis, president of 
the Aluminum Company of America, has offered to sup- 
ply the Government with all the aluminum it needs at 
27.5 cents per pound. He is said to have arrived at this 
figure by adding 2 cents to the average market-price of 
the metal during the past decade. Mr. Davis deserves 
commendation for the merit of frankness in revealing 
one more truth regarding costs of production. 



/"kUR Toronto correspondent, in last week's issue, re- 
^-' cords a judicial decision giving damages to residents 
in the Sudbury district for injury done by smelter-fume, 
but refusing to grant an injunction against the two 
smelting companies in that famous nickel-mining dis- 
trict because the Court was of the opinion that "in- 



dividual rights could not be maintained against the in- 
terests of the whole community." The Court refused to 
destroy the local mining industry even to save a few 
farms. This seems just and for the public good. The 
smelting companies have expressed willingness to buy at 
a liberal price the lands of those that claim to be suffer- 
ing from the effect of the smelter-smoke. It is time that 
the public showed resentment against the blackmailing 
of a basic industry, the industry that in many localities 
was the chief cause in giving a value to the farm-prod- 
ucts by affording employment, and therefore buying- 
power, to the local population. 



QILVER is selling for 81 cents, a price not quoted since 
^ 1892. The reasons for the rise have been stated in 
these columns on several occasions: first, they are the 
increased purchasing power of China and India, both of 
which produce commodities that have been in steadily 
growing demand and for which, according to their 
custom, they ask silver in exchange; second, the coinage 
of silver for the use of the armies in Europe, particularly 
those of Great Britain, France, and Russia. To these 
now must be added the United States ; for it is the pur- 
chase of silver by our Government that is the proximate 
cause of the recent rise. San Francisco has become the 
principal point of export for silver, instead of New 
York. The Mexican, Canadian, and American produc- 
tion goes this way to the Far East, in order to avoid the 
submarine menace in the Mediterranean. London still 
fixes the price of silver, because business there opens 
five hours earlier than at New York. The improved 
prospect for the metal should not only benefit Tonopah 
and Cobalt, the two chief silver-mining districts in north- 
ern America, but it should swell the profits of the copper- 
mining companies, many of which, particularly in Mon- 
tana, recover silver as a by-product. Another conse- 
quence is to help Mexican finance, for the peso is ap- 
preciating rapidly. The rise may also put it into the 
head of the Mexicans to assist and stimulate the mining 
of silver ore instead of looting right and left. A revival 
of silver mining in Mexico would help greatly to ex- 
tricate that country from its difficulties. 

MEETINGS of scientific societies have been discour- 
aged by the leaders of a number of these organiza- 
tions on account of the War. The American Electro- 
chemical Society, however, has vigorously opposed such 
a policy, and we agree that the helpfulness of personal 
contact, the inspiration gained through an exchange of 
thought between the men who are doing the world's work, 



74 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



and the dissemination of practical knowledge that is 
elicited in discussion, should not be sacrificed at a time 
when the country needs more abundantly than ever the 
advantage of these quickening influences that develop 
proficiency and stimulate inventive ability. Under the 
stress of these abnormal times, we are learning the high 
patriotism that resides in work for the common welfare, 
and gatherings of scientific men will assume a new im- 
portance. The banquet and the oratory will be subor- 
dinated to more serious things. Never were conferences 
of technical men more justifiable than at the present 
moment, when exchange of information is urgently 
needed. This is the basis of intelligent co-operative 
effort, and we may add that the spirit of solidarity should 
reach further. The tendency to erect a medieval wall of 
secrecy around many metallurgical and chemical works, 
that has grown more pronounced in recent years, is dis- 
tinctly opposed to progress. The open door to men of 
appreciation and understanding brings its reward 
through enlightening criticism and suggestion. The ex- 
ample set by Dr. James Douglas, who extended a cordial 
welcome to every intelligent visitor at a time when a 
contrary custom almost universally prevailed, is worthy 
of emulation ; his policy of free-trade in technical ideas 
did not hinder the economic development of the Phelps- 
Dodge industries. A similar policy will help all America 
in the winning of this War. 

I* AST week our Leadville correspondent sent a most 
- Li interesting account of the hearing given by the State 
Industrial Commission in Colorado to an argument made 
by representatives of the local union when demanding 
higher wages. The Commission found that the cost of 
living had not risen as much as claimed, that the 
operators do not receive anything like the full benefit of 
the increase in metal-prices, and that the margin of profit 
is so narrow that any considerable increase of cost would 
jeopardize local industry. This reminds us that the 
legislature of Colorado at its last session appointed a 
Smelter and Ore Sales Investigation Committee. This 
committee was ordered to investigate the smelting busi- 
ness and report to the Public Utilities Commission before 
January 1, 1918. The committee of investigation is de- 
scribed by mining engineers in Colorado as "pretty 
good, ' ' which means above the average. The members of 
the committee are all men well informed in mining 
affairs and likely to make an intelligent enquiry. They 
have been authorized to investigate all custom-mills, 
smelters, and sampling- works ; also to ascertain whether 
the customers receive weights, moisture-deductions, sam- 
ples of ore, and assays ; also to find out whether proper 
prices are paid for copper, lead, and zinc. For instance, 
they are expected to be curious concerning the payment 
by the American Smelting & Refining Company of 4| 
cents per pound for lead when the market-price stands at 
10 cents. They have been requested to make recom- 
mendations for correcting any wrongs they may detect, 
and if they do this, it is expected that they will suggest 
the placing of custom-mills and smelters under the Pub- 



lic Utilities Commission of Colorado, after submitting the 
proposal to public vote on a constitutional amendment. 
The investigation is backed by the Metal Miners Asso- 
ciation of the State. We understand that the dominant 
smelting company has already made sundry concessions, 
and we are informed that the most unscrupulous of the 
Denver papers — it is not necessary to specify further — 
has already attempted to blackmail Mr. Simon Guggen- 
heim. The report of the Committee is awaited with keen 
interest. 

TOURING the past week the I. W. W. movement has 
■*-^ gone through a serio-comic phase. It may seem com- 
ical for the outraged citizens of a mining community to 
take the law into their hands, herd a lot of anarchists and 
loafers into an enclosure, and then ship them on a train 
to some distant point, 'passing the buck' to another 
community, preferably a neighboring State. It is a 
serious matter when citizens, in order to assert law and 
order, at a time when the naval and military forces of 
our country are fighting to "make the world safe for 
democracy," feel compelled to stultify government of 
the people by arming themselves and using force to 
eject an undesirable element from their midst. Viewed 
from any standpoint it is deeply regrettable that matters 
should have come to such a pass, and somebody is to 
blame for it. The only good that has resulted is the 
opening of the eyes of the public to the seriousness of 
the crisis and possibly to some realization of the forces 
of misrule set in motion by this organization of men 
unwilling to work and unwilling to let others work. The 
argument based on the high cost of living and the rest 
of it has been exposed as a mere pretense. They want 
the three sixes, namely, $6 wages, six hours of work, six 
days per week, and when they have obtained that they 
will demand $7 wages, five hours work, and a five-day 
week. Even this will not be the limit. No thoughtful 
observer of the conditions obtaining in the mining com- 
munities of the West at the moment can any longer re- 
gard the excuse for strikes as founded on the reasonable 
aspirations of honest labor. Whether financed by Ger- 
man money or stimulated by Enemy propaganda, or not, 
the whole campaign of these I. W. W. agitators is calcu- 
lated to give aid and comfort to the Enemy, and there- 
fore it is treasonable, not to be endured, and calling for 
prompt action by the executive. Much of the trouble, as 
usual, is due to politics. During the week the disturbance 
has spread beyond the immediate vicinity of the mines. 
Even around our own academic environs, at Berkeley, 
we read that "to prevent the threatened I. W. W. in- 
vasion of this county, the sheriff has stationed duputies 
upon all the roads leading from Contra Costa county," 
because "the I. W. Ws. have threatened to burn the 
county's grain supply." Things have come to a pretty 
pass when we are menaced by a Boxer rebellion or a 
Villa raid, as it were, in the heart of an orderly com- 
munity. We are engaged in a great war; it is time to 
put a summary end to these antics and assert the dignity 
of this democracy. 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



The Mexican Menace Again 

Our Mexican correspondent this week mils attention 
in new regulations affecting the producers of oil that 
would be confiscatory, unless we and cur Allies oppose 
the taking of their property by administrative process. 
The present situation is UOt by any means new; we have 
been pointing out for months what was coming, and it 
is possible that the Department of State has not been 
idle. Not long ago Senator Frank B. Kellogg, at a bear- 
ing before the Public Lands Committee on sources of oil, 
asked if we might depend upon Mexico for this important 
necessary, and Commander James Richardson responded 
in the way of the man whose business it is to win a fight 
when he has gone into it, "Don't you believe that if it 
depended on getting oil from Mexico we 'd get it, even if 
we had to take Mexico to do it"? It is this sort of 
straightforward talk that has helped to bring clearly to 
the mind of Carranza the expediency of trying to make a 
virtue of necessity. The peculiarity of the Carranza 
mind is that it is essentially subtle, and, just as he has 
done so often in his revolutionary career, he is now re- 
sorting to clever diplomacy and to what might be called 
the strategy of statecraft to wring success out of failure. 
We confess to no little admiration for the astuteness of 
this Mexican fox ; if we cannot comprehend his moves 
and circumvent them we deserve to be beaten at the game, 
and to accept the fate of the geese. 

The operators in the Mexican oilfields fully under- 
stand what they are contending against ; they have per- 
ceived it ever since the new constitution made at Quere- 
taro declared the nationalization of the oil-lands. To 
put oil on the same footing as gold, silver, copper, and 
lead was to recognize the ancient right of the sovereign 
state in mineral resources, and to give to anyone the 
privilege of entering upon land, wherever held, to explore 
for oil, and, when found, to 'denounce' it according to 
the prescriptions of the mining law. In due course a 
leasehold title would issue. The plain intent of the con- 
stitution was to make this retroactive, the civil code to 
the contrary notwithstanding, since this was in line with 
uniformity of procedure in departmental control of oil- 
production, and theoretically it should work no legal 
hardship upon the present holders of oil-land leases; it 
would merely necessitate their repairing to the local 
mining agent to file their applications for so-called min- 
ing titles. Of course, it would mean that enormous sums 
would have to be paid immediately into the Government 
coffers in the form of fees accompanying the denounce- 
ments; Mexican surveyors would be given abundant em- 
ployment in delimiting the claims in accord with the 
mining statute, and later in proving the monumenting of 
these areas. Even in normal times this always has been 
a heavy expense, and one can imagine what it would 
entail in times such as those brought about in Mexico 
through the turmoil of revolution, with the starvation 
produced through cessation of industrial activity, ending 
in the supremacy of a clique that knows it cannot last 
long and must fatten while it has the chance. Moreover, 



the new system subjects Ho- oil claims to taxation mule]' 
mining laws thai have been seriously unpaired by decrees 
issued by the First Chief before be made himself presi 
dent. These not only have increased the taxes but have 
made them cumulative proportionately with an increase 
in area. It would be well for anyone having business in 
Mexico, whether in oil or in other enterprises, to acquaint 
himself with these dictatorial decrees. They may be had 
in Spanish and English in bound form, indexed with 
reference to the subjects treated. In no other way is it 
possible to ascertain what Mexican law is at the present 
moment. The decrees will show at least the situation at 
the time this publication was issued; by acts of the 
Mexican Congress the Department of Hacienda is em- 
powered with extraordinary functions, which are legis- 
lative as well as administrative, so that decrees are still 
coming forward and the status of any industry may be 
seriously altered over-night. 

The foregoing is an example of the utter disregard of 
titles to real property that exists in Mexico ; the whole 
foundation of industry is unsettled by it. In the case of 
the owners of oil property, it is clear that there would 
be many a slip in the routine of putting their applica- 
tions for leaseholds through to what the Mexican calls a 
titulo; something is sure to go wrong in the process of 
tramitacion, that is, in the wearisome bureaucratic red- 
tape leading at last to the signature, alongside the seal 
and blue ribbon, by the departmental head. In the dis- 
covery of technical error in legal proceedings the Mexi- 
can is a past-master. The door is thereby opened for 
infinite graft, for burdensome fines, and for wholesale 
confiscations accomplished through officially declaring 
applications invalid. It is hardly to be supposed that 
the original applicant would have time to correct his 
denouncement to the satisfaction of the highly discrim- 
inating officer before an application by favored competi- 
tors, under effective protection of scheming bureaucrats, 
would be filed with the mining agent. In our comments 
upon the new constitution prepared by Carranza we 
showed months ago what the effect would be upon the 
oil industry. The nationalization of the oil-lands was 
arranged in order to carry out the game that is now 
being played openly. The interference with mining 
companies, as detailed in our editorial pages last week, 
was merely a part of the same programme, intended to 
bring Mexican affairs prominently before the people of 
this country so as to increase our anxiety in preparation 
of the public for the next move. What this is now ap- 
pears through the fact that Carranza, who has long been 
hinting at financial assistance from American bank- 
ers, has recently secured from his congress authorization 
for bond issues amounting to P=300,000,000. With this 
authorization he is ready to offer exemptions from inter- 
ference with mining and oil companies, and to assume 
the role of a defender of foreign interests in his country. 
Dispatches from Washington since the arrival there of 
Mr. Henry P. Fletcher show that our diplomatic repre- 
sentative has not been asleep. Mr. Fletcher has sounded 
a warning against the intentions of the Carranza govern- 



76 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



merit, definitely affirming that its purpose is the con- 
fiscation of the oil-lands. If we concede the demand 
for a loan we shall be obliged to pay the bills for running 
the Mexican government as a private monopoly of Car- 
ranza and his followers throughout the War. We may 
be forced to undertake the operation of the Mexican re- 
public on the side, but, if we do, it will not be in the way 
that Carranza has conceived. We shall run it as a real 
democracy for the welfare of the Mexican people, not for 
a clique of grafters. 

The Physics of Flotation 

During the recent trial at Butte, Mr. Wilder D. Ban- 
croft was asked, "Is that a book to which you would 
refer as an authority ? " "Oh, dear no, " he retorted ; " I 
would not refer to any book as authority." It is not 
clear whether Dr. Bancroft assumed, quite properly, that 
he was better informed on the matter than any book 
extant or whether he meant that no book on a subject so 
obscure could be authoritative. We have read the evi- 
dence given by him and his talented colleagues in the 
latest litigation over flotation patents, and we acknowl- 
edge the value of their contribution to current knowl- 
edge; and yet it must be confessed that the physics of 
flotation still lacks scientific elucidation. We are nearer 
the truth, undoubtedly, for several truths have been 
elucidated by experiment and induction, but we have not 
arrived at a coherent hypothesis. By 'we', of course, we 
mean the whole body of earnest enquirers. Some fal- 
lacies have been exposed. That is so much to the good. 
The 'critical point' has been thrown into the limbo of 
false assumptions ; the electro-static theory has slunk into 
the dark ; the adhesion of air to metallic surfaces has been 
retired into the background ; but who can tell us what is 
'oil', that is, what is the characteristic of the oil that 
causes it to function favorably in flotation ? The answer 
is coming, for metallurgic froth is being made by sub- 
stances that are not 'oil'. Who can define 'metallic' 
lustre, not in the terms of mineralogy, but in the lan- 
guage of the froth-maker? What is the molecular ar- 
•rangement in a surface capable of absorbing oil or in 
the substance that functions as oil ? What is ' emulsifica- 
tion'? We confess to being among those that only put 
faith in scientific men that can define in simple terms ; 
we do not believe that an archdeacon is defined when he 
is said to be a man that performs archidiaconal func- 
tions. That leaves us as we were — or slightly worse. 
One good sign, however, we detect, and that is the grow- 
ing interest of engineers and metallurgists in the physics 
of flotation. Some there are that assume a supercilious 
attitude toward simple experiments and a top-lofty pose 
toward pure science in general, "but they are unimport- 
ant. Mining departments still undertake to teach flota- 
tion without the aid of the department of physics, and 
metallurgists are half-ashamed to ask elementary ques- 
tions at the door of the professor of physics, but even 
some of this shamefacedness is becoming changed by the 
spirit of co-operation, without which no man can accom- 



plish anything worth while in this world. Much remains 
to be done. We urge teachers in mining-schools not to 
waste time in trying to study flotation without the guid- 
ance of those % versed in modern physics. More particu- 
larly we advise those interested in the technique of the 
process to make the simple experiments that illustrate 
fundamental principles. If two or more men will make 
an experiment, and then discuss it, they will find how 
often they fail to see similarly, and how different may be 
the ideas suggested by their observations. From such 
experiments may come a clarifying discussion and the 
stimulation of scientific curiosity. In a branch of metal- 
lurgy in which theory is so hazy it is of the utmost im- 
portance to lay firm hands on a few facts, and that can 
be done best by making experiments. Consider, for ex- 
ample, how long Messrs. Sulman, Picard, and Nutter 
were able to bluff the profession with their statement 
that there resided a mysterious quality in a given ratio 
of oil and, what is more absurd, in a ratio that was pro- 
portioned to the 'ore', whereas the essence of the process 
was the differentiation of the constituents of the ore, the 
separating effect upon the mineral and the gangue. For 
12 years this unscientific assertion remained unmasked; 
it was not until the early months of this year, after the 
Supreme Court had been misled into endorsing the 
absurd dictum, that several plants were operated under 
conditions that finally smothered the 'critical point' in 
oil, and ridicule. Remember how we were told that a 
certain patent, or the method supposed to be described 
in that patent, produced a thick, coherent, and persistent 
froth, so sustaining that a shovel could rest upon it, 
whereas other froths were so thin, flimsy, and evanescent 
that a match-stick would sink in them. We were told, by 
the Minerals Separation people, that their miraculous 
kind of froth was the only one that would float mineral 
successfully and that it could only be made by aid of a 
special kind of particularly violent agitation. Many be- 
lieved it because few tested the assertion by experiment. 
Look at the fable of the greased needle. It was one of 
the amusing contradictions at which our childish imagina- 
tions boggled. The experiment was held to typify the 
flotation of mineral by aid of oil, until somebody showed 
that the ungreased needle likewise floated. It only re- 
mained for some iconoclast to prove that the making of a 
soap-bubble by a boy was due, not to the lowering of the 
surface-tension of the water, but to viscosity caused by 
the insoluble matter of the soap, or by something equally 
alien to drawing-room philosophy! Indeed, something 
of the kind did happen. Among the papers read at the 
Arizona meeting of the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, a meeting that was in effect a symposium in 
flotation, there was one by Messrs. A. F. Taggart and F. 
B. Beach, called 'An Explanation of the Flotation Proc- 
ess'. This paper was writen by two professors in Yale 
University, it discussed the principles of flotation, and it 
stated, among other things, that "water displaces air 
more readily on an oiled solid surface than on a clean 
surface of the same solid." The subversive statement 
was fortified by the description of an experiment with an 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



77 



aluminum riny. which sank when oiled, but floated when 
unoiled. This, of course, was rank heresy. Given forth 
at that meeting of enthusiastic votaries of the new proc- 
ess of flotation, it was like rushing into a tea-party and 
shouting that muffins predisposed one to measles. Never- 
theless, the thoughtful statement of two undoubtedly 
clever scientific men was allowed to pass without com- 
ment or criticism. Tu vain do we search in the record of 
the discussion at Globe for any reference to this paper. 
It could not he for lack of respect for the authors of it 
nor for want of interest in their opinions. We venture 
to say that the failure to refute what seemed an error 
was due to the insecure foundation on which the theory 
of flotation rested and the unwillingness of mill-men 
and metallurgists to venture a rebuttal. The failure to 
confirm or to disprove so momentous an assertion as 
this— that a metallic surface is more readily wetted when 
oiled and that presumably a metallic mineral is less float- 
able when oiled than when unoiled — is a reflection upon 
the Institute. It illustrates how easy it is to fill bulletins 
and volumes with reading-matter, and how difficult it is 
to obtain real criticism, without which we only swamp 
ourselves with a undigested mass of material — as if a 
haystack fell upon us. We have made experiments to 
test the extremely interesting statement of Messrs. Tag- 
gart and Beach, and we think these gentlemen wrong, if 
we interpret them correctly, but the point is that every 
student of the subject that has read their paper should 
be able by this time to express his own opinion upon their 
statement regarding the effect of oil. If we do not know 
what that effect is, we are astray on one of the ele- 
mentary, although possibly not fundamental, explana- 
tions of flotation. So we say that the understanding of 
the process, and the further understanding of the physics 
of it, must depend upon intelligent experimentation and 
the scientific discussion that will ensue, and, above all, 
frank criticism. 



Misfires 



The proper manner of loading a hole for blasting 
would seem to be a simple matter, but the numerous arti- 
cles and letters that have been published in the Mining 
and Scientific Press during the last six months indicate 
a wide variety of opinion. The object universally sought 
is efficiency with safety, and that is attainable through 
practice conforming to the lessons of experience. It is 
important to note that valuable experience in blasting 
comes not alone from the daily work of the miner, but is 
derived equally from the elaborate tests made by manu- 
facturers of explosive materials. The sum of all these 
observations, critically examined and sifted by trained 
technologists, has resulted in the development of a 
body of rules that may be accepted as authorita- 
tive. The wrong way of using explosives is more 
general than the right way, and faulty custom is 
difficult to correct because of prejudices held by 
the miners. Accustomed as so many of them are to 
wrong methods of charging holes, they resent attempts 



by their foremen to shake them from familiar habit. 

The manager of a mine, however, is entrusted with 
responsibility for securing .-in < omic result, fie can- 
not concede free rein to his workmen in using or mis- 
using materials according to their whim. A misfire 
represents not only a waste of explosive, but loss of time 
on the part of employees in searching for the unex- 
ploded charge or in digging it out; the cost of drilling 
the missed bob 1 has been thrown away; and the ground 
broken per pound of powder on that shift is less. Thai 
is not the whole of the indictment. The majority of mis- 
fires are the result of methods in themselves opposed to 
the most economical use of explosives. Errors culminat- 
ing in a misfire involve a loss in efficiency distributed 
through the entire round of shots. Under the best man- 
agement scrupulous attention is given to the proper use 
of explosives, and the tonnage of ore and waste-rock 
broken per pound of powder and per foot of fuse are 
subjects of daily record. 

Mr. E. F. Brooks rightly insisted on the use of high- 
force caps. He recommends 5X and 6X. His method of 
inserting the cap into the primer is similar to one sug- 
gested hy the Bureau of Mines, punching a diagonal hole 
with a stick near the end of the cartridge ; but he ad- 
vises loading another stick of powder on top of the 
primer. Mr. W. S. Weeks criticizes this practice, as does 
Mr. Edward Higgins, adhering to another recommenda- 
tion by the Bureau of Mines, with which apparently all 
powder manufacturers are in agreement, that is, to place 
the cap centrally in the end of the last stick in the hole, 
tying the paper of the cartridge-end around the fuse. 
As expressed hy Mr. Weeks, the cap should point in the 
direction in which the wave of detonation is to be propa- 
gated. That accords with the principles governing the 
detonation of high explosives, as demonstrated experi- 
mentally by Bertholet. The explosion of a charge of 
dynamite or blasting gelatine, though it may seem to be 
instantaneous, is not so in reality. A measurable time- 
interval elapses in the transmission of the wave from its 
initial point to the end of the charge ; moreover, the 
wave progresses in the direction of the initial impulse ; 
it does not expand uniformly in all directions from the 
place of origin. Unlike the spherical waves of compres- 
sion generated by an earthquake shock, it is rectilinear 
in its motion. The fulminate is exploded by the fire spit- 
ting from the end of the fuse, that is, by an incandescent 
spark. The heat dissociates that part of the fulminate 
with which the fire comes into contact, generating still 
more intense heat by the highly exothermic reaction; 
the explosion proceeds through the train of sensitive 
molecules with increasing velocity to the bottom of the 
charge, from which a blow of enormous intensity is de- 
livered in the direction of propagation. This is easily 
demonstrated by the familiar experiment of placing a 
cap, with fuse attached, in a hole bored through a block 
of one-inch plank, set upon a sheet of mild steel. On ex- 
ploding, the cap will punch a hole through the steel with- 
out doing serious injury to the wooden block. 

The velocity of the initial impulse determines the 



78 



MINING and Scienti6c PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



velocity of the detonating wave transmitted through the 
charge of powder. The heat generated, and the ex- 
pansive effort of the confined gases that develop the ex- 
plosive energy, merely react upon any part of the powder 
lying out of the path of progression of the detonating 
wave. The result is an explosion of a lower order for 
that residual portion of the charge. The degree of ex- 
plosion depends on the velocity of the wave, and the 
velocity of the wave that causes detonation of the ex- 
plosive lying in the path of propagation is not trans- 
mitted to the powder behind the cap. The expansive 
effort, on which the explosive effect depends, is directly 
due to the velocity of the chemical reaction, and any 
portion of a charge that explodes with less rapidity than 
the rest fails to deliver its full quota of potential energy 
in the form of useful work. It is apparent, therefore, 
that the proper place for the cap is at the end of the last 
stick of powder, otherwise called the primer. It is also 
certain that to place it elsewhere is to waste the powder. 
Our correspondents display a variety of opinion re- 
garding the likelihood of 'side-spitting' from fuse when 
bent. The fact that it does not happen in the majority 
of cases when fuse is subjected to severe handling merely 
argues for the excellence of its manufacture. If all 
articles in common use were as honestly made as ex- 
plosive materials the world might draw moral inspira- 
tion from commerce. Although "the function of an ex- 
plosive is to explode," as was laconically stated by Lieut. 
Walker of the United States Navy, the extreme care 
taken by the manufacturers to afford an ample margin 
of safety against the vicissitudes of handling such deli- 
cately balanced agents of destruction, permits rougher 
usage than intelligent caution might commend. Mr. 
Higgins points out that the practice of inserting the cap 
in the wrong end of the cartridge, and doubling back the 
fuse, is the fertile cause of misfires, and misfires are re- 
sponsible for one-fourth of the fatalities overtaking 
those engaged in mining within the State of California, 
which State does not stand alone in this respect. Fuse 
not infrequently does spit fire through the walls ; seldom 
will a coil cut into 3-ft. lengths, and tested, fail to yield 
one example of this defect. That should be sufficient 
warrant for taking pains to avoid any chance of acci- 
dent arising from this source. The advice of manu- 
facturers is so to load a hole that the fuse may not come 
into contact with the powder. The fuse should be dry, 
as our correspondents insist; it should be cut with a 
sharp clean knife, never with the scissors-type of cutter 
often combined with a crimper, because the fuse becomes 
pinched, shutting off the powder-train and causing a 
side-spit near the end that may fail to explode the cap ; 
the cut should be square across the fuse; the cap should 
be placed upon the fuse, preferably holding the latter 
upward and drawing the inverted cap down upon it. 
Just as the housewife will explain the difference in 
efficiency between threading a needle and 'needling' the 
thread, so is there a difference, tending to security and 
efficiency, between 'fusing' a cap, and 'capping' a fuse. 
The double crimp is preferable ; it insures holding the 



fuse in firm contact with the fulminate in the cap. The 
man who bites the cap upon the fuse deserves to lose his 
lower jaw, as he frequently does. 

We venture to say that any mine breaking as much as 
100 tons per them of ore and rock will find it economical 
to employ a man to make primers, and distribute all ex- 
plosives to the miners. In no other way can the proper 
making and use of primers be insured. The 'powder 
monkey.' as this employee is generally called, can be 
trained to observe all the proprieties in making reliable 
primers, and in tracing the inefficient use of blasting 
materials if he be given responsibilty as powder-fore- 
man. It then becomes possible also to make primers of 
powder containing a larger proportion of nitro-glycerine, 
which insures a higher order of detonation, developing 
increased useful effort in the lower-grade powder used in 
regular blasting. Primers of 60% dynamite, three inches 
long, with 6X caps, will be found to effect a saving in 
powder per unit of rock broken. The wooden borer with 
a shoulder to limit the depth of hole for the cap, not 
only protects against premature ignition of the charge by 
side-spitting from the fuse, but it prevents an air-space 
being left beneath the cap. Insignificant as it may ap- 
pear, the tiny air-cell left under a cap when a pointed 
object is used to make the hole reduces the initial force 
of the explosion by reason of the compression of that air 
before it can transmit the detonating wave. It reduces 
the velocity and the order of detonation, which means 
loss of power, waste of powder, less ore produced per 
pound of dynamite. 

Tamping opens another interesting question, where 
room for argument may exist. The suddenness of deto- 
nation of a high explosive develops almost instantan- 
eously an enormous expansive effort. On account of its 
suddenness the maximum resistance of the air due to its 
inertia is supposed to be realized. With unabsorbed 
nitro-glycerine this result is approximately obtained, 
especially when the superficial area of the explosive ex- 
posed to the air is considerable. The case is different 
with practical blasting-powders ; their velocity of deto- 
nation is highly modified by the absorbent. Moreover 
the projection of a slender column of air into the sur- 
rounding atmosphere introduces new physical condi- 
tions ; the power required to impel a jet is different from 
that required to overcome the inertia of the air sur- 
rounding a 'sand-blast' in bulldozing. Plastic tamping 
is first compressed and tightened in the hole ; then the 
friction developed between the tamping and the wall, 
under the enormous suddenly applied pressure due to 
the detonation, makes the stemming almost as resistant as 
the solid rock. 

The proper application of explosives deserves consid- 
eration by all thoughtful engineers. It is a fruitful sub- 
ject for discussion, having to do with the protection of 
human life against carelessness and ignorance as well as 
touching, at so many points, the commercial result of the 
complex operations of mining that finally are centred 
upon the relation between the cost of the ore broken and 
the price obtained for it. 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PR KISS 



79 




THE Ul'TTE i Sl'l'EBIOB MINE AND MILL 



Butte Re-Visited 



By ROBERT E. BRINSMADE 






When I landed in Butte recently, there had elapsed 
just 16 years since my last sight of the city. The train 
that brought me, the Columbian express of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul system, with its steel cars and its 
electric locomotives, was an indication of the engineering 
progress that the interval had produced, a record of 
achievement in transportation that the mining industry 
of the locality might find difficulty in matching. 

In the business district around Main street and Broad- 
way, skyscrapers have arisen to keep company with the 
solitar}' Hennessy block of former days. The luxurious 
post-office, the regal county courthouse, occupying nearly 
a whole square, the Silverbow Club with its tasteful 
facade, as well as new hotels and apartment-houses, indi- 
cate that builders have become hopeful of the future of 
Butte and are staking their fortunes with the belief that 
its stability as a centre of population is assured, whatever 
may be the ultimate fate of its mineral resources. In- 
deed, the change from the Helena to the Butte branch 
railway for the passage of the main-line traffic of the 
Northern Pacific system, and its selection, in spite of the 
difficult topography, as the route of the new Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul extension to the coast, demonstrate 
that the city has finally shed the swaddling clothes of a 
transient mining settlement. 

On entering Butte from the south-west, no vestiges are 
visible of the old Colorado smelting works, while the ad- 
joining plant, the Butte Reduction Works, remains only 
as a cold and lifeless reminder of its erstwhile productiv- 
ity. Farther south, the Flat, formerly so bare and for- 
saken, is becoming populous as a residence section, and 
the same may be said of Silverbow valley on the east, 



where, in place of the three smelters, the Montana Ore 
Purchasing, the Butte & Boston, and that famous belcher 
of pungent sulphur-smoke, the Parrot, there functions 
only the infant plant of the East Butte company. Not 
only have the buildings and machinery of the famous 
old smelters been removed, but what still remains of their 
tailing and slag-piles is being shipped away so rapidly 
for re-treatment during the present bonanza era that any 
future delvers in the 'ruins of ancient Butte' will find 
few clues to the activities of former inhabitants. 

The Anaconda and St. Lawrence mines, as well as 
adjoining shafts of the 'richest hill in the world', cover- 
ing the Anaconda lode-system, seem to have changed 
little in superficial appearance. The existing steel head- 
frames had all been erected in 1900, and many of the 
adjoining long lines of iron boiler-stacks are still stand- 
ing. Though the mines have drawn electric current from 
Great Falls and other Montana water-powers, the old 
boilers, when hardly worth moving elsewhere, form a 
valuable reserve in case of line-troubles. To the north, 
at the High Ore shaft, have been erected the great build- 
ings that house the mighty electric compressors, which 
supply air to the re-constructed steam-hoists of the deep 
shafts of the Anaconda company. On Syndicate hill, 
farther west, the old land-marks, the Bell, the Diamond, 
the Green Mountain, the Mountain Con., and the Coulin 
mines, are still active, and have been supplemented by 
the great new Beaver State mine. This last is a visible 
evidence of the extension of the copper zone, which for- 
merly was thought to be as contracted as the throat of a 
sperm-whale. It has now been followed to the North 
Butte, the Butte-Ballaklava, the Tuolumne, the Tropic 



80 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21. 1917 



and the East Butte on the north and east, and to the 
Butte-Duluth, the Bullwhacker, and the Davis-Daly on 
the south. In 1900 the Silver Bow No. 3 vein was be- 
lieved to be the southern, and the Continental fault the 
eastern boundary, of the copper-zone, even though Heinze 
had already begun to work east of Columbia Garden in 
what later became the productive Receiver mine. Thus 
the work of the past decade has demonstrated the fallacy 
of such a belief. Boring through the sediments of the 
Flat into bedrock has demonstrated the presence of cop- 
per veins far to the south, and such productive mines as 
the Bullwhacker and the" Butte-Duluth have proved the 
presence of abundant copper to the east of the Conti- 
nental fault. These discoveries caused a boom in the 
corresponding mineral rights, so that owners of town 
lots around the Race Track on the Flat found themselves 
in clover, and the claim-owners near Columbia Garden 
unloaded their undeveloped holdings upon the North 
Butte company for over a million dollars. 

Even as late as 1906, the Butte report of the U. S. 
Geological Survey affirmed the non-existence of commer- 
cial oxidized copper ore in Butte, and the dictum was 
then well founded, for the outcrops of the marvelous 
veins of Anaconda hill, with their hungry iron-stained 
quartz, show less signs of the red metal than a German 
kitchen in war-time, and even the copper-stained Syndi- 
cate outcrops farther north have scarcely any ore of value 
till the sulphide-zone is reached. Yet the opening of the 
great granite stockworks of 5% oxidized copper ore in 
the Bullwhacker and Butte-Duluth have discredited the 
former dogma and have brought to light the belt of 
oxidized ore that lies east of the Continental fault, and 
extends south from Park canyon for more than a mile. 
The oxidized veins are sub-vertical and mainly contain 
ehrysocolla and malachite, both in the veins proper and 
in the disseminations of their granite walls. They have 
been mined open-cast, by Lake Superior methods, and 
treated by leaching with sulphuric acid in the Butte- 
Duluth mill of Captain Wolvin, at the rate of 500 tons 
daily. Their oxidized filling extends to water-level, 
which is at 300 ft. in the Butte-Duluth, and then merges 
into the typical Butte copper sulphides : in fact, these 
distant veins have the easterly strike of the great veins 
of Anaconda hill. It appears plausible to believe that 
the oxidized-copper zone depends on the Continental 
fault, which, being 200 to 1000 ft. wide, and with a ver- 
tical throw of 1500 ft., has generated quite different 
conditions for surficial leaching between its opposite 
sides. 

The saying that 'Fools rush in where angels fear to 
tread' has perhaps never had a more unexpected and 
happier outcome than in the recent history of Butte ; the 
two 'fools' in this case being Ralph Baggaley and Cap- 
tain Wolvin. The first, a Pittsburg steel-man, and con- 
sequently a novice in copper, was so ignorant as to insist 
that copper matte could be blown in basic-lined concert- 
crs. Backing his belief with his large fortune, he con- 
ducted costly eperiments, and finally had the satisfaction 
of accomplishing the impossible and of proving himself 



less a fool than his critics. Captain Wolvin had gained 
title and fortune as a ship-owner at Duluth ; so, a decade 
ago, when he entered the race for mining honors at Butte, 
he was booked by the wise-acres far down on the list of 
'rank outsiders* ; but the Captain, undaunted by scoffers, 
took hold of the old Black Rock silver mine, organized 
the Butte & Superior Copper Co., and proceeded to sink 
for another copper bonanza. Though a fool's luck did 
not give Wolvin a copper mine, it soon handed him a 
body of zinc that has out-classed in value half the copper 
bonanzas of the world. After the completion of a concen- 
tration mill and the flooding of the Kansas smelters with 
its output, he found himself able to sell his interest for a 
million profit, and he then embarked as boldly, but with 
less financial success, in the opening of the Butte-Duluth 
mine. The new owners of the Butte & Superior omitted 
last April the word 'copper' from their company's name ; 
evidently they were too profitably united to Dame Zinc 
to desire further flirtations with Mistress Copper. Yet 
Captain Wolvin was not 'going it blind' at the Black 
Rock. The astute Heinze had, as early as 1902, found 
rich zinc ore beneath the silver-manganese ore of the old 
Lexington mine, and this discovery established the prob- 
able existence of zinc at depth in all the silver mines of 
the Rainbow lode-system extending eastward from the 
Amy and Alice mines to the Continental fault. The huge 
chimney of zinc ore, 300 ft. wide, that is now supplying 
the 2000-ton mill at the Black Rock mine seems to have 
been formed by the step-faulting of a very wide vein, and 
is thus not essential^ different in structure from the 
step-fault chimneys of the Anaconda lode-system, as seen 
in the West Colusa or Minnie Healy mines. 

The Black Rock zinc ore is a mixture of sphalerite, 
galena, pyrite, and quartz. As sent to the mill, it assays 
about 16% zinc, 2% lead, and 12 oz. silver, and produces 
25% of its weight as a concentrate with 56% zinc, besides 
yielding a little high-grade galena. Since the adaptation 
to this ore of the Hyde flotation process, and the conse- 
quent saving of over 90% of the zinc, the Butte zinc-belt 
has attracted more attention than the copper, because 
less explored and therefore of more romantic possibili- 
ties. When former Senator Clark, with his usual luck, 
found himself owning the western extension of the Black 
Rock vein, in his Elm Orlu ground, he proceeded to ex- 
plore his bonanza, and later built the Timber Butte 500- 
ton flotation-mill that is now in operation on the first 
hill-slope south of the Flat. 

The greatest ultimate beneficiary of the pioneer work 
of Heinze and Wolvin may prove to be the Anaconda 
Copper Mining Co., which seems destined to be as impor- 
tant in the world of zinc as it has been for three decades 
in that of copper. Not only has Anaconda long con- 
trolled such famous mines of the Rainbow lode-system as 
the Alice and the Lexington, but it has lately acquired 
the Nettie silver mine, west of the Big Butte intrusion of 
rhyolite, and the Emma, south-west of town. In all of 
these Anaconda has developed zinc orebodies, and soon 
this company's new electrolytic zinc works at Great Falls, 
producing 100 tons of spelter daily, will depend on their 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



81 



output of ore: in fact, Butte bids fair to possess enough 
natural resources to make her for an indefinite time a 
rival, as a sine-producer, of the famous Broken Hill lode 
in Australia. 

Though development has shown that the Bilver veins 
change in depth to sine, the hypothesis thai the zinc ore 



and their middle zinc /one. 'Phis corrosion would resull 

in their existing apices still persisting in th pper z s. 

If such be the fact, a prolonged span of life for Butte as 
the world's leading copper district is well assured, 

Underground, Butte adhered si mi I lastly to square-set 
stoping until 1916. .The original excuses for adopting 




AT THE COLLAR OF THE SHAFT 



changes in turn to copper is not yet fully demonstrated. 
The fact noted by Sales* that the great copper veins of 
Anaconda hill contain less copper and more zinc as one 
recedes from the central copper belt does not nullify this 
hypothesis. The Gagnon, the Beaver State, and the Spec- 
ulator furnish good examples of zinc changing to copper 
in depth, and there are said to be similar indications in 
some of the new zinc mines. It may be that the copper 
belt merely comprises those veins that have been the most 
corroded and that have thus lost their upper silver zone 
•Trans. A. I. M. E., Vol. XLVI, p. 3. 



this expensive practice were the cheap timber of western 
Montana and the ready adaptation of this system to the 
huge soft irregular orebodies with their resemblance to 
those of the Comstock lode, whence came many of the 
early Butte miners. Timber is now growing scarcer, and 
even the general introduction of the old Gagnon scheme 
of using round, instead of square, timbers for the sets, 
has given little relief, in view of the doubled output of 
ore ; but, owing to the presence of many valuable surface- 
structures, any timberless system of mining that involves 
caving the surface is not permissible. At present the 



82 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



Anaconda company is employing a sort of 'rill system' 
in some of the veins that are not over three sets wide, 
such as the Beaver State. Levels are spaced 200 ft. apart 
and then connected by three-compartment raises, 50 to 
100 ft. apart, timbered with square sets. The central 
compartment of each raise is a man-way, one side-com- 
partment being used for sending out broken ore and the 
other for admitting waste intended for filling. Stoping 
s f arts at the first floor of a waste-compartment by slicing 
the back on an incline of 30° along the vein, that being 
about the angle of repose for broken rock. The back is 
drilled by Rand-stopers, and the ore is broken down and 
dropped through the plank-lagging into cars on the drift 
below. The excavated space is then filled with waste 
dropped down the raise from the level above, and is then 
covered with plank, spread on its angle of repose, and 
with enough space between plank and back to permit the 
miners to drill the vein for another slice. After drop- 
ping the ore of the second slice into the cars below, an- 
other fill of waste is run in above the uncovered waste, 
and the planks are then put back as a cover to separate 
the waste from the broken ore of the third slice. "When, 
after two or three slices, the waste-floor extends as far as 
the next raise, the broken ore can henceforth be run into 
the ore-compartment, and dropping it direct into the 
•drift can cease. The slicing process may then proceed 
upward, ejecting the broken ore from the chute at one 
•end of the 50-ft. stope, and drawing down the waste for 
filling from the other end, until the level 200-ft. above is 
reached. By this system sorting can be done within the 
•stope, leaving the reject there as filling. The back, of 
course, must be kept well arched and carefully scaled 
down after each blast before starting to drill. 

The earlier custom of drilling either by piston-drill or 
T)y hand is now obsolete. The old 265-lb., or even heavier, 
piston-drill has been replaced by the 165-lb. water-Leyner 
for driving horizontally or sinking. For cutting out 
square-set stopes with piston-drills, breast-stoping was 
most convenient; but now that Rand-stopers with solid 
bits are used, back-stoping must be employed. For 
breaking dry holes the cheaper ammonia-powder has been 
found to be as good as the nitro-glycerine type, and at 
the Leonard mine about half of each kind is consumed, 
the average service being 1.8 tons of broken rock per 
pound of explosive. For a daily output of 1400 to 1500 
tons of ore and 300 tons of waste two shifts of one fore- 
man, two assistant-formen, 26 shift-boses, and 568 miners 
and shovelers are employed, with a complement of 45 
mechanical and other surface-men, or a total of about 700 
men in the 24 hours. This gives an average output of 
over two tons per man. 

In 1900 mules were used underground by the Boston 
& Montana company, and compi^ssed-air locomotives by 
the Anaconda. Since the use of the hydro-electric cur- 
rent, the electric motor has become the favorite tractor ,- 
not having to deal with explosive gases as in coal mines 
it is possible to use a 440-volt pressure. When self- 
dumping skips were first introduced in 1898, they were 
^filled by dumping the ears directly into them at each 



level. Now bins are excavated in the floor of each shaft- 
station, and the 4|-ton skips are filled with one run of the 
bin instead of with three dumps of the 1500-lb. cars. 

When hydro-electric power was introduced a decade 
ago, it gradually replaced steam as a prime mover in the 
mines. However, each of the Anaconda's deep shafts was 
then equipped with steam-hoists, and to discard a dozen 
serviceable engines that had cost nearly $50,000 apiece 
meant a huge loss. The dilemma was avoided by continu- 
ing to use the hoists and moving them by air, compressed 
electrically, instead of by steam. This required only a 
special pipe-system to feed air to each hoist from a cen- 
tral compressor-plant, and the replacement of the steam- 
cylinders at the hoists by others that would act as air- 
compressors to force air back into the system whenever 
the load was negative. Each hoist is further equipped 
with a pre-heater for raising the air to 330° F. For all 
machines save the great hoists, such as drills, portable 
pumps, and timber-hoists, air is supplied from an indi- 
vidual electric-compressor at each mine. The ownership 
of numerous adjacent mines by the Anaconda company 
will permit a common system of levels to he established 
in all the new lower workings of a group. This will mean 
easier ventilation ; also cheaper transport and drainage. 
Soon the water from all the mines of the Boston & Mon- 
tana group will flow to the Leonard and be handled at its 
1400 and 2800-ft. levels. At the higher level there are 
now installed five vertical electric pumps, each with five 
single-acting plungers and a capacity of 600 gal. per min. 
against a 1400-ft. head. The lead-lined wrought-iron 
water-pipes, formerly used in the Anaconda shaft to 
resist the acid water, are superseded in the later installa- 
tions by the same pipes lined with creosoted wood. The 
pump-pistons and adjacent parts are still made of bronze, 
but a successful experiment was made last year in sub- 
stituting porcelain for bronze in acid-water pumps. 

In 1900 Butte was still in the throes of the consolida- 
tion of companies and of the famous lawsuits between 
Heinze and the Amalgamated company. The latter had 
been born in 1899 and within 18 months it had absorbed 
the Anaconda, the Washoe, the Boston & Montana, the 
Butte & Boston, the Colorado, and the Parrot companies. 
The lawsuits had been begun against Heinze in 1898 for 
alleged ore-stealing by the Boston & Montana company, 
and were a part of the 'assets' inherited by the Amal- 
gamated when it bought out the latter company. Heinze 
had retaliated by 'carrying the war into Africa' and 
locating every fraction of unclaimed ground he could 
find within the central copper zone. He then brought 
suit against the Amalgamated for the ore removed from 
the veins, of which his new fractions were the 'apex'. 
Such are the vagaries of the famous apex law that 
Heinze 's lawsuits, with their rich pickings for lawyers 
and experts, might have continued to this day had he 
not grown tired of the fight and sold his copper holdings 
to his opponent for a big sum. He then went to New 
York to beard the Standard Oil in its den. This last 
adventure was more rash than wise, and Heinze 's brief 
plunge into Wall Street nearly wrecked him financially 



July 81, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 







GRANITE MOUNTAIN SHAFT. WHEKE 171 MINERS PERISHED RECENTLY 




MAIN STREET, BUTTE, LOOKING NORTH 



84 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



during the panic of 1907, seven years before his death. 

With the absorption, a few years later, of the Original, 
the Colusa Parrot, and the smaller copper mines of W. 
A. Clark, the Amalgamated had achieved the ownership 
of practically all the copper companies that were inde- 
pendent in 1898. Nevertheless the district is still far 
from being consolidated in the hands of a trust, since 
many new companies hold ground in the newly developed 
extensions of the old copper zone. Among these are the 
Davis-Daly, the Bast Butte, the North Butte, the Butte 
Ballaklava, the Tuolumne, the Butte & London, the 
Butte Duluth. and the Butte & Baeorn, without men- 
tioning such zinc giants as the Elm Orlu and the Butte 
& Superior. The absorption by the Amalgamated, now 
the Anaconda, of so many Butte mines has not produced 
the dire results for labor that were freely predicted as 
certain to follow the entrance of Standard Oil capital. 
In 1900 the miners worked 10 hours by day and 9 by 
night, while smelter-men worked 11 hr. by day and 13 
hr. by night. The State 8-hour law was secured by the 
unions as a by-product of their support of the Heinze- 
Clark combination against Marcus Daly in the election 
of 1900. This law is now well observed, and in addition 
much of the former unnecessary Sunday work has been 
abolished. A liberal State workmen's compensation law 
was recently introduced, and has proved a great stimu- 
lus to the safety-first movement in Butte. For rescue- 
work the Anaconda company alone has two stations and 
60 Draeger helmets, while the U. S. Bureau of Mines lias 
given valuable instruction in first-aid to resident miners. 

It is curious to see Butte an open shop where once was 
the impregnable stronghold of unionism. There were 
two reasons for the prolonged prosperity of the Butte 
Miners' Union. The first was the favor of Marcus Daly, 
who used to say, "We may pay better here than any- 
where else, but then we can afford to, and the bonus will 
keep them from getting jealous of us mine-owners who 
got here first and located the bonanza claims." The sec- 
ond was because this union was free from such vicious 
union practices as lead to restricted membership and 
output, and never tried to dictate who should be hired 
or who discharged. Provided all new mine-workers were 
required by the big companies to pay their union dues 
of $1 per month, and the union wages and hours were 
observed, the union kept the peace between man and 
master: but like all political democracies, the labor dem- 
ocracies called unions are apt to fall into the hands of a 
clique. This happened to the Western Federation of 
Miners, with which the Butte union was always affiliated. 
The Western Federation clique, justly or unjustly, in- 
curred the enmity of a large number of Butte miners, 
and the ill feeling culminated on Labor Day in 1913, 
when the two factions came to hjows, and during the 
battle the local union-hall was blown up by dynamite. 
Later the State militia had to be called to suppress the 
disorder, which had undoubtedly been augmented by 
members of the I. W. W., the American branch of 
syndicalism or revolutionary anarchy. Since that date 
the mine-owner's have refused to make labor-contracts 



with either faction, and the miners have suffered nothing 
from the change in wages or hours. In fact, the sliding 
scale of payment, which grants a minimum daily wage 
to everyone underground of .+3.50 and advances it 25c. 
for every 3e. advance in copper above 15c. per lb., has 
resulted in equalizing the income of the operatives with 
the advancing prices of commodities. 

The cloud of expensive lawsuits that hung over Butte 
for a decade proved to have a silver lining. The studies 
made of the old workings, and the new pits and trenches 
driven for the elucidation of theories advanced by the 
mining 'experts', revealed so much of practical value in 
the finding of orebodies that the geological departments 
of the companies, founded originally for litigation only, 
have since continued in action as an indispensable part 
of their operations. Before 1900 the college graduate 
was viewed with disfavor in Butte ; in fact, to get a job 
with many managers the less said about one's technical 
education the better. The practical Cousin Jack, or 
the 'Paddy-practical,' provided he came from Daly's 
home county, had his pick of jobs in the mines, mills, 
and smelters. The Anaconda was the happy haven for 
the Green Islanders, while the Parrot and the others 
with Cornish foremen favored men from Cymric Eng- 
land ; but today all this is changed, and the technician 
receives the recognition to which his education entitles 
him. The Anaconda Consolidated Co. now employs as 
many in its strictly technical department as did all of 
the parent companies; while in its geologic bureau, it 
has over 18 engineers. Moreover it is the policy of this 
company to introduce into all executive positions, such 
as superintendent, foreman, or shift-boss, as many tech- 
nicians as are found suitable. The Butte copper zone is 
sprinkled so thickly with big rich orebodies that almost 
every graduate from the end of a shovel could give satis- 
faction as a boss in the old days merely by getting out 
plenty of ore, but now 'book-larnin' is having its innings 
and the 'scientific dudes' are recovering from some of 
the 'exhausted' upper levels almost as much ore as was 
ever taken from them in their virgin days. The vast old 
tailing-piles and slag-dumps, the output of muscular 
milling and smelting, are also being largely re-treated 
and they often show a considerably larger metallic con- 
tent than the old assay-reports indicate. It seems to be 
proving true that "Assays don't lie, but liars will sam- 
ple." Besides the above recovery of unmined ore in the 
upper levels, it has been the custom since 1900 to extract, 
during all periods of high-priced copper, the filling of 
low-grade ore in the old stopes. Those dating from the 
'eighties may run as high as 10% copper, and those from 
the 'nineties up to 5%. An old ore-fill is replaced by 
fresh waste, which is dumped from the cars on the level 
above, taking waste from cross-cuts in barren rook, and 
also from old dumps on the surface. Even though it is 
the custom to fill abandoned drifts as well as stopes with 
waste, the whole formation around Anaconda hill seems 
to be moving, and survey-plugs placed in the 'nineties 
are often found many feet away from their correct posi- 
tion in space. 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



85 



Sources of Sulphur in Oils 



By G. SHERBURNE ROGERS 






■There are several possible sources of sulphur, though 
in the < lalifornian fields sulphide waters are probably the 
must important. The surface and shallow ground-waters 
in the California!) fields curry large amounts of sodium, 
calcium, and magnesium sulphate, and outside of the oil- 
fields the deeper waters are also strongly sulphatic in 
character. The waters in and near 1 lie oil-measures, how- 
ever, are almost or quite sulphate-free, aud are usually 
solutions of carbonates and chlorides. Between the sul- 
phate surface-waters and the sulphate-free waters asso- 
ciated with the oil, every gradation may be found; and 
near the horizon at which sulphate begins to decrease 
and carbonate to increase the waters usually contain 
hydrogen sulphide. As sulphate is abundant in the 
shallower waters everywhere along the Californian coast 
ranges, whereas sulphide is found only in the oilfields 
and near the oil and gas, it is reasonable to suppose that 
the sulphide has been formed through the reduction of 
sulphate by the hydrocarbons. The reaction supposed to 
be involved is usually written: 

< 'aS0 4 + CH 4 = CaS + CO, + 2H„0 = CaCO. + 
ILS + H 2 
Although the field evidence in favor of some such reac- 
tion is strong it must be admitted that it has apparently 
never been experimentally proved. In any event the re- 
action as written can be considered only as a condensed 
representation of the type of change that takes place, the 
intermediate stages in the decomposition of the hydro- 
carbons on the one hand and of the sulphate on the other 
being as yet unknown. 

In some regions gypsum may be disseminated through 
the strata near the oil-measures and if taken into solu- 
tion and carried to the oil may be reduced to sulphide. 
This is, of course, essentially the same as the reduction 
of sulphate surface-waters. Gypsum in the anhydrous 
condition, however, is a very stable compound, and even 
with an active reducing agent, such as carbon monoxide, 
a temperature of about 700° C. is required for its reduc- 
tion. Whether the reduction of sulphate by hydro- 
carbons takes place or not, it is certain that many of the 
oilfield waters carry hydrogen sulphide or alkaline sul- 
phide in amounts ranging up to more than 300 parts per 
million. The tendency of alkaline sulphide to become 
free H„S, and the tendency of this gas to oxidize to sul- 
phur, are well known. In this connection the following 
personal communication from Clifford Richardson is of 
interest: "Some years ago I collected in a sealed tube 
200 or 300 cc. of a natural gas in Trinidad which con- 
tained hydrogen sulphide. This was allowed to stand for 

♦Abstract: Trans. A. I. M. E., St. Louis meeting, 1917. 



about ten years withoul observation, bul ;it the end of 
thai lime ii was found thai the sulphur of the H 2 S was 
deposited on the walls of the tube in colorless crystals." 
The oxidation of hydrogen sulphide proceeds even under 

very feebly oxidizing conditions, as on the floor of the 
ocean, and it doubtless takes place even in deeply buried 
strata. In the light of other corroborative evidence, it 
seems probable that considerable amounts of hydrogen 
sulphide are oxidized to sulphur, which is precipitated. 
As the strata directly above the oil-measures have not 
been tested for sulphur, this supposition cannot be 
definitely proved, but it is significant that small deposits 
of disseminated sulphur are not uncommon along the 
western edges of the Coalinga and Midway-Sunset fields. 
Moreover, a commercial deposit of sulphur has been 
found near the southern end of the Sunset field, in the 
same formation that contains the oil-measures in the 
field nearby. An interesting feature of this sulphur, to 
which my attention was first directed by E. A. Starke 
of the Standard Oil Co., is its intimate mixture with 
material containing hydrocarbon, which seems to consti- 
tute 20% or more of the amorphous substance. 

It may be added that the waters associated with the 
oil in many regions are known to be free from sulphate. 
In many fields there are strong chloride waters which 
doubtless represent the sea-water entrapped in the sedi- 
ments when they were laid down, and which therefore 
never contained a large concentration of sulphate; but 
in some fields the low chloride and the high carbonate 
indicate that the waters are in part altered meteoric 
waters from which considerable quantities of sulphate 
have been removed. In some Tertiary and Cretaceous 
fields in which the normal surface-waters are strongly 
sulphate in character the reduction of the sulphate by the 
stages outlined above may afford abundant supplies of 
sulphur to react with the oil. Hence, as meteoric waters 
carry oxygen and also salts that eventually yield sul- 
phur, it is probable that in many regions waters are the 
chief agents in the alteration of the oil. The apparent 
increase in the gravity of oil that has been associated 
with certain types of water is recognized by many prac- 
tical oil men. 

As pyrite is said to react with and to yield sulphur to 
petroleum it is probable that in some localities the action 
of both pyrite and its less stable isomer, marcasite, have 
been important. These minerals have been found in 
many wells in the Californian fields. They probably 
formed in part during the deposition of the sediments, 
through the reducing action of organic matter on iron- 
sulphate solutions; but they may also have originated 
later through the direct action of hydrogen sulphide on 



86 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



chalybeate waters. J. J. Hern, a Californian oil man of 
wide experience, told me that in wells in which large 
quantities of iron sulphide are found the oil below is 
likely to be abnormally warm. If this observation is well 
founded, it may be significant as indicating chemical re- 
action between the sulphide and the oil. In some regions 
sulphur is doubtless derived from still other sources. 
Hyurogen sulphide and sulphur di-oxide are common 
components of volcanic emanations, and the former is 
found in many thermal springs supposed to represent 
the last stages of igneous activity. Much of the Mexican 
oil, which is heavy, asphaltic, and high in sulphur, is 
found near igneous intrusions and may well have been 
affected by the sulphurous gases that doubtless accom- 
panied them. The oil in the salt-domes of the Gulf 
Coast is somewhat similar in character and has evidently 
been altered by sulphur, but the origin of the sulphur in 
this case is related to that of the salt-domes themselves, 
and has never been satisfactorily explained. Again, it 
has long been known that some varieties of bacteria have 
the property of generating hydrogen sulphide through 
the reduction of sulphate solutions. Some of these bac- 
teria are anaerobic, being able to exist in the absence of 
air. and their action has been repeatedly observed in 
ocean water, but whether they can exist and function in 
deeply buried strata is open to question. Finally, there 
are oils, like those of the Appalachian fields, that have 
apparently never been subjected to the actioD of sulphur ; 
and others, like the Trenton limestone oil of Ohio, that 
are generally supposed to owe their sulphur to the char- 
acter of the organic remains from which they were 
formed. If the organic origin of petroleum is accepted 
the old idea that the contained sulphur indicates deriva- 
tion from animal remains is not necessarily valid. It is 
generally recognized, however, that the character of the 
original organic material has a bearing on the composi- 
tion of the oil derived from it. 

Mine Found by Thieves 

How a Brazilian physician owes a prospective fortune 
to the cupidity of negro thieves is revealed in a little story 
which comes from Rio Janeiro. According to this tale, 
Dr. Marques da Silva rented a house in a suburb of Rio 
Janeiro to a family of negroes. After remaining in the 
house long enough to run up a good-sized unpaid rent 
bill, the negroes suddenly decamped, taking with them 
all the electric wiring and plumbing fixtures in the house. 
They even tore up a lead pipe leading underground to a 
water-main. 

Dr. da Silva went through the looted house, sadly not- 
ing his losses and the damage done to the premises, and 
sat down on the veranda to think over the iniquity of his 
missing tenants. Suddenly he noticed a peculiar metallic 
gleam in the trench where the pipe had been torn out. 
The gleam was caused by mercury oozing from the clay. 
The mercury mine probably will make the doctor a mil- 
lionaire. — Daily Metal Reporter. 



A Blast-Furnace Record 



Ten tons per square foot of hearth-area is the record 
made by a 14-fJ;. blast-furnace at the smelting plant of 
the Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co.'s smelter at 
Humboldt, Arizona. It is a rectangular water-jacketed 
furnace, 14 ft. long and 52 in. wide at the tuyeres. It 
taps from the side through a water-cooled copper breast- 
jacket with a water-jacketed spout, and a water-cooled 
copper lip into a pear-shaped settler 27 ft. long and 13 
ft. wide and 55 in. deep. It has practically no crucible, 
as it is bricked up to within 3 in. of the tuyeres on each 
end and the bottom slopes toward the middle so that it 
is just below the connection hole at the centre. The fur- 
nace is fed mechanically with six charge-cars of the old 
Anaconda type, having a capacity of 60 cu. ft. each, and 
dumped by means of an air-lift. 

Details of Furnace 

Width at tuyeres 52 in. 

Length of furnace 168 in. 

Square feet hearth-area 60.66 

Height of furnace 11 ft. 6 in. 

Distance from tuyeres to top S ft. 6 in. 

Distance from tuyeres to sole plate 3 ft. 6 in. 

Diameter of tuyeres 4 in. 

Centre to centre between tuyeres 15 in. 

Number of tuyeres 22 

Tuyere-area 276.46 sq. in. 

Tuyere-area per square foot of hearth-area.... 4.56 in. 

Cubic feet of air per minute 20,000 

Air-pressure 26 to 30 oz. 

Tons smelted per 24 hr 609 

Tons per square foot of hearth-area per 24 hr. . 10.04 

Per cent coke 9.3% 

The charge is put in as follows : two cars of coke hold- 
ing 800 lb. each are dumped in, and then two ore-cars 
holding 8000 lb. each are dumped on top of it from the 
same side of the furnace, and this is repeated on the 
other side of the furnace for the next charge. The 
charge consists of ore, converter-slag, and limestone, and 
has the following composition : 

% 

SiO = 33.5 

Fe 26.8 

CaO 8.6 

S 10.4 

Cu 3.12 

With an 80% sulphur-elimination this gives a 38% 
matte and a slag assaying : 

% 

SiCv 40 

Fe 30 

CaO 10.2 

Cu 0.25 

The smelter superintendent in charge is P. K. Brunton. 



Petroleum development in Louisiana is approaching 
near to the city of New Orleans. Wells are being drilled 
within 40 miles of that city by the Concordia Gas & Oil 
Co. The oil and gas zone has now been shown to extend 
from Natchez to a point south of New Orleans. 



July 81, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



87 



Survey of Inclines Without Auxiliaries 



By A. J. SALE 



In mi nut of the way district, an engineer may some- 
times be called upon to make a survey down a steep in- 
cline when he has no auxiliary telescope available. If 
this should happen, he will rind that the following 
method readily solves the difficulty. Necessity having 
forced tne to evolve this procedure, I became so attached 
to it that I have since ceased to use auxiliaries where 
accuracy is an important factor. At best, either a top 
or side telescope has many disadvantages. They are 
hard to keep in adjustment, they greatly detract from 
the stability of the 'set up,' and introduce awkward cor- 
rections into the calculations. The essence of the prob- 
lem is to generate a vertical plane down the incline; the 
remainder is merely detail. For this type of work, it 
stands to reason that the instrument must be in perfect 
adjustment, but, in addition to the usual transit ad- 
justments, including both the one for leveling and the 
one of the vertical vernier, there is another condition 
that must be investigated. By the 'peg adjustment,' or 
otherwise, one can apparently make the bubble-tube of 
the telescope parallel to the line-of-sight : but, in reality, 
it only causes them to lie in parallel planes, and, in an 
inclined position of the plate, they would show false con- 
ditions. This special adjustment is made in the fol- 
lowing manner: Select two parallel walls, about 100 ft. 
apart, and mark an approximate centre line between 
them. Have all three of the legs of the transit at equal 
length, and place them as indicated in Fig. 1. Loosen 
the leveling screws under the plate and turn the head 
of the machine until a pair of opposite screws lies in a 
line approximately parallel to the marked centre line. 
This forces the other pair into a position approximately 
perpendicular to this line. Tighten all of the leveling 
screws, and level the plate. "With the vertical motion. 
bring the bubble of the telescope into a central position, 
causing the vertical vernier to read 0. Set the plate- 
vernier to read 0, and, w 7 ith the lower motion, turn until 
the telescope points forward along the marked centre 
line. This causes one of the plate bubble-tubes to be 
approximately perpendicular to the centre line. With 
the upper motion, turn to 90°. (As the upper motion 
is used throughout the remainder of this adjustment, I 
will not repeat the mention of it.) Mark a point where 
the line-of-sight intersects the wall. Then, leaving the 
vertical motion fixed, mark another point at the same 
level, but at about 2 ft. in advance of the last. With a 
straight-edge, draw- a line connecting these points. In 
like manner, after turning to 270°, mark another line on 
the opposite wall. By this method there will have been 
drawn two horizontal lines at the same elevation. Now, 
by shortening the forward leg, cause the plate to be- 



come inclined to any desired angle, which may be called 
t). It is best to make this inclination to some special 
angle such as 15° or 30°, depending upon the steepness 
of the incline to be surveyed. For very steep inclines, 
30° or more may be necessary. 

It is a simple matter to set this angle of inclination. 
Suppose 20° is desired : Set the vertical vernier to read 
+ 20° ; lower the forward leg of the instrument until 
the telescope-bubble approaches a level position, then 
bring it exactly level by means of the leveling-screws 
which lie parallel to the centre line. After having set 6, 
level the bubble-tube which lies perpendicular to the 
centre line. (This operation is not absolutely necessary, 
but saves time by bringing the instrument into approxi- 
mate position.) Set the vertical vernier to read 0, and 
turn the plate to 90°. (As the instrument has been 
brought into perfect adjustment, the line of sight will 
be parallel to the plate when the vertical vernier reads 
0. ) Mark the point where the line of sight cuts the wall. 
(Since the general position of the machine has been 
lowered, this point will usually be a few inches below the 
horizontal line already marked.) Now, leaving the ver- 
tical motion fixed, turn to 270° and mark the point where 
the line of sight cuts that wall. Measure the distance 
from each of these points to its corresponding horizontal 
line. From each point mark off one-half of the differ- 
ence between these measurements in the direction in 
which it occurs. 

As an example: Suppose, at the 90° position the point 
is 3 in. below its line, while at the 270° position it is 34 
m. below. Then, at the 90° position, mark a new point 
I in. below the original; while at the 270° position mark 
a new point J in. above the original. Through each of 
these new points draw a short horizontal line. (These 
lines may not be necessary; but, as there is a tendency 
toward a horizontal movement in the next change of the 
telescope, they will probably save time.) Leaving the 
vertical motion fixed, and by means of the pair of level- 
ing-screws which lie perpendicular to the centre line, 
raise or lower the line of sight until it cuts the new 
short horizontal line just marked. Then turn back t9 
the 90° position, where the line of sight should exactly 
cut the new line which has just been marked for that 
position. If there is a slight discrepancy, correct half 
at both positions as has been described. Now turn back 
to the position and re-set 0, if it shows any change. If 
any correction is made in 6, it will be necessary to turn 
back to both the 90° and 270° positions and correct any 
small errors that may have occurred, after which it will 
not be necessary to re-set 6. 

By the above operations a horizontal line is fixed into 



86 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



chalybeate waters. J. J. Hern, a Californian oil man of 
wide experience, told me that in wells in which large 
quantities of iron sulphide are found the oil below is 
likely to be abnormally warm. If this observation is well 
founded, it may be significant as indicating chemical re- 
action between the sulphide and the oil. In some regions 
sulphur is doubtless derived from still other sources. 
Hydrogen sulphide and sulphur di-oxide are common 
components of volcanic emanations, and the former is 
found in many thermal springs supposed to represent 
the last stages of igneous activity. Much of the Mexican 
oil, which is heavy, asphaltic, and high in sulphur, is 
found near igneous intrusions and may well have been 
affected by the sulphurous gases that doubtless accom- 
panied them. The oil in the salt-domes of the Gulf 
Coast is somewhat similar in character and has evidently 
been altered by sulphur, but the origin of the sulphur in 
this case is related to that of the salt-domes themselves, 
and has never been satisfactorily explained. Again, it 
has long been known that some varieties of bacteria have 
the property of generating hydrogen sulphide through 
the reduction of sulphate solutions. Some of these bac- 
teria are anserobie, being able to exist in the absence of 
air, and their action has been repeatedly observed in 
ocean water, but whether they can exist and function in 
deeply buried strata is open to question. Finally, there 
are oils, like those of the Appalachian fields, that have 
apparently never been subjected to the action of sulphur ; 
and others, like the Trenton limestone oil of Ohio, that 
are generally supposed to owe their sulphur to the char- 
acter of the organic remains from which they were 
formed. If the organic origin of petroleum is accepted 
the old idea that the contained sulphur indicates deriva- 
tion from animal remains is not necessarily valid. It is 
generally recognized, however, that the character of the 
original organic material has a bearing on the composi- 
tion of the oil derived from it. 

Mine Found by Thieves 

How a Brazilian physician owes a prospective fortune 
to the cupidity of negro thieves is revealed in a little story 
which comes from Rio Janeiro. According to this tale, 
Dr. Marques da Silva rented a house in a suburb of Rio 
Janeiro to a family of negroes. After remaining in the 
house long enough to run up a good-sized unpaid rent 
bill, the negroes suddenly decamped, taking with them 
all the electric wiring and plumbing fixtures in the house. 
They even tore up a lead pipe leading underground to a 
water-main. 

Dr. da Silva went through the looted house, sadly not- 
ing his losses and the damage done to the premises, and 
sat down on the veranda to think over the iniquity of his 
missing tenants. Suddenly he noticed a peculiar metallic 
gleam in the trench where the pipe had been torn out. 
The gleam was caused by mercury oozing from the clay. 
The mercury mine probably will make the doctor a mil- 
lionaire. — Daily Metal Reporter. 



A Blast-Furnace Record 



Ten tons per square foot of hearth-area is the record 
made by a 14-fJ. blast-furnace at the smelting plant of 
the Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co.'s smelter at 
Humboldt, Arizona. It is a rectangular water-jacketed 
furnace, 14 ft. long and 52 in. wide at the tuyeres. It 
taps from the side through a water-cooled copper breast- 
jacket with a water-jacketed spout, and a water-cooled 
copper lip into a pear-shaped settler 27 ft. long and 13 
ft. wide and 55 in. deep. It has practically no crucible, 
as it is bricked up to within 3 in. of the tuyeres on each 
end and the bottom slopes toward the middle so that it 
is just below the connection hole at the centre. The fur- 
nace is fed mechanically with six charge-cars of the old 
Anaconda type, having a capacity of 60 cu. ft. each, and 
dumped by means of an air-lift. 

Details of Furnace 

Width at tuyeres 52 in. 

Length of furnace 168 in. 

Square feet hearth-area 60.66 

Height of furnace 11 ft. 6 in. 

Distance from tuyeres to top 8 ft. 6 in. 

Distance from tuyeres to sole plate 3 ft. 6 in. 

Diameter of tuyeres 4 in. 

Centre to centre between tuyeres 15 in. 

Number of tuyeres 22 

Tuyere-area 276.46 sq. in. 

Tuyere-area per square foot of hearth-area.... 4.56 in. 

Cubic feet of air per minute 20,000 

Air-pressure 26 to 30 oz. 

Tons smelted per 24 hr 609 

Tons per square foot of hearth-area per 24 hr. . 10.04 

Per cent coke 9.3% 

The charge is put in as follows : two cars of coke hold- 
ing 800 lb. each are dumped in, and then two ore-cars 
holding 8000 lb. each are dumped on top of it from the 
same side of the furnace, and this is repeated on the 
other side of the furnace for the next charge. The 
charge consists of ore, converter-slag, and limestone, and 
has the following composition: 

% 

SiO. 33.5 

Fe 26.S 

CaO 8.6 

S 10.4 

Cu 3.12 

"With an 80% sulphur-elimination this gives a 38% 
matte and a slag assaying : 

% 

SiO, 40 

Fe 30 

CaO 10.2 

Cu 0.25 

The smelter superintendent in charge is F. K. Brunton. 



Petroleum development in Louisiana is approaching 
near to the city of New Orleans. "Wells are being drilled 
within 40 miles of that city by the Concordia Gas & Oil 
Co. The oil and gas zone has now been shown to extend 
from Natchez to a point south of New Orleans. 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



87 



Survey of Inclines Without Auxiliaries 



By A. J. SALE 



In an out of the way district, an engineer may some- 
times be called upon to make a survey down a steep in- 
cline "hen he has no auxiliary telescope available. If 
this should happen, he will find that the following 
method readily solves the difficulty. Necessity having 
forced me to evolve this procedure, I became so attached 
to it that I have since ceased to use auxiliaries where 
accuracy is an important factor. At best, either a top 
or side telescope has many disadvantages. They are 
hard to keep in adjustment, they greatly detract from 
the stability of the 'set up,' and introduce awkward cor- 
rections into the calculations. The essence of the prob- 
lem is to generate a vertical plane down the incline ; the 
remainder is merely detail. For this type of work, it 
stands to reason that the instrument must be in perfect 
adjustment, but, in addition to the usual transit ad- 
justments, including both the one for leveling and the 
one of the vertical vernier, there is another condition 
that must be investigated. By the 'peg adjustment,' or 
otherwise, one can apparently make the bubble-tube of 
the telescope parallel to the line-of-sight ; but, in reality, 
it only causes them to lie in parallel planes, and, in an 
inclined position of the plate, they would show false con- 
ditions. This special adjustment is made in the fol- 
lowing manner: Select two parallel walls, about 100 ft. 
apart, and mark an approximate centre line between 
them. Have all three of the legs of the transit at equal 
length, and place them as indicated in Fig. 1. Loosen 
the leveling screws under the plate and turn the head 
of the machine until a pair of opposite screws lies in a 
line approximately parallel to the marked centre line. 
This forces the other pair into a position approximately 
perpendicular to this line. Tighten all of the leveling 
screws, and level the plate. With the vertical motion, 
bring the bubble of the telescope into a central position, 
causing the vertical vernier to read 0. Set the plate- 
vernier to read 0, and, with the lower motion, turn until 
the telescope points forward along the marked centre 
line. This causes one of the plate bubble-tubes to be 
approximately perpendicular to the centre line. With 
the upper motion, turn to 90°. (As the upper motion 
is used throughout the remainder of this adjustment, I 
will not repeat the mention of it.) Mark a point where 
the line-of-sight intersects the wall. Then, leaving the 
vertical motion fixed, mark another point at the same 
level, but at about 2 ft. in advance of the last. With a 
straight-edge, draw a line connecting these points. In 
like manner, after turning to 270°, mark another line on 
the opposite wall. By this method there will have been 
drawn two horizontal lines at the same elevation. Now, 
by shortening the forward leg, cause the plate to be- 



come inclined to any desired angle, which may be called 
6. It is best to make this inclination to some special 
angle such as 15° or 30°, depending upon the steepness 
of the incline to be surveyed. For very steep inclines, 
30° or more may be necessary. 

It is a simple matter to set this angle of inclination. 
Suppose 20° is desired: Set the vertical vernier to read 
+ 20° ; lower the forward leg of the instrument until 
the telescope-bubble approaches a level position, then 
bring it exactly level by means of the leveling-screws 
which lie parallel to the centre line. After having set 6, 
level the bubble-tube which lies perpendicular to the 
centre line. (This operation is not absolutely necessary, 
but saves time by bringing the instrument into approxi- 
mate position.) Set the vertical vernier to read 0, and 
turn the plate to 90°. (As the instrument has been 
brought into perfect adjustment, the line of sight will 
be parallel to the plate when the vertical vernier reads 
0.) Mark the point where the line of sight cuts the wall. 
(Since the general position of the machine has been 
lowered, this point will usually be a few inches below the 
horizontal line already marked.) Now, leaving the ver- 
tical motion fixed, turn to 270° and mark the point where 
the line of sight cuts that wall. Measure the distance 
from each of these points to its corresponding horizontal 
line. From each point mark off one-half of the differ- 
ence between these measurements in the direction in 
which it occurs. 

As an example : Suppose, at the 90° position the point 
is 3 in. below its line,' while at the 270° position it is 3£ 
in. below. Then, at the 90° position, mark a new point 
i in. below the original; while at the 270° position mark 
a new point I in. above the original. Through each of 
these new points draw a short horizontal line. (These 
lines may not be necessary; but, as there is a tendency 
toward a horizontal movement in the next change of the 
telescope, they will probably save time.) Leaving the 
vertical motion fixed, and by means of the pair of level- 
ing-screws which lie perpendicular to the centre line, 
raise or lower the line of sight until it cuts the new 
short horizontal line just marked. Then turn back to 
the 90° position, where the line of sight should exactly 
cut the new line which has just been marked for that 
position. If there is a slight discrepancy, correct half 
at both positions as has been described. Now turn back 
to the position and re-set 0, if it shows any change. If 
any correction is made in 6, it will be necessary to turn 
back to both the 90° and 270° positions and correct any 
small errors that may have occurred, after which it will 
not be necessary to re-set 6. 

By the above operations a horizontal line is fixed into 



88 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



which the line of sight falls at both the 90° and 270° 
positions. Notice the position of the telescope-bubble at 
each of them. (The inclination of the plate causes the 
bubble to be near the upper side of its tube, but that 
does not prevent a satisfactory determination of its posi- 
tion). If the bubble-tube happen to be exactly parallel 
to the line of sight, the bubble will be in the central 
point at both the 90° and 270° positions. But if it is 
warped from a parallel by a small angle, which may be 
called n. the bubble will be off centre at one position, and 
an equal amount in the opposite direction at the other. 
If one did not account for the effect of the angle /i, and 
assumed that the liue of sight was horizontal when the 
bubble was in a central point at either 90° or 270°, the 
result would be that the line-of-sight would make a small 
angle with the horizontal at the 90° position, and an 
equal angle with opposite sign at 270°. In later opera- 
tions, either turn the telescope from 270° to 360°, or 
from 90° to 0, which will bring the horizontal axis of 
the telescope to either the 270° or 90° position of the 
line-of-sight, and the final effect is the same as if the 
plate were in normal position, and the horizontal axis of 
the telescope inclined by a small angle, which call v; this 
angle being the vertical projection of the angle /x.. 

Now it might be possible to shift the bubble-tube so 
that it did lie parallel to the line of sight, and make the 
regular bubble-adjustment afterward; but this amount 
of work is entirely unnecessary. If it so happen that 
the bubble-tube is exactly parallel to the line of sight, 
trouble of inclining the plate to a fixed angle will be 
saved, but that is the only advantage. The vital feature 
of the proposition is to mark the exact positions of the 
bubble which force a horizontal condition of the liue of 
sight at both the 90° and 270° positions. This marking 
can be done by taking narrow strips of paper and past- 
ing them on the bubble-tube at the ends of the bubble. 
Considerable error is allowable in setting 8. without se- 
riously affecting the carrying of true bearings. 

By descriptive geometry, it can be demonstrated that 
tg v = tg /x. sin 8. (In Fig. 2, I indicate how this demon- 
stration is made.) To study the relative errors, apply a 
simple principle of calculus and differentiate relative to 
v and 8. Differentiating : 

tg i' = tg ix. sin 8 

1 

. d, v = tg n . cos 6 . d, 8 



But — — 

COS" v 

Therefore 



: 1 + tg 2 v = 1 +ig- p. . sin 2 



d, v 



_ tg fi . cos 6 



d,e 



1 -\- tg 2 n . sin 2 6 

Now, since /i is a very small angle, tg 2 u . sin- 8 is 
negligible as compared with unity. 

Therefore d, v = tg ti. . eos 8 . d,8. 

Now suppose that it is required to look down a steep 
angle, which call <j>, with the result that the inclination 
of the horizontal axis of the telescope (angle v), causes 
an error in the bearing, which call xb. 



It can be demonstrated that 

tg \b = tg <f> . sin v 
(This demonstration is indicated in Fig. 3.) 
Differentia^ng relative to xb and v, it appears that 

1 
— ; — . a, xb = tg <t, . cos v . d,v 

COS 2 xp ' 

tg 2 xb = 1 + tg 2 $ 



But -^— =1 

cos- ib 

Therefore d, xp ■■ 



tg <f> . cos v 



.d,v 



l + tg 1 <t> ■ sii 3 v 

But, since v is even less than ix.. tg 2 <p . sin 2 v is negli- 
gible as compared to unity ; and, for practical results, 
cos v can be taken as unity, making d, xp = tg <f> . d,v. 

Substituting for d, v its previously derived value, 
there results 

d, i/r = tg tf> . d,v = tg <f> . tg fx. . cos 8 . d, 8. 

To apply this formula practically, assume : 

8 = 75° 

fi = 30'. (It is extremely improbable that ix. will ever 
be as much as 10'.) 

= 30° 

Also assume that, in attempting to set 8 at 30°, an 
error of 30' is made. 

Applying the above values in the formula : 

d,xb=tg 75° . tg 30' . cos 30° . d, 6 = 0.0282 . d, 8. 

And, since d, 8 was taken at 30', d, ib = 0.846'= 0°, 
00', 50". 

In other words, an error of half a degree in setting the 
plate only amounts to 50 seconds in future bearings. 

The method of operation of the adjusted machine is 
as follows: Place the transit in a firm position at the 
top or the incline, with two of its legs close to the collar, 
and the third in a symmetrical position. Loosen the 
leveling screws and turn the head of the machine until a 
pair of opposite screws is approximately in the line of 
the incline. Tighten the leveling screws, and incline the 
plate to the required angle 8 as previously described. 
Set the upper motion to read 0, and, with the lower 
motion, turn until the telescope points along the general 
direction of the incline. This will bring one of the plate- 
bubbles in line with and perpendicular to this line. Level 
this bubble, using the pair of leveling screws which lie 
perpendicular to the line of sight. (The position of the 
machine is shown in Fig. 4.) 

Now, at some convenient point close to the incline in 
the underground workings, place an over-head plug con- 
taining a perforated horse-shoe nail or other suitable 
eye-point (X, Fig. 4). Drop a plumb-line to the floor 
and mark the point X' directly under X. Place an 
illumination behind X' ; and, using the lower motion, 
focus upon the plumb-line at any convenient point. (The 
vertical cross-hair will probably be at a small angle to 
the plumb-line.) The plate bubble-tube will probably 
get out of level; but that is of no importance, as it was 
only levelled to bring the machine into approximate 
position. With the upper motion, turn an angle of 90° ; 
and, by means of the vertical motion, bring the telescope- 
bubble to the point marked for a horizontal condition of 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



89 



the line-of-sight at the 90 s position. Continuing with 
the upper motion, turn to 270 . The telescope-bubble 
will deviate by ;i considerable amount from the point 
which 1ms been marked to enforce a horizontal line >>!' 
sight at the -TO' position. Correct half of tliis amount 
by means of the vertical motion, and the other hair with 
tin 1 pair of leveling screws which lie at right angles to 
thf line-of-sight. Continuing with the upper mot ion. 
turn back to 0. The vertical eross-hair should now be 
very nearly parallel with the plumb-line. Using the 
lower motion, focus exactly upon the plumb-line. Re- 
check 9, and. if it is in error, re-set it. (This is the last 
time that it will be necessary to bother with this angle, 

as it has b ) demonstrated that a small change in it 

will not materially affect the accuracy of the work.) 

If any change has been made in 6. re-focus upon the 
plumb-line, using the lower motion. Repeat the opera- 
tions at the 90" and 270° positions. This time the 
amount of bubble-correction will probably be very small ; 
and. on the final turn to 0, the vertical cross-hair should 
exactly coincide with the plumb-line ; it not, repeat until 
il does. (After the final leveling, the vertical vernier 
should read exactly at both the 90° and 270° positions.) 

The problem is now practically solved, except for a 
few working details which will be described later, for 
there has been developed such a condition that, when the 
telescope is focused on the plumb-line, and rotated 
around its horizontal axis, it will generate a vertical 
plane through the plumb-line. The demonstration of this 
is as follows : In Fig. 5 the operator is looking along the 



line of the incline and parallel to the plate. .I/-.V ri pre 
scuts a horizontal line and .1 B the position of the line-of- 
sight, after leveling at the 90 position. O /' represents 
the axis of the Bocket which, since the instrument is in 
perfect adjustment, passes through the line-of-sight, and 
is also perpendicular to the plan.- of the plate. Assume 
a plane passing through the line-of-sight and the a 

the Socket and let it intersect the plane of the plate at 

C-D. Now, Z OPC — 90° = z OPD; because the 

axis of the socket, being perpendicular to the plane of 
the plate, must be perpendicular to an intersecting line 
in that plane. Also assume that C-D makes an angle 
(Z OMP, Pig. 5) with M-N. Now the telescope is 
rotated 180° (that is, from 90° to 270°) around the axis 
OP. Let A'-B' represent the rotated position of A-B. 
The total deviation is I A O B', or Z A' O B. Half of 
this is to be corrected by the vertical motion, and half 
by the leveling screws which lie in a line perpendicular 
to the line of the incline. Assume that the first correc- 
tion brings A'-B' to A"-B", in which case Z A' O A"= 
i Z A' OB or Z A OB" ' — % Z A O B', which means 

1 AOB' = 2 /_ AO B". 

Next consider AMPO: Z MPO = Z OPC = 90°. 
Therefore Z M O P = 90° - Z OMP. But, since A-B is 
rotated around O-P, Z A'O P = Z AOP= Z MOP 
= 90° - Z O M P. 
Therefore 

Z AOA' = Z AOP + I A' OP = 2 Z AOP = 

2 (90° -Z OMP) =180° -2 Z OMP. 

But, A-B being a straight line, Z A' O B = 180° - 



if "*' 



vr . 

■IV 




Fig. 5. 



90 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



Z A O A' = 180°- (180° -2 Z OMP) = 2 Z 0*?. 

But /i'OB= ZiOfi'. Therefore /_ AOB' = 
2 I OMP. 

But Z A O B' = 2 Z A B". 

Therefore Z AOB"= I OMP, or A"-B" is par- 
allel to C-D. 

Now the second correction causes a rotation around 
the centre of the ball and socket joint below the plate to 
such an extent that the line-of-sight becomes horizontal. 
goes to 0' ; A"-B" to 'A'-'B' ; P to P' ; and C-D to 
C-D' . But, as this second correction does not change 
the relative position of these lines as regards each other, 
CD' will be parallel to 'A'-'B', and Z 0' P' D' = 
Z 0'P'C= Z OPC = 90°. But this rotation caused 
'A'-'B' to be a horizontal line, therefore. C-D' is a hori- 
zontal line. 

Now consider the plane which would be generated by 
the rotation of the line-of-sight around the horizontal 
axis of the telescope in the final (or 360°), position: Re- 
ferring to Fig. 6, this plane is shown as O'C" P' D" . 
(C" and D" being the respective positions of C and D', 
after the rotation from the 270° to the 360° position.) 
The Z O'P'D' = 90°, from the previous demonstration. 
Also Z D'P'D" = 90°, due to the turn from 270° to 
360°. Therefore the line C-D', being perpendicular to 
the line O'-P', also perpendicular to the intersecting line 
P'-D", must be perpendicular to the plane O'C'P'D'. 
Therefore the plane O'C'P'D" is perpendicular to the 
line C-D'. But the line C-D' has been demonstrated 
to be a horizontal line. Therefore the plane of rotation 
will be a vertical plane. 

This has prepared the way for the final details : At 
some convenient position (Y, Fig. 4) place a survey- 
plug in the line-of-sight and drive in a perforated horse- 
shoe nail. Drop a plumb-line from this point, and drive 
over the horse-shoe nail until it comes exactly into line. 
The point Y should be so selected that when the plumb- 
line is let down as far as possible the lower end will be 
visible from the 'set up' under X by raising the tele- 
scope to an angle of about 45°. As this system is only 
required for inclines whose dip exceeds 45°, it is evident 
that the plumb-line will reach a considerable way down 
the shaft before touching the floor. It is best to set at 
least two of these points to make sure of obtaining a 
back-sight with as long a base as possible. After setting 
Y, rotate the telescope around its horizontal axis, until 
it looks over the collar of the incline, and place a hub 
(Z, Fig. 4) in line and close to the incline. Drive a tack 
exactly in the line of sight. Also place another hub 
and tack in the same line but several hundred feet away 
(Z', Fig. 4). Since it has been demonstrated that the 
line-of-sight rotates in a vertical plane, these hubs can 
be either forward of back-sights. Having set the hubs, 
the next operation is to read the exact value of 8, after 
leveling the telescope-bubble at the position. It was 
previously demonstrated that, without seriously affect- 
ing the generating of a vertical plane, it is allowable to 
take considerable margin in setting 6 to a fixed angle ; 
but the exact value of 8 must be used to obtain true 



vertical angles. To obtain any true vertical angle, alge- 
braically subtract the value of 6 from the vertical angle 
as read. Only angles lying in the generated vertical 
plane are to be used. 

Suppose = 30°: 

Then, for an apparent vertical angle of + 40°. the 
actual vertical angle will be + 40-30° = + 10°, while 
for an apparent vertical angle of -40° it will be -40 
-30 = -70°. 

If it become necessary to use back-sight positions, in- 
volving the use of a reversed telescope, the angle 8 must 
be algebraically added. In the above case an apparent 
back-angle of -10° will be a true angle of -10° +30° 
= + 20°. An apparent back angle of -30° will be a 
true angle of -30° + 30° =0°, or horizontal, while an 
apparent back angle of - 60" will be a true angle of 
-60° +30° =-30°. 

The remaining operation from this 'set-up' is to tape 
the distances to the nearest hub (Z, Fig. 4). and to the 
point X' (Fig. 4), and read the apparent vertical angles. 
Both the horizontal and vertical distances are obtained 
by this operation. 

Suppose: = 30°, 30'; and the tape reading to Z is 
15.15 ft., with an apparent vertical angle of + (25°, 
20') ; then the actual vertical angle is + (25°, 20') 
- (30°, 30') =- (5°, 10'), and the horizontal distance 
between the instrument and the hub is 15.15 ft. times 
cos (5°, 10') : while the 'H. I.,' relative to the hub. wil] 
be + [15.15 ft. times sin (5°, 10') ] . 

Also suppose the tape reading to X' to be 225.20 ft. 
with an apparent vertical angle of - (38°, 10') : this 
makes the actual vertical angle -(38°, 10')-(30°, 30') = 
(68°, 40'), and the horizontal distance between the in- 
strument and point X will be 225.20 ft. times ens (68°, 
40') ; while the floor of the level (point A'') will be 
225.20 ft. times sin (68°, 40') below the 'H. I.' 

The final operation to complete the surface-work is to 
tie in Z from some other station ; set on Z and get the 
bearing of Z-Z' ; and to obtain the elevation of Z relative 
to a known bench mark. 

There is now a complete survey down the incline, cov- 
ering bearings, horizonal distances, and elevations. It 
only remains to set under X (that is, over X'), back- 
sight to the plumb-line from Y, and continue as desired. 
In making the back-sight from the 'set-up' under X, it 
is best to raise the telescope as much as convenient in 
order to look as far back up the incline as possible. Tf 
several points Y have been set, there is a chance that a 
much longer back-base can be obtained than was even 
suspected at the start. 

If more than one level is to be tied in, it is best to 
make the first point (.T) at the bottom level, and then 
place points on the other levels in the manner described 
for setting Y. If it is necessary to carry a survey up 
an incline, it is best to work downward from the top, 
and tie in the line below afterward. A triangular eye- 
piece is a convenient help to save kinks in the neck of 
the operator, but its use is not absolutely necessary. 

The method described will rapidly and accurately 



July 21. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



91 



solve the problem of carrying a survey down any Bteep 
incline of a reasonable depth, but, for a very deep iu- 
oline, some special considerations are advisable. Sup 
pose the incline to be very sleep, and a 1000 ft. or more 
deep. Under these conditions, as it is not probable 
that the point Y can be placed at more than 20 or 30 ft. 
from point A', there will be involved all the errors con- 
neeted with a long sight in setting both the points A" and 
}": while one will have to depend upon a very short 
back-sight under ground. Even under these conditions, 
if due care be used, the errors will be comparatively 
small, and this method will prove sufficiently accurate 
for any ordinary work, but. for work where unusual 
accuracy is required. I would recommend the following 
procedure : Set point Y where it can be easily seen from 
an ordinary 'set-up' under X. Also set an additional 
point, which call Y', in line and up near the collar of 
the incline. Everything else is done as previously de- 
scribed. When prepared to work below, mark a line on 
the floor, through X', and approximately in the general 
direction of the incline. Have the three legs of the in- 
strument at equal length and set over X' (that is, under 
X), in such a position that the back leg of the machine, 
from a position looking up the incline, lies in the line 
just drawn, while the forward ones are placed sym- 
metrically. The reverse of the position shown in Pig. 1 
will produce this condition. Make an accurate 'set-up' 
over X' with as little relative change in the legs as pos- 
sible. Loosen the leveling screws under the plate and 
turn the head of the instrument until a pair of opposite 
leveling screws is in an approximate line with the in- 
cline. Tighten the leveling screws, level the plate, set 
the upper-motion to read 0, and, with the lower-motion, 
turn until the telescope points in a line directly reversed 
to that up the incline. Set the required angle 6, tilt the 
plate, and do the leveling at the 90° position and the 
half and half correction at 270°, as previously described. 
Loosen the vertical motion, set the upper-motion at 180° 
and, by means of the lower-motion, focus upon a plumb- 
line dropped from Y'. 

If proper precaution has been taken in regard to 
symmetry, a plumb-line dropped from Y will come with- 
in the range of vision by changing the focus; and a 
lateral shifting of the plate should bring the line-of- 
sight into the line Y'-Y, without altering the position of 
the legs. Should the amount of required shifting ex- 
ceed the limits of the plate, move each leg by the same 
amount in the same direction so as to keep the general 
position uniform. After the line-of-sight has been 
brought into the line Y'-Y, turn back to ; re-set 8, and 
repeat the operations. It is now probable that, when 
the line-of-sight has been focused upon Y', Y will only 
deviate by a very small amount from being in line, and. 
after making the required shift of the plate, and repeat- 
ing the complete operation, the line-of-sight should be 
exactly in the line Y'-Y ; if not, repeat until it does. If 
proper preliminary judgment as to symmetry has been 
used this whole amount of maneuvering should not take 
more than twice the time usually required to set in line 



with two plumb-lines, and its accuracy can be more fully 
depended upon. 

After these operations have been completed, if the 
line-of-sight is brought into position and rotated around 
the horizontal axis of the telescope, it will generate a 
vertical plane up the incline through the points Y' and 
V. The only remaining operation is to fix this plane by 
setting two points, one close to the machine, and the 
other as far away as convenient. In continuing the 
underground work it, is advisable to use only this new 
line for meridian, as the points A* and X' may vary by 
a small amount from it, but, as this variation will he 
very small, it will be safe enough to cai-ry distances and 
elevations from the old points. 

While it has taken considerable space to describe this 
modus operandi and to make clear its mathematical 
demonstration, a practical trial by any engineer should 
convince him that in its field application the method is 
rapid, the resultant office calculations simple, and the 
final result the attainment of a degree of accuracy which 
cannot he reached by any auxiliary attachments. 



Barytes, or barium sulphate, is used chiefly in mak- 
ing mixed paints, in which white, ground, and water- 
floated barite is employed as a pigment. Ground barite 
is also used in the rubber industry and to some extent by 
the makers of heavy glazed paper and ink. Lithopone, a 
chemically prepared white pigment consisting of about 
70% barium sulphate and 30% zinc sulphate, is one of 
the chief constituents of the 'flat' wall-paints so exten- 
sively used in office-buildings and hospitals, replacing the 
less desirable paper and calcimine wall-finishes. Its 
larger use is in the manufacture of linoleum, and as an 
adulterant in making rubber tires. Since the beginning 
of the War a barium chemical industry has been estab- 
lished in the United States to supply barium carbonate, 
nitrate, chloride, chlorate, hydrate, and dioxide, formerly 
imported largely from Germany. In 1915 this consumed 
10% of the domestic barite, but the consumption in 1916 
was somewhat larger. The barium chemicals have a wide 
variety of applications, perhaps the most important be- 
ing the use of barium dioxide in the preparation of 
hydrogen peroxide, that of barium chloride as a water 
softener ; other various salts are used in the manufacture 
of optical glass. Barytes is mined principally in Mis- 
souri, northwestern Georgia, east-central Tennessee, cen- 
tral and western Kentucky, north-eastern Alabama, south- 
western North Carolina, north-western South Carolina, 
and south-western Virginia. The price now ranges from 
$28 to $32 per ton for prime white or floated material. 

Argentina is developing oil-fields in Patagonia and in 
other parts of the republic. A recent report by the Ar- 
gentine Bureau of Mines affirms that the petroleum de- 
posits of Rivadavia on the Patagonian coast promise to 
rank among the most important of the world. The oil is 
found at a depth of about 1600 ft. below sea-level. By 
distillation it yields 5% benzene, 16.27% of illuminating 
oil, and 67% heavy oil. 



92 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



Chromite 



By J. S. DILLER 



*The importance of chromite in the manufacture of 
armor plate, armor-piercing projectiles, stellite for high- 
speed tools, and automobile and other special steels can 
scarcely be overestimated. The chief sources of supply 
for the United States during the last few years have 
been Rhodesia, New Caledonia, Turkey, and Greece. 
Embargoes were placed on the shipment of chrome ore 
from some of the principal sources, and it was feared 
that the supply for the United States would be cut off, 
but after the producers received a guaranty that the ore 
would not be re-shipped to enemy-belligerents the im- 
ports, as shown in the following table, greatly increased, 
especially those from Rhodesia, New Caledonia, and 
Canada, though those from Greece have declined slightly 
and those from Turkey have entirely ceased. 

Chbomic Iron Imported Into the United States, 1913-1916, 
in Long Tons 

1913 1916 

Cuba 34 

Canada 10,930 

England 5 

Greece 7,900 

Japan 322 

French Oceania 6,620 30,950 

Australia 2,986 

British South Africa 23,000 

Portuguese Africa 29,000 38,850 

Turkey in Asia 13,830 



49,772 114,655 

Chromic iron produced and sold in the United States, 
1913 and 1916, was respectively 255 and 40,000 long 
tons. The greatly increased trade, especially in steel, 
and the consequently larger demand for chromite, have 
stimulated the search for it in the United States, as 
shown by the large increase in production. On the 
Atlantic coast and in "Wyoming there has been only a 
small production, but in the Pacific Coast States, espe- 
cially California, the advance in the output has been 
remarkable. It is evident that, for some time to come, 
California will furnish the chief domestic supply. The 
production from some deposits in 1917 is expected to 
exceed that of 1916. It is possible, however, that some 
counties, Del Norte, for instance, which produced no 
chromite in 1916, will produce much in 1917 on account 
of better transportation facilities, both by land and sea. 
There are two main belts of production in California, 
one in the Klamath mountains and the Coast Range from 
Siskiyou county to San Luis Obispo county, and the 
other in the Sierra Nevada from Plumas to Tulare 
county. The larger output has come from the Klamath 

♦Abstract: U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 666-A. 



mountains, because the orebodies there are larger and 
railroad transportation is more convenient. 

The production in Oregon is increasing in both the 
Klamath and Blue mountains. The ores west of Riddle 
are the richest yet mined in the State, in some places 
assaying as high as 55% chromic oxide, and much of the 
ore contains about 50%. Most of the Oregon ore, how- 
ever, like that of California, averages about 40% chromic 
oxide, and ore of that grade is commonly the basis of 
sale. It generally contains 38 to 45% chromic oxide, 6 
to 8% silica, and 17 to 25% alumina. The largest ore- 
body and producing mine thus far developed in Oregon 
is owned and operated by Collard & Moore near Holland, 
about 20 miles southeast of Kerby, in Josephine county. 
Much of the ore may be improved by concentration, and 
a plant of 90-ton capacity for that purpose is nearly 
completed. It is claimed that the ore can be concen- 
trated to a content of 55% chromic oxide. The concen- 
tration of the lower-grade ore would give it a wider 
market and increase its value and the demand for it. 
Without concentration the Pacific Coast deposits cannot 
furnish a dependable supply of high-grade chrome ore, 
but with successful concentration industries based on 
high-grade ore may be attracted to the Coast. The Saw- 
yer Tanning Co., established on tidewater at Napa, Cali- 
fornia, has had great difficulty in obtaining sufficient 
high-grade ore for its use. T. W. Gruetter has recently 
established at Kerby, Oregon, a custom-plant for con- 
centrating black sand to win its gold and platinum. The 
black sand of the Klamath mountains usually contains 
a considerable amount of chromite, and it is believed 
that by adding magnetic separators to Gruetter's plant 
to remove the other minerals from the tailing sufficient 
chromite may be obtained from the black sand in 
chromiferous serpentine areas to make the operation 
financially successful. 

The relation of these experiments in concentration to 
the problem of obtaining high-grade chrome ore on the 
Pacific Coast will be better understood when attention 
is called to the fact that by the disintegration and wash- 
ing away of the weathered serpentine, in which prac- 
tically all the chromite deposits occur, the heavy grains 
of chromite are left behind, and, consequently, the soil 
or surface-wash in the water-courses of serpentine areas 
becomes enriched by the accumulation of residual chrom- 
ite. Chromite boulders and sand are therefore, as a rule, 
more abundant in the soil than in the solid serpentine 
beneath. Many prospectors finding boulders of chromite 
on the surface feel confident that there is a large body 
beneath, but a few shallow prospect holes usually give 
disappointing results. 



July 31, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



93 



In the Atlantic stales, where most of tl hromite 

produced in this country is used, the only production is 

in the vicinity of Baltimore, where the chrome industry 
of the United States was started by the Tysons many 
years ago, At firsl bodies of chromite were quarried 

from the serpentine areas ahout Baltimore and north- 
eastward into Pennsylvania, but as the supply became 
exhausted the chromiferous residual deposits in the soil 
and the stream-travel within the serpentine areas were 
washed for ehronie-sainl. A small output of ehronie- 

sand is now obtained at Soldiers Delight, near Baltimore. 
This enterprise suggests the possibility of considerable 
expansion in the utilization of chromite sand in Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania. 

Ferro-chrome, the alloy used in making chrome-steel, 
is now manufactured in the United States hy electro- 
metallurgic methods, almost wholly in the East, at the 
plants of the Electro Metallurgical Co. at Niagara Palls 
and elsewhere. The Noble Electric Steel Co." has three 
furnaces at Heroult, California, however, operating to 
full capacity producing manganese, chrome, and silica- 
steels. The metallurgy of chromium has apparently been 
so developed in the hydro-electric process as to utilize 
relatively low-grade ores such as are most abundant in 
the United States, and the further development of that 
process on the Pacific Coast, where water-power abounds, 
would greatly diminish the handicap of long transporta- 
tion. 

Missouri Zinc and Lead 1915-16 

The following tables give at a glance an interesting 
analysis of the lead and zinc ores of Missouri and their 
beneficiation, comparing the years 1915 and 1916, the sta- 
tistics discriminating between the so-called 'soft ground' 
and the 'sheet ground' in the southwestern part of the 
State. The tables were compiled by the U. S. Geological 
Survey. 

Zinc and Lead Output, Southwest Missouri, 1915-16 





1915 


1916 


SOFT GROUND 




4,004,900 
3.83 
.32 
3.56 
2.26 
25 
2.01 
79.2 
58.1 
57.7 
39.3 

MS.10 
$32.56 
872.68 
$45.00 

6,501,000 
2.25 
34 
1.91 
1.38 
25 
1.13 
76.4 
59.1 

$54.63 
$78. 79 














.28 






3.10 




do.... 


1.92 
22 






1.70 




do.... 


78.0 


Average zinc content ofsntaalerke ton cent rates 

Average value per ton: 


do.... 

do.... 


58.1 
39.4 

$82.09 




301.43 




$77.94 






SHEET iJIOTMi 




8,484.700 
2.19 
.33 










1.86 






1.35 






.25 








average value per ton: 


do.... 


76.5 
59.2 

$85.62 




$86.02 







Lead Output, Southeast Missouri, 1915-16 



Total crude lead ore short tons . 

Galena concentrates in crudo ore per cent. 

Lead content in crude ore a" 

Average lead content of galena concentrates ao • • ■ 

Average value per ton of galena concentrates 



5.47 
3.G2 



Quicksilver Industry of Texas 

By WM. B. PHILLIPS 

•The total value of the quicksilver produ I in Texas 

since the beginning of the industry, in 1899, exceeds 

$3,500,000. The industry has been confined to a com- 
paratively small area in the southern pari of Brewster 
county, about 100 miles south of Marl'a, on the Southern 
Pacific railway, Hauling to the railroad is done by 
wagons, the ordinary rate being from 50 to 60c. per 100 
lb. While some native quicksilver has been found, by far 
the greater production has been from cinnabar occurring 
in limestone, in a bituminous shale, and in an acid igneous 
rock. The larger production was formerly from the cin- 
nabar in the limestone, but in recent years the shales 
have yielded the greater part. When the D-shaped retort 
was used in distilling the metal it was not uncommon to 
obtain quicksilver, a combustible gas, and oil, from the 
same charge, but this practice did not long survive, as 
the retorts required much richer ore than the Scott fur- 
nace. 

The ore is crushed and charged into a brick stack pro- 
vided with staggered shelves from top to bottom, heated 
by a wood fire, and discharging into a series of brick 
chambers into which all the smoke and fume is conducted. 
These brick chambers are the condensers. The condens- 
ing-chambers have to be made with great care, for quick- 
silver, although it is nearly 14 times as heavy as water, 
will go wherever air will go, and there are considerable 
losses due to the escape of the metal as a fine mist through 
.•joints and cracks. The chambers have sloping floors, and 
the metal drains to a small plugged opening in an iron 
door. It flows through this opening, at intervals, and 
into a cement trough communicating with a cement tank 
in the collecting-room. Here it is ladled into wrought- 
iron bottles or flasks holding 75 lb. net. 

The quicksilver ores in Brewster county occur in two 
principal horizons, the Eagle Ford shales of the Upper 
Cretaceous and the limestones of the uppermost members 
of the Lower, or Comanchean, Cretaceous, especially the 
Washita limestone. In a general way the Terlingua 
quicksilver district is divided into two great groups by 
Vogel's draw, which runs from north to south. On the 
west side of this draw are the limestones of the Lower 
Cretaceous and on the east are the shales of the Upper 
Cretaceous. This draw marks the approximate course of 
a fault that has brought the Lower Cretaceous up from 
its normal position. There seems to be no doubt that 
igneous intrusions had a good deal to do with the occur- 
rence of quicksilver ores in this district, especially at 
California hill and at Study butte and Maverick moun- 
tain. The richer ores have not been obtained directly 
from the igneous rocks nor from the limestones and shales- 
in immediate association with them. The average content, 
of quicksilver in the Texas ores has been higher than in 
the California deposits mined in recent years. The con- 
tent of quicksilver in the Texas ores is from 1 to 1.10% 
as against 0.50 to 0.60% in California. 

* Abstract: Manufacturers Record. 



94 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



Cyanidation v. Flotation at Pachuca 

In the latest issue of the 'Boletin Minero' published 
by the Department of Industry and Commerce, of 
Mexico, appears an article on experiments that arc being 
made with flotation upon the silver minerals in the ores 
of the Pachuca y Real del Monte and the Santa Ger- 
trudis properties, written by Simeon Ramirez, inspector 
of mines for the Government. He says that at the 
Guerrero plant belonging to the Real del Monte y Pa- 
chuca company, situated at Real del Monte near the 
village of Omitlan, there has been installed a flotation 
testing-plant employing the Minerals Separation system 
with a capacity of 50 tons of ore per diem. The average 
assay-value of the ore treated is 11 oz. silver and 0.055 
oz. gold per ton, and an average recovery of more than 
60% has been realized, but this percentage will be in- 
creased when the apparatus has been brought under 
better adjustment and when a better understanding of 
the proper mixtures of oils has been reached. There has 
been variation in the quantity of oil employed as well as 
variation in the speed of the agitators, air-pressure, and 
dilution of pulp, depending on the class of minerals 
contained in the slime. The average cost of concentra- 
tion by this method has proved to be about $1.57 U. S. 
gold per ton of ore. However, the duration of the ex- 
periments has not been sufficient to admit of safe deduc- 
tions as to the cost when working on a large scale. The 
ores treated in the Guerrero mill come from the San 
Ignacio, Dolores, Cabrera, and Escobar mines, all sit- 
uated in Real del Monte, and having a total output of 
850 tons daily. A part of this is treated by flotation, and 
the rest by cyanidation when there is sufficient cyanide to 
be had. The following statement shows the results 
obtained in this plant by flotation: Recovery, by dif- 
ference, silver 63.9%, gold 60% ; tonnage, dry pulp sent 
to the machine, 1.141 tons per hr. ; dilution, 4.91 parts 
of water to 1 part of pulp ; solution shows traces of CaO. 

Oils employed: Lb. per ton 

Tar-oil, Barret No. 1 1.319 

Creosote oil, Barret No. 606 1.319 

Pensaeola pine-tar No. 80 0.200 

Total oil used 2.S38 

Silver, Gold, 

Assay: oz. per ton oz. per ton 

Heading 11.96 0.04 

Tailing 4.32 0.016 

Extraction 7.64 0.024 

Assays of Froth from Different Compartments 

Silver, Gold, 

Compartments oz. per ton oz. per ton 

1, 2, and 3 •. . . . 160.5 0.707 

4 115.7 0.458 

5 and 6 51.9 0.192 

7 and 8 37.3 0.128 

9 and 10 57.9 0.192 

11 and 12 75.6 0.041 

The froth in the Dorr thickener assays 422.9 oz. silver 



and 1.608 oz. gold per ton. This test covered a period of 
5i hours. 

The Santa Gertrudis company has three flotation ma- 
chines installed close to the Santa Gertrudis mine on the 
slope of the hSll upon which is situated the new mill and 
the cyanide annex. In this plant they are using Callow 
cells for the cleaning of the concentrate produced by 
'K & K' machines. Although Minerals Separation ma- 
chines were also used in the beginning, the 'K & K' 
is now preferred, and has given recoveries as high as 
78%, with an average of 72%. These machines are 
simple in construction and easy to adjust and maintain. 

The principal mining companies of Pachuca and El 
Chico are installing flotation machines and others have 
ordered them from the United States with the object of 
working out the problem of flotation for modifying their 
metallurgical plants. Meanwhile, they are using cya- 
nide, the price of which is beginning to decrease. Among 
these new attempts may be noted the treatment of the 
ore sent from the Arevalo mine which has given very 
good results in a small Callow apparatus. Here the 
effect of varying quantities of oil was clearly seen in the 
modification of the consistence of the froth, these varia- 
tions being for the purpose of obtaining the requisite 
persistence of froth to discharge with its load of con- 
centrate into the concentrate-launder. This ore con- 
tains 3% lead, with an average content of 800 grammes 
silver (2.57 oz. per ton) of which, according to Max 
Kraut, 98% is readily recovered. In the ore from the 
Arevalo vein, which contains no lead, the recovery has 
been from 92.6% to 94% of the silver. 

It has been observed that the ores which resist treat- 
ment by flotation in these tests have been those that con- 
tain the oxides, corresponding to the upper zone of the 
mine, which had formerly been abandoned as not yielding 
sufficient metalliferous content to pay the cost until cya- 
nidation was introduced, but, in accordance with investi- 
gations made in the United States, it now appears pos- 
sible to float these carbonates and oxides after sulphidiza- 
tion by soluble sulphides. On account of the difficulty in 
cyaniding the flotation-concentrate, due either to the fact 
that the oil behaves as a cyanicide or contributes in some 
other manner to produce a similar effect, experiments are 
being carried out with the object of overcoming these 
disadvantages. Eliminating the oil by treating the con- 
centrate with alkaline or acid solutions or washing with 
water has made it appear that it is not the acid which is 
prejudicial but the ferrous salts formed in the concen- 
trate itself. This indicates the necessity of further in- 
vestigation in order to reach an understanding of the 
causes which lead to the difficulty mentioned. For the 
present, on account of the cost of cyanide, it appears to 
be profitable to extract the silver from these ores in the 
form of concentrate for export or for smelting locally. 
In order to admit of beneficiating these ores, either by 
cyaniding, or by floating and smelting the concentrate 
on the spot, it is necessary to regulate railroad traffic in 
order to admit of the introduction of fuels at a favor- 
able rate. 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



95 



Tungsten Mines of Inyo County, 
California 

Mining of tungsten near Bishop, Inyo county, Cali- 
fornia, began actively about one your ago. The ore is a 
fow-grade scheelite associated with a garnet gangue, 
originating by replacement of limestone which supplied 
the calcium needed Eor the development of the garnet and 
epidote in the process of contact-raetamorphism. No 
limestone, however, remains in connection with the larger 
bodies of ore. The granitic rocks adjoin some of the 
tungsten deposits, and have been profoundly altered. 
According to Adolph Knopf, of the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, the mctasomatic alterations of the adjoining gran- 
itic rocks occurred some time after the consolidation of 
the granite. The tungsten mineralization was subsequent 
to the intrusion both of the granite and of the monzonite 
of the district. The minerals included with the ore indi- 
cate that the mineralizing solutions probably entered at 
so high a temperature as to be in a gaseous state. These 
solutions were rich in silicon, aluminum, and ferric iron, 
were poor in sulphur, and carried tungsten, which was 
fixed by the calcite in the limestones as calcium tung- 
state (scheelite). 

Owing to the garnet in the gangue the ore is rather 
difficult to concentrate. The average grade being treated 
assays close to 0.75% tungstic trioxide. The deposits 
occur usually in large masses of sedimentary rocks asso- 
ciated with the surrounding granite eountry-rock. The 
greatest depth so far reached in any of the mines is 
about 120 ft. below the surface and the tungsten-content 
seems to be increasing at this depth. Two mills are now 
in operation, namely, that of the Standard Tungsten Co., 
having a capacity of 70 tons daily, and the Tungsten 
Mines Co.. having a capacity of about 250 tons daily. 
The production of scheelite concentrate is about 6000 lb. 
per day. At the property of the Round Valley Tungsten 
Co., of which Cooper Shapley is manager, a mill is being 
completed which will have a daily capacity of about 100 
tons. A new departure from the usual milling practice 
is being tried at this plant, consisting in the use of a 
Marcy ball-mill for the fine crushing. In order to avoid 
sliming of the scheelite, a grate opening of \ in. is used 
and the ore after leaving the ball-mill is screened to 10 
mesh on Colorado Iron "Works impact screens. By em- 
ploying an excess of water in the Marcy mill, it is ex- 
pected that the ore, as soon as it is crushed to pass a 
J-in. screen, will be flushed out and sliming avoided. The 
oversize from the impact screen is returned to the Marcy 
mill for further grinding. Mining and milling can be 
done cheaply because of the low-priced electric power and 
the accessibility of the properties to the railroad and to 
sources of supplies. 

Besides the above-mentioned properties, another large 
tungsten property is now being examined with the object 
of installing a 1000-ton mill. Diamond-drills are to be 
used in the development and examination of this prop- 
erty, and it is probable that next year the mill will be in 
operation. 



Zinc Situation in Australia 



•When William Morris, the Premier of the Common- 
wealth, was in England he arranged a 1.0-year contract 
for the treatment of a certain tonnage of our /in.' eoncen 
trate in Great Britain, and he also obtained an advance 
of i:r>(i().()()() toward the establishment of spelter-works in 
Australia with a promise that the output would be pur- 
chased by the British government. What Mr. Hughes 
has not told us is how this half million pounds is to be 
allocated. The works of the Electrolytic Zinc Co. Pro- 
prietary Ltd. at Mobart, in course of erection, will call 
for the expenditure of £1,000,000: the Mount Lyell Co. 
is also considering the erection of an electrolytic plant 
for the treatment of the Mount Read-Rosebery ores; 
Gilbert Rigg, metallurgist, is investigating the subject 
of zinc reduction both by the retort and electrolytic 
methods ; while a scheme for utilizing the brown coal 
deposits of Victoria in connection with the industry 
has been mooted. The need for such works is urgent, 
as, under present circumstances, it is imposible to find 
a market for the current production, notwithstanding 
the shipments going to the United States and to another 
of our allies. As a consequence large tonnages are 
being stacked for future treatment. It will therefore 
be realized that the allocation of the money obtained 
from the British government for this purpose is a mat- 
ter of great public interest and importance, and an 
announcement of the government's policy in this re- 
spect should not be longer delayed. With respect to 
the Electrolytic Zinc Co. it may be said that the erection 
of the first unit capable of producing 10 to 11 tons of 
zinc per day is proceeding satisfactorily, and, provided 
no delays are experienced due to non-delivery of cer- 
tain equipment under order in Great Britain, it should 
be in commission in August next. The experimental 
test-unit capable of producing 250 to 300 lb. of electro- 
lytic zinc per day is now running, and the results con- 
firm those obtained in America. This unit is supplying 
useful data, and will facilitate the earlier successful 
operation of the first unit. The Zinc Corporation, Ltd., 
has acquired a one-fifth interest in this company. 
David Meredith has been appointed general manager 
of the Amalgamated Zine Co., in place of H. W. Gepp, 
who has been appointed general manager of the Elec- 
trolytic Zine Co. 

Fereo-uranium produced from the uranium oxide ob- 
tained as a by-product in the extraction of radium from 
its ores is being investigated by the Bureau of Mines. 
Ferro-uranium is used in making uranium steel, em- 
ployed in Germany for the linings of big guns, which, it 
is claimed, stand up at a rate of fire so rapid that other 
steels fail. Work will be started on the production of 
sample lots of uranium steel and other special steels, for 
test by the Bureau of Ordnance of the War Department 
as to their suitability for use in guns. The work on gun- 
steel will also require the use of electric furnaces. 

*The Win. & Eng. Review. 



96 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21. 1917 



Recent Patents 



1.228.183. FLOTATION 01 Miniums. Harry P. Corliss, Pitts- 
burgh. Pa., assignor to Meials Recovery Company, New York, 
N. Y.. a Corporation of Maine. Filed .Mar. 21, 1917. Serial No. 
156.491. 

1. The method of effecting t lie concentration of minerals by 
flotation, which comprises adding to the mineral pulp a small 
amount or alpha uuphiliylamin and subjecting the resulting 
mlxtun '■"" operation; substantially as described. 

8. The method of effecting the concentration of minerals by 

flotation, which comprises adding to the mineral pulp a small 

amount ol alpha-naphthylamin and of oil and subjecting the 

lug mixture to a flotation operation: substantially as 

described. 



1,228,184. Flotatiok 01 Minerals. Harry P.Corliss, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., assignor i" Metals Recovery Company, New York, 

N. Y.. a Corporatl I Maine, riled Mar. 21. 1917. Serial No. 

156,4 

1. The nieiliiiil Hi effecting the concentration of minerals by 
notation, winch comprises adding to the mineral pulp a small 
amount Ol nltro-naphthalene and subjecting the resulting 
mixture tn a dotation operation: substantially as described. 

2, The method o! effecting the concentration of minerals by 
flotation, which comprises adding to the mineral pulp a small 
amount of nltro-naphthalene and of oil and subjecting the 
resulting mixture to a flotation operation; substantially as 
described. 

1,212,824. Tia oral NT OF Nickel ORES. Frederick A. Eustis, 
Miltnn, M usb. 

1. The met hod ol recovering nickel from oxidized or silicate 

nickel-bearing ores, which comprises mixing the ore with a 
small proportion of sulfur-bearing material such as pyrite, and 
roasting the mixture In its raw state In a suitable furnace at 
such temperature and tor such a time that a relatively large 
i n! i In nickel Is made soluble while a relatively small 
amount of the gangue is made soluble. 

2. The method of recovering nickel from an oxidized or 
silicate nickel-iron ore. which comprises mixing the ore with 
B small proportion of sulfur-bearing material such as pyrite. 
and roasting the mixture in its raw state In a suitable furnace 
at Buch temperature and for such time that a relatively small 
amount of the iron Is made soluble. 

1,227,615. Treatment of Ores. Arthur Howard Higgins. 
London, England, assignor to Minerals Separation Limited, 
London. England. Piled Nov. 14, 1913. Serial No. 800,966. 

1. A process for the concentration of ores which consists In 
treating an ore pulp conjointly with a mineral frothing agent 
lor the separation Of metalliferous constituents by flotation 
and with a chemical agent that facilitates the separation of 
some metalliferous constituents by flotation and dissolves 
other constituents. 

5. \ process for the concentration of ores which consists in 
first roasting the ore and thereafter agitating it with water 
containing a mineral frothing agent and also a chemical agent 
that facilitates the separation of some metalliferous constitu- 
ents by notation and dissolves certain other constituents and 
thereafter precipitating the dissolved metal in such a manner 

as to regenerate the chemical age) 



1,228,608, Psoases fob Making Insulating Matkbiai fbom 
Basic Maonesicai Carbonate \nh Fibrous Substances. Karl 
Schmld, Alt-Mugeln. near .Mugeln. Leipzig, Germany, assignor 
to the Firm of "Lipala" Chemlsche Fabrlk, utien-Gessell- 
schaft. Mugeln. Leipzig. Germany. Filed Nov. 9, 1916. 

1. The process of making insulating material from basic 



magnesium carbonate and fibrous substances, consisting in de- 
positing basic magnesium carbonate on fibrous substances tn 
statu nascendi. 

5. The process of making insulating material consisting in 
depositing normal magnesium carbonate on a mass of fibrous 
substances suspended in a solution containing magnesium 
hydroxid by the reaction of a carbonate compound of ammonia 
therewith, thereupon filtering off the liquid and drying the re- 
maining mass, the said normal magnesium carbonate being 
thereby converted into the basic magnesium carbonate. 

1,228,078. Recording-Sampler. Arthur E. Truesdell. Adams. 
Mass. Filed June 15, 1912. Serial No. 703,803. 




In a recording sampler, the combination with a chute or 
passageway through which the material to be sampled passes 
and which is provided with an opening, of a permanently-open 
spout communicating with said opening and adapted to re- 
ceive material therefrom, a sample-receiving element rotatable 
in a horizontal plane beneath the delivery end of said spout 
and closely adjacent thereto, said element having projections 
extending from its periphery, automatically, operative means 
acting on said element and tending to rotate it forwardly, a 
pivoted escapement level cooperating with said projections and 
normally restraining said element from movement, and time- 
controlled electric means for periodically actuating the escape- 
ment lever to release the sample-receiving element and per- 
mit it to rotate one step forward. 

1.227,867. Crude-Oil Buhner. John Young. New Westmin- 
ster. British Columbia. Canada. Filed Jan 6, 1917. 




5. A crude-oil burner, comprising in combination, an outer 
burner member axially bored and threaded at one end to fit an 
oil service pipe and therebeyond conically reduced to a cylin- 
drical bore which at the farther end is abruptly reduced to a 
circular delivery outlet threaded with a screw thread, an in- 
ner burner member the outside diameter of which is at one 
end larger than the cylindrical bore of the outer member and 
at the other end has a diameter slightly less than the said 
cylindrical bore and Intermediate of its ends is reduced below 
the diameter of the outer end. the reduction of the larger end 
being conical to correspond with the conical reduction in the 
bore of the outer member, the outer end of the inner member 
terminating a short distance from the outlet reduction of the 
outer member so as to leave a chambered interspace, the inner 
member being axlally bored to a short distance from its outer 
end and having a series of small apertures through it at the 
intermediate reduced portion, and means for delivering a 
steam service to the bore of the Inner member. 



1,216,617, Process fob Obtaining Potash fbom Potash- 
Rocks. Frederick C. Gillen. Milwaukee. Wis., assignor to Wil- 
liam A. Krasselt. Milwaukee. Wis. 

1. The process of decomposing potash rock which consists in 



July 21. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



97 



mixing ground potash rock with, an excess of fixed alkali 
hydrate, adding water to this mixture and heating It under 
pressure to form a solution of fixed alkali silicate and potas- 
sium alumlnate, adding alkaline borate to this solution to 
temporarily prevent the formation of the double salt of alkali 
aluminum silicate, and then adding a reagent to this solution 
while it is under the temporary" action of the alkaline borate to 
separate the silica therefrom and to form a solution of potas- 
sium salt and fixed alkali carbonate from which the potassium 
salt may be separated. 

2. The process of decomposing potash rock which consists in 
mixing ground potash rock with an excess of fixed alkali car- 
bonate, adding water to this mixture and heating it to form a 
solution of fixed alkali silicate and potassium aluminate. add- 
ing alkaline borate to prevent the formation o£ a double sait 
of alkali aluminum silicate, and then adding carbon dioxid to 
ution to form a solution containing potassum carbon- 
ate, fixed alkali carbonate and alkaline borate from which the 
potassium carbonate may be separated. 



!3S. Centrifugal Impact Pulverizing Apparatus. 
Donn O. Marks, San Francisco, Cal., assignor of one-half to 
Lynn S. Atkinson, Los Angeles. Cal. Filed Dec. 11, 1913. 




1. In an impact pulverizing apparatus having an annular 
impact wall; a rotor provided with impellers pivotally con- 
nected to the rotor body at one side of their centers of gravity 
and extending only part of the way from their pivots to said 
wall, so as to leave at all times an unobstructed space between 
the impeller and the wall, and so that the impellers are free to 
swing their longitudinal axes to and fro across those radii of 
the rotor in which the impeller pivots are located, respectively, 
without touching the impeller wall; for the purpose of yield- 
ingly taking on the material to be impelled outward for disin- 
tegrating impact with the surrounding wall. 

5. In a centrifugal impact pulverizer; a rotor comprising a 
shaft, a head on said shaft, said head being constructed with 
two disks spaced apart, one above the other; centrifugally 
cushioned impellers pivoted between the disks; a universal 
joint; a bearing for the shaft; said bearing located near the 
lower end of the shaft and supported by the universal joint, 
and power applying means connected below the bearing to 
drive the shaft. 

1,214,991. Peoductios of ALtMiNA a>d Potassium Sulfate 
fbom Alt-site. Earl Blough and Thomas Mcintosh, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., assignor to Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 

1. The process of treating alunite, comprising mixing the 
alunite with common salt, heating the mixture whereby the 
salt is decomposed, dissolving out sodium sulfate and potas- 
sium sulfate from the reaction product separating the latter 
sulfate from the solution, heating together sodium sulfate 



thus obtained and the residue from the solution, whereby the 
sodium sulfate Is broken up, and from the residue of the latter 
heating dissolving out alumina as sodium alumlnate. 

M6. Air-Lift-Pump Booster. Frank S. Miller, de- 
ceased. Indianapolis, Ind., by Donald S. Morris, administrator 
de bonis non, Indianapolis, Ind.. assignor to William I-angsen- 
kamp, Jr., trustee. Filed May 20. 1916. 




•5. In combination, a closed chamber, a pipe leading from a 
well into such chamber, an air nozzle in such pipe below such 
chamber, a pipe leading from such chamber and opening into 
such chamber below the liquid level therein, said chamber 
having a restricted air outlet opening therefrom which air out- 
let opening communicates with the chamber at a point higher 
than the water level therein so as to permit a restricted escape 
of air while maintaining the pressure of the retained air above 
atmospheric pressure, and a safety valve responsive to an ex- 
cessive pressure within said chamber for permitting a greater 
escape of air from the chamber. 

1.227,831. Bhiquettixg-Machine. Grant W. Rigby. Pitts- 
burgh. Pa. Filed Aug. S, 1913. 




1. A plunger mechanism for a molding machine having a 
reciprocating feed box for the material, comprising recipro- 
cating plungers cooperating with said feed box and having 
material-receiving cavities in the end thereof, movable resist- 
ing plungers in line with said first-named plungers and having 
material-receiving cavities in the ends thereof, said resisting 
plungers being held normally stationary against pressure and 
having fluid cylinders therein, ejector bars within said resist- 
ing plungers for expelling the molded material from the cavi- 
ties thereof, and differential piston heads connected with said 
bars and contained in said cylinder. 

4. In a molding machine, a receptacle for containing a quan- 
tity of material considerably greater than the quantity molded 
at each operation, a pair of opposed molding plungers having 
mold-cavities at their opposing ends and arranged, when 
brought together, to form a mold complete in itself, means for 
effecting a relative movement between said plungers to effect 
the molding operation and the discharging operation, and 
means for effecting a relative movement between said recep- 
tacle and said plungers such that the molding operation takes 
place within said receptacle and the discharging operation 
takes place outside said receptacle. 



98 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



2II1II1IIIINIIIUI 1NIIII1NI l!l!lllllllllllll!i{|[l!!ll!llllll!lll 



!ill!llllllllllllllllll[l!!!IIII!l!lllll: 



i:il.'[ll!lllli;!lll!ililllillllllil![!illllllilllll]!lltlllllilll 



173^W OP MINING 

§ 

As seen at the world's great mining centres by our own correspondents. 



LOBDSBURG, NEW MEXICO 
An Old District Resumes Operations Under the Stimulus of 
High Price for Metals. — Large Production in 1917. — 
Character of tile Ores and Geology of the District. 

Among the copper producing camps of the South-west that 
have lately come into prominence owing to the entrance of new 
companies and the enlarging of operations by the established 
companies, Lordsburg, situated in southern Grant county, 
stands out prominently. 

The ore of the district is in most cases of shipping-grade. 
There are no treatment plants in the district. Owing to the 
highly silicious character of the ore it is in demand at both 
the El Paso and Douglas smelters. Occasionally it is shipped 
elsewhere. The ores contain copper, gold, and silver, the first 



j.iiE 

The Lordsburg district is favored with an excellent geo- 
graphical location. It is near the smelters and larger supply 
points. Mexican and skilled American labor may be readily 
obtained. The climate is mild, high, and dry. Fuel-oil is 
comparatively cheap, being on the main line of the Southern 
Pacific railroad. No labor troubles have ever arisen in the 
district. The people of Lordsburg stand ready to encourage 
and aid new mining enterprises. The proverbial camp-knocker 
is dying out in this section. 

The production of the Lordsburg district in 1916 was about 
$2,100,700 from 186,000 tons of ore shipped. The forecast of 
ore shipments for 1917 probably will total $2,800,000 at the 
present rate of shipment. 

The ore-bearing lodes of the district occur as fissures in 
diorite changing in places to andesite and andesite-porphyry. 




LORDSBURG, NEW MEXICO, AND THE S5 MINE 



named predominating. I would estimate the average assay 
at 0.11 oz. gold, 4.07 oz. silver, and 3% copper. 

During the years past the district was hindered, as many 
meritorious districts are in the South-west, by the lack of 
transportation. Up until 1915 all ore had to be hauled from 3 
to 5 miles by wagon, truck, caterpillars, and other traction 
methods. Wet weather, bad roads, and breakdowns caused the 
usual delays. In 1915 the Arizona & New Mexico railroad 
built a spur from their main line to the S5 mine. From that 
time on the production of the camp was continuous and has 
increased monthly. The demand for the local ore has also been 
steady. The camp is now in a position of permanency and 
many new operators are taking hold of the dormant and half- 
dormant properties. 

The largest producer in the Lordsburg district is the 85 
Mining Company. The Lawrence Mining Co., operating the 
Bonney mine is second in output. These two companies are at 
present producing practically all the ore shipped from the 
camp. Lessees ship occasional lots but to no great extent. At 
the present time the Atwood mine, near the So property, is 
being unwatered and cleaned out for producing by the 85 Ex- 
tension Copper Mining Co. The Valedon Mining Co., Octo 
Mining Co.. Monte Rico Mining & "Milling Co., Hecla Mining 
Co., and individual property holders have valuable developed 
and undeveloped claims in the Virginia district; none of 
which, however, are shipping ore. In the Pyramid district 
the Nellie Bly, Robert E. Lee, Last Chance, Viola, and other 
copper, gold, and silver claims are operated occasionally. The 
production from the Pyramid district, however, will be light 
this year. 



There are at irregular intervals intrusions of the diorite into 
the andesite. Where these intrusions occur the ore is gener- 
ally in large quantities and of high value. The fracturing of 
the rocks, resulting in the fissures, was followed by ascending 
solutions, which deposited the ores. Later, descending solu- 
tions have percolated through the silicious vein-matter de- 
positing the mineral. This is more fully verified by the fact 
that the richer gold and silver ores are nearer the surface. 
There has been no intricate faulting where development work 
has opened up the lodes although a slight shearing has taken 
place. The dip of the veins on the 85 property, in the Virginia 
district, is 76° south-west and the strike is north 40° east. The 
width of the veins is from 5 to 50 ft. and the value ranges 
from $7 to $25 per ton. The character of the ore is oxide, 
chloride, and sulphide, with occasional high-grade ehaleocite 
pockets occurring as ore-shoots in the vein. 

The entire district is traversed by prominent dikes, which 
caused miners to first turn their attention to the district. 
These dikes or wall-like veins have an east-northeast trend 
intersecting at about Lee's peak. The dikes are highly silicious 
and brecciated, occurring in the porphyry and withstanding 
erosion. 

In the western part of the field diorite-porphyry is common 
and in the eastern exposure of andesite they are noticeable. 

The Pyramid range of mountains are of Tertiary age, the 
characteristic country rock being andesite-porphyry. 

No attempts have been made in later days to treat the ore 
locally, although a number of experiments in flotation have 
been made by the 85 Mining Company. A test-plant was 
erected at El Paso, Texas, by J. W. Crowdus, the smelter repre- 



July L'l. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 






seutative. and a number »f experiments made. At the present 
time the company is experimenting at the mine with roasting 
and precipitation. 

A dry-mill was erected in 1916 for the treating or some low- 
grade lead ore found on the east side of the mineralized zone. 
The mill did not prove successful and was soon closed down 
after several months' testing was done. Save for an abandoned 
stamp-mill in the Pyramid camp, there are no further treat- 
ment-plants in the district. 

Almost ns well known as the district itself is the 85 mine 
and adjoining developed property owned by the S5 Mining Co., 
which is employing about 600 men and shipping on an average 
10,000 tons of ore per month to the smelters. The 85 mine is 
situated three miles south-west of Lordsburg. 

In 1915 the S5 Mining Co. turned in to the State Tax Com- 
mission of New Mexico a gross production value of $762,921.78, 
and in 1916, $1,456,587.29. The net value determined by the 
State Tax Commission for the S5 Mining Co. was $566,613 for 
1916. 

The company has 12 patented claims in the Virginia district. 
The most extensive work, however, is being, done on the '85,' 
'99,' Superior, Emerald, and Mohawk claims. 

The ore of the 85 mine is mined by the shrinkage-stope 
method, with chutes every 20 ft. There are six levels, the low- 
est being 550 ft. from the adit-level and about 820 ft. from the 
surface. A main adit has been driven from the east side of 
the 85 mountain, a distance of 1500 ft. to the winze, from which 
all hoisting is done. The adit connects with the ore-bins and 
power-plant. Haulage is done with gasoline-locomotives, being 
a recent innovation here. 

Mining is in progress on practically all the levels and espe- 
cially the 450 and 550-ft. levels. On the 450-ft. level lateral 
work extends about 2000 ft. The property is connected with 
the Superior and other mines on the west. 

The shaft has three compartments with double-deck cages. 
The hoist is electrically driven, Ottumwa type. Driving is 
done under contract, with Leyner drills. There are four elec- 
trical pumps in the mine lifting about 550 gal. of water per 
minute. 

The company intends to continue shaft-sinking until the 950- 
ft. level is reached. This work is now under way. 

A handsome new store building has been constructed ; also a 
large number of houses for employees. A hotel for the single 
men, and a hospital, which will be used jointly between the 
85 Mining Co. and the Lawrence Mining Co., are to be erected 
this year. Strict attention is being given the sanitation of the 
camp. 

A. J. Interrieden, manager for the S5 Mining Co., is con- 
stantly looking out for the welfare of the employees. He has 
found this a paramount factor in the success of mining. In 
every way he has bettered the living conditions of the men and 
is using every means to make it an ideal camp. As a reward 
for his efforts there has never been any labor trouble in the 
camp and an efficient working force has been organized. 

The 85 Mining Co. is composed of Wisconsin capitalists and 
business men. Arthur P. Warner and Charles H. Warner, in- 
ventors of the auto-meter, are president and secretary, respec- 
tively, of the company. B. P. Yates, president of the Berlin 
Machine Co., manufacturers of wood-working machinery, is 
vice-president, and a large interest in the company is held by 
James Barclay, of Hot Springs, Arkansas. J. A. Leahy, W. F. 
Eitter, and John Gleeson are other large owners of stock in 
the company. 

The power-house of the 85 Mining Co. is one of the most 
complete and modern of any in the South-west. Power is gen- 
erated by two 450-hp. Lyons Atlas Deisel-type crude-oil engines 
which are installed in a new steel power-house 200 by 100 ft. 
A 250-kva. Allis-Chalmers generator is installed to generate 
electricity for the mines, and air-pressure is secured from a 
late type Ingersoll-Rand compressor with an air displacement 
of 1600 cu. ft. Leyner machine-drills are used in the mine, 



also Aldrloh pumps. Than is an auxillarj power-plant 

equipped with an 80-hp, Falrbanks-Morea crud I 

6600-volt iRMH-nitor, and a compreBBor. -i. ii. Clark is maater 
mechanic and G. A. Hlersach Is his assistant. 



PLATTEVILLE, WISCONSIN 

A Falling Mauki i DISAPPOINTS Hoi in us of Zim am. Lead 
Ore. — Ootput of the Mikes i\ Jim.— ni-.w Strikes ako 
Diamond-Drill Development. 

Metals in general, with the exception of spelter, prospered 
during June. Zinc was neglected. The situation in the spelter 
industry could be described in few words — smelters carried 
unsold stocks. The softening of the spelter market toward the 
end of June met with a sympathetic response in the offerings 
for blende. 

Operators viewed the situation at the close of the month 
with misgivings. Such as were protected in their deliveries by 
long-term contracts are resting quietly. Others affiliated with 
smelter interests, or magnetic-separating plants, operating in 
the field, were enabled to produce consistently. The independ- 
ent joint-stock corporation, compelled to solicit bids, fared 
badly except in the Linden district, where nearness to reduc- 
tion-plants at Mineral Point obviated excessive transportation 
costs. The independent producers that had facilities for rais- 
ing ore to top grade have been successful in disposing of the 
finished product but have not always had a free field. Only 
when competition becomes accentuated between the large 
buyers, and there is a keen demand for high-grade ore for 
ready metal, have they been permitted to enjoy a period of 
real prosperity. The high cost of living leaves the large em- 
ployers of mining help fearful to even hint at reductions in 
wages. 

Lead, the last metal to respond to the War's demands, has 
shown increased activity, but with, a price movement com- 
paratively slow, that has given way to a market full of inter- 
est. In the Wisconsin field prices of lead ore advanced steadily 
during the first half of June until offerings at one time stood 
at $132 per ton, base of 80% metal. Competition developed 
between buyers and for a time some ore came out of unexpected 
places, and it looked as if miners would clean-up but the nature 
of the pig-lead market encouraged many to hold in the belief 
that still better prices would be obtainable. With pig-lead 
almost three times as high in price as before the War, and 
ready metal scarce for prompt and nearby shipments, pro- 
ducers considered that they were safe In holding. In the 
midst of the hour of greatest hope came a drop to $120 per ton. 

Deliveries of ore from mines direct to reduction-plants in 
the field and to smelters from May 2S to June 30 were: Zinc, 
48,605,000 lb.; lead, 1,190,000 lb.; and pyrite, 6,230,000 pounds. 
High-grade blende from refining-plants to smelters was sent 
out as follows: Benton, 6,968,000 lb.; Mineral Point, 5,706,000 
lb.; Cuba City, 5,066,000 lb.; Linden, 342,000 lb. Total, 18,082,- 
000 pounds. 

The total recovery of mine-run product for the field from 
May 28 to June 30 aggregated 24,510 tons; total net deliveries 
out of the field to smelter, 15,430 tons. The reserve in the 
field at the close of June exceeded 2000 tons of raw ore at 
all mines; no high-grade ore was carried over; 1000 tons 
of lead ore and 2500 tons of pyrite. 

Sales and distribution of zinc ore made during June was 
as follows: to Mineral Point Zinc Co., 7106 tons; Wisconsin 
Zinc Co., 4989 tons; Grasselli Chemical Co., 4689 tons; Na- 
tional Separating Co., 4691 tons; American Zinc Co., Hills- 
boro, Illinois, 4009 tons; Linden Zinc Co., 1465 tons; American 
Metal Co., 927 tons; Illinois Zinc Co., 869 tons; Matthiesen & 
Hegeler Zinc Co., LaSalle, Illinois, 666 tons; Lanyon Zinc Co., 
Joplin, Missouri, 602 tons; Benton Boasters, 551 tons; Edgar 
Zinc Co., 175 tons; total, 30,739 tons; the period being con- 
sidered one of the best showings yet made in the Wisconsin 



100 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



field and far below normal outputting capacity, there being a 
dearth of mining labor at all points in the field. 

During June local producers of carbonate zinc ore at High- 
land had few offerings for this class of ore, and shipments 
were negligible, but the New Jersey Zinc Co., operating with 
new producers, increased its deliveries. The Linden district 
found a ready demand for its low-grade sphalerite with the 
Mineral Point Zinc Co. The Optimo Mining Co. had an un- 
usually successful month. Mine No. 3 produced at the rate 
of 125 tons of raw concentrate per week. Mine No. 4, just 
cpened up on the James J. Rule lease of 120 acres, discovered 
an extensive deposit of rich zinc ore. Drill-squads were em- 
ployed on the lease all month and will continue exploration 
until the range has been fully prospected. The Spring-Hill 
Mining Co. struck new deposits on the William Ross land, 
and drills were kept at work proving the ground. Kletszch 
Bros, drilled a vein of zinc ore on the John Wasley farm and 
found sufficient to warrant both mine development and sur- 
face-rig. A new local mining enterprise, organized as the 
Super-Six Mining Co., developed a lead-ore producer on the 
Frank Bottoms farm. The Weigle mine, recently developed, 
reached, through underground workings, a new deposit of zinc 
ore after months of effort and recoveries are running from 10 
to 12 tons of 40% zinc concentrate per shift of nine hours 
daily. The new producer is owned by the Milwaukee-Linden 
Development Co. The local magnetic-separating plant, con- 
trolled by the Zinc Concentrating Co. in New York, finished 
blende assaying as high as 62% zinc, calling for top prices. 
Official announcement was made that this plant, and that 
operated by the same company at Cuba City, will be doubled 
in capacity. Additional Dings separating-machines are to be 
installed. New devices for consuming gases will be a feature 
of the plants. The O. P. David Mining Co., in the Montfort 
district, drove west toward the zinc deposits found by drilling 
during May, and increased output was the result. Several 
new mining companies were organized to explore and develop 
new leases that are presumed to be on the trend of the main 
range. 

In the Dodgeville district the North Survey Mining Co.. in 
50 working days from the time ground was first broken for 
foundations, built and set in operation a new 150-ton concen- 
trator. Shipment of the first car of blende was made June 28, 
ore assaying over 50% zinc. The deposit occurs at a depth 
of 50 ft. Electric power is used throughout the mill. 

Mineral Point and its vicinity, which has shown little ac- 
tivity in mining for many years, is being rejuvenated through 
the efforts of the Utt-Thorne Mining Co.. which has a re-built 
mill in operation, a heavy pump installed, and three con- 
tiguous leases being explored. The mill makes a concentrate 
assaying 55% zinc. Magnetic-separation is rarely undertaken 
here where such a quantity of zinc is shown. Sometimes 
operators mix high-grade mill-feed with the low-grade to in- 
sure a better recovery. 

MEXICO 

New Law Regi/lating Oil Industry. — Petroleum Committees' 
Recommendations. — Operation of Law Will be Almost 
Equivalent to Confiscation. — Productive Capacity of 
the Oil District. 

Printed copies of the first draft of the proposed law for the 
control and regulation of practically all phases of the oil 
industry in Mexico have been distributed among the interests 
that are to be affected. Provisions of this measure which will 
soon be laid before Congress are of such a drastic nature that 
their enforcement would mean the virtual confiscation of the 
landed holdings of foreign as well as native investors through- 
out the oil-producing region. The bill in its present form 
contains more than 150 printed pages. Most of these are de- 
voted to new regulations which, if put into law, would make 



the oil industry of that country so complicated as to almost 
prohibit it being continued, it is claimed. The proposed 
law is entirely separate and distinct from the taxation decree 
which went into effect on July 1 and which imposes a heavy 
burden upon oil producers. The new bill as now drawn is 
largely devoted to the land feature of the oil industry. As one 
illustration of its possible far-reaching effectB it may be stated 
that it places the oil of the country in the same category as 
the metalliferous minerals, and it applies to oil development 
many of the regulations now contained in the mining law of 
that country. All land that has been leased or is owned in 
fee simple for the purpose of exploiting oil is required, under 
this proposed new law, to pay to the Government an annual 
tax of five pesos per hectare, which is equivalent to a tax of 
$1.01 gold per acre on the land. Several of the larger oil com- 
panies own 1,000,000 to 4,000,000 acres of land and the imposi- 
tion of this tax would mean an enormous annual outlay. It 
is estimated that approximately 25.000,000 acres of land are 
situated in what is known as the proved oil region bordering 
that part of the gulf coast around Tampico. At a tax of $1.01 
gold per acre it would mean the bringing to the Government 
of an annual revenue of about $25,000,000 from this source 
alone: but this is not the worst and most drastic provision 
of the bill. Placing oil under the mining law makes all 
privately and publicly owned lands subject to denouncement 
for its possible oil wealth. In other words, if this pending 
measure is enacted into law, any person can go upon the land 
of another, whether the oil-rights upon it be already leased 
or not, and locate a claim of a certain size upon which to 
bore prospect wells, and if he happen to strike oil, which is a 
posible result in nearly all parts of the Tampico territory, he 
will have a clear title to it. It is provided, however, that the 
producer of the oil shall pay to the Federal government one- 
half of whatever royalty the original lessee may have agreed 
to pay the owner of the land. The new law gives to the 
Government a royalty on all oil that may be produced. 

It is claimed that if the oil lands are made subject to de- 
nouncement by anyone who may want to go upon them and 
put down a well, it will mean the financial ruin of every 
large American and British oil-producing company now oper- 
ating in that country. It is reported to be the announced 
purpose of President Carranza and those that occupy high 
positions under his administration, to cause the dividing of the 
oil-land holdings of the foreign investors in the Tampico 
region. The application of the mining law to oil development 
will cause a great rush of prospectors into the different fields, 
and instead of this enormous underground wealth being in the 
possession of a comparatively few concerns, it would be 
divided among many, and in this way the Mexicans them- 
selves, who have up to this time neglected their opportunities 
for engaging in this industry, will be placed in a position to 
acquire, with but little cost to themselves, valuable oil hold- 
ings. 

The preparation of this drastic bill was begun by a specially 
appointed congressional commission about six months ago and 
it is said to be now ready for final action of Congress. Al- 
though there has been comparatively little done in the matter 
of boring new wells during the past two years, a careful 
survey which has just been taken of the completed wells shows 
that they have at this time a total available output of about 
365,000,000 barrels per annum. The exportations aggre- 
gate about 4,500,000 barrels per month or at the rate of about 
54,000,000 barrels per annum, which leaves an underground 
developed supply of approximately 311,000,000 barrels. It is 
stated by leading oil operators here that it would be an easy 
matter to more than double the oil production of the Tampico 
territory and that this could probably be brought about within 
a period of six months. In fact it might be done in that many 
weeks as it has already been proved that it is possible to 
bring in wells with a daily flow of upward of 200,000 barrels 
each. It is not a problem of available or possible production 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Hll 



there, but it is one of transportation and marketing tacllltlee 
which has to be met before the present export figures can be 
materially increased. 



LBADVILLE, COLORADO 
a General Strike ok Union Men Threatened, and State 
Troops Ake Quietly Being Sent Into the District to Pro- 
■ > • i property. — The Principal minks Continue to Work, 
THOUGH Many Men Have Left the District. 

Cloud City Miners' Union No. 33 of the International Union 
of Mine. Mill, and Smelter Workers, by a referendum vote 
taken July 3. declared in favor of a strike in the mines of the 
Leadville district, by 641 to 72. The strike has not yet been 
called, as the local organization is waiting for the arrival of a 
member of the executive committee of the International Union. 
President Carpenter and Secretary Follett, of the Cloud City 
Union, also stated after the result of the voting was announced 
that a strike would not be called until every effort to bring 
about a settlement with the operators had failed. This de- 
cision has tended to release the tension of the situation, al- 
though it is the general opinion that a strike will be declared, 
as the operators persistently refuse to make any concessions 
or to offer a compromise. 

President Charles H. Moyer of the International Union of 
Mine. Mill, and Smelter Workers, predicts that a settlement 
will be reached before it becomes necessary to call a strike. 
After having been informed of the situation here showing that 
a majority of the union members favor a strike, he wired the 
following statement to the union headquarters. 

"I advise and earnestly request that you rturn to your em- 
ployment Thursday morning. Also that you elect a committee 
with full power to act with representatives of your inter- 
national with regard to the wage demands that you have made 
to your employers." 

This caused many men to return to work who had previously 
decided to draw their time-checks, or to remain away from 
the mines until a settlement had been reached. Nearly all of 
the mines continue to operate with nearly full crews. A num- 
ber of Austrian miners failed to return to work, many of them 
having drawn their time. A few non-union men have left the 
district. The general opinion among the operators is that the 
Austrian element in the union is controling its action, and 
that they have determined upon trouble that will cripple the 
mines. The union leaders claim that the organization has 
over 1000 members. If this is true, the vote taken on the 
strike was light, and there is no doubt that the members who 
did not vote were the men not favoring a strike. It was 
noticed that those who went to the polls were mostly for- 
eigners, which bears out the contention of the operators that 
the Austrian element is in control. 

A strike at this time is unpopular here among business men. 
mechanics, pump-men, and engineers in the mines, non-union 
miners, and miners generally. It is estimated that there are 
2300 miners in the district, and the union leaders only claim 
to have 1035, many of them being smelter-men. Sentiment is 
not against the demands of the union, as it is conceded that 
under existing living costs the men are running to the limit 
of their wages for general expenses, and that they must have 
relief before long; hut it is believed that action which would 
permanently cripple the mines of the district, throw 3000 men 
out of work, bring hardship to the families of as many more, 
possibly destroy millions of dollars worth of property, and stop 
the revival of mining in the Leadville district, at a time when 
it promises so much for the future. 

On the morning of July 4, following the day of voting, one 
of the guards patroling at the power-station of the Colorado 
Power Co., near the Yak tunnel, was fired on by a sniper 
hiding behind one of the buildings. The bullet pierced the 
hat of the guard but did him no injury. He returned the fire, 
but as it was dark, he could see nothing to shoot at. A search 



for the sniper followed but no clue was found. On the night 
of July 4, a heavy charge of dynamite was exploded In an old 
shaft on the Sixth Street property, one of the Down Town 
mines that is Idle. The shock broke windows In surrounding 
residences and store-bulldlngs and caved the shaft. 

State troops are being quietly brought Into the district and 
stationed to protect the city light and water-plants, the smelter, 
and other important points. 

The operators held a meeting July 6 to discuss the situation, 
but nothing was done that would tend to bring about a settle- 
ment. They are awaiting the action of the union, believing 
that should a strike be called it will prove ineffective, as many 
of the miners will continue to work. 

New development in the district is retarded because of the 
pending labor trouble. A number of large enterprises that 
had planned to start operations about July 1 have made no 
attempts to proceed. On the borders of the district, however. 
a few companies are taking up development regardless of the 
situation, as it is necessary to pay higher wages to men in 
these out-of-the-way places than at the properties near town. 

At a meeting of the union held July 9, it was decided to call 
the strike at noon on the 14th unless a settlement is reached 
in the meantime. It has also been announced that former 
Judge Musser, of the State Supreme Court, and Verner Z. 
Reed, both of Denver, have been appointed by Secretary of 
Labor Wilson to act as mediators in the situation. The union 
officials have stated their willingness to call a special meeting 
and further postpone the strike if the government mediators 
find that they need more time. 

A. S. Sharp, cashier for the Leadville Water Co., and asso- 
ciates, have secured a long-term lease on the Houston claim in 
Iowa gulch, lying immediately south-east of the Ella Beeler 
property; and have started work cleaning out the adit. 



KENNECOTT, ALASKA 

Striking Miners at Kennecott Make Arbitrary Demands on 
the Manager of the Kennecott Copper Co., Which De- 
mands are Refused. — Federal Troops Guard the Com- 
pany's Property. 

E. T. Stannard, manager for the Kennecott Copper Corpora- 
tion, returned from New York on June 25. The miners, about 
200 in number, that had walked out about two weeks ago, in 
his absence, renewed their demand for $5.75 per day, flat wage, 
and gave notice through their committee that they would not 
even agree that that scale would obtain for any definite period. 
Under such an uncertain demand the management refused 
further to deal with the committee and immediately posted a 
new scale of wages effective June 16, 1917, as follows: The 
standard wage-scale will continue as the base-rate — that is 
$4.25 per day for miners and $3.75 for shovelers when copper 
is under 15c. per lb. ; copper between 15 and 18c. per lb., bonus 
25c. per day; copper between 18 and 21c. per lb., bonus 50c. per 
day; copper between 21 and 24c. per lb., bonus 75c. per day; 
copper between 24 and 27Jc. per lb., bonus $J per day; copper 
over 27Jc. per lb., bonus $1.25 per day; settlement to be made 
on the average price of copper for the preceding month as given 
in the Engineering and Mining Journal quotations. Mess 
employees on a monthly basis will receive a bonus of $4 per 
month for each 25c. change in bonus for employees on daily 
basis. The men agreed to return to work on this scale if the 
manager would take them all back. This the manager refused 
to do, reserving the right to reject any individual. None of 
the strikers have returned to work yet. The management is 
preparing to resume work at the mines as soon as the necessary 
men can be secured. 

A squad of 24 United States soldiers was sent from Fort 
Liscum, near Valdez, to Kennecott on June 27, and are now 
guarding the company's property. It seems to be the general 
impression that plenty of men can be had within a week or two 
to resume operations at the mines. 



102 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



,_ ■ : . :■■ :■:■:■:.■;::;.;:■ . ; :■. ■■■.■.■.- : : - !' 



Ii-Mi-Mi ' ■- ■ ■: :■:::',! J 



The news of the week as told by our special correspondents and compiled from the local press. 



ALASKA 

(Special Correspondence.) — Charles Davis, of the Alaska 
Petroleum & Coal Co., is authority for the statement that his 
company will be prepared to deliver coal to the towns along 
the Alaska coast early this fall. A railroad from the mines 
to a point on Controller bay, where the coal can be picked up 
by barges, is now under construction. The length of the rail- 
haul is 25 miles. 

Clark Davis, vice-president and general manager of the 
company, is expected at Katalla at an early date. 

Katalla, July 1. 

In view of the disappointing results at the Alaska Gold prop- 
erty, the ore running 50 to 75c. per ton below expectations, the 
starting of the mill on the Alaska-Juneau property adjoining 
has been awaited with much interest. The results to date show 
a very low yield of gold and compare with an average assay 
at Alaska Gold of $1-19 in 1916 and $1.15 in 1915. F. W. Brad- 
ley, president of the Alaska-Juneau company, says to the Bos- 
ton News Bureau: "One unit of the new mill started up March 
31, and in April a few additional units were started, resulting 
in a total crushing for the month of April'of 7046 tons, having 
an average gold assay-value of 72.6c. per ton. In the month of 
May, 37,000 tons was crushed, having an average gold assay- 
value of 77c. per ton. For the first 10 days of June, 17,229 tons 
were crushed, and during the second 10 days 16,000 tons were 
crushed. All starting-up troubles should be gradually over- 
come during this summer and the mill will be in full operation 
by the end of the year. The milling and auxiliary surface- 
equipment has cost to date a total of $2,532,027. The ore, as 
hauled from the mine, is first delivered for coarse crushing to 
a rock-house, following which is the mill proper composed of 
12 units with a primary-crushing ball-mill at the head of each 
unit. These ball-mills were originally designed to have a 
capacity of 700 tons each; but it was afterward planned to 
push this capacity up to 1000 tons each per day. if possible; so 
the whole plant should have an eventual capacity of anywhere 
from 8400 to 12,000 tons per day. At an average daily capacity 
of 11,000 tons, we expect to recover SOc. per ton at a cost of 
between 40 and 45c. per ton." 

ARIZONA 

There has been a great deal of excitement in the copper dis- 
tricts of Arizona the past week, every important copper pro- 
ducing district except Ray being affected. At Jerome an at- 
tempt to call a strike was promptly defeated and one of the 
I. W. W. contingent killed Orson P. McRae, shift boss in the 
Copper Queen mine at Bisbee, by shooting through a door. The 
murderer was promptly killed by deputy sheriffs. 

A citizens committee and deputy sheriffs loaded over 1100 
I. W. Ws. in box and cattle-cars and took them into New 
Mexico, where they now are guarded by Federal troops near 
Hermanas. 

At Globe, John McBride and G. W. P. Hunt, ex-governor of 
Arizona, Federal mediators, appealed to President Wilson to 
take action to stop further deportati6ns of strikers from Bisbee 
and other copper districts of Arizona. Governor Campbell 
wired President Wilson to send Federal troops into Arizona 
mining regions where strikes are in progress. These are at 
Clifton, Morenci, Bisbee, Jerome, and Ajo copper districts; 
Humboldt smelter in Yavapai county, and two districts in 
Mohave county. 

President Wilson directed General Parker, commander of 



the Southern Department, to take whatever steps were neces- 
sary to protect life and property in Arizona. 

Drastic action was urged in Washington against the lawless 
element that seems bent on destruction of industries and crops 
in the West. 

It is reported that the Western Union Telegraph Co. will in- 
vestigate the alleged censorship of its lines leading out of 
Bisbee by Robert Rae, general auditor for the Copper Queen 
Co., and H. H. Stout, superintendent of the smelter. 

Mohave County 
(Special Correspondence.; — A strike described by J. A. 
Burgess, J. L. Mclver, and other competent authorities, as 




MAP OF AKIZO.NA 

second only in importance to that of the United Eastern was 
made last week on the Telluride property, which lies south- 
west of and adjoining the Tom Reed. The Telluride is con- 
trolled by J. L. Mclver, one of the discoverers of the United 
Eastern. The vein is presumed to be an extension of the 
Aztec-Tom Reed vein, which is faulted near the end-line of the 
two properties. A drift had been advanced for 300 ft. from 
the shaft on the 535-ft. level along the hanging wall of a well- 
defined vein carrying ore intermittently. At the point of the 
discovery referred to the vein widened and became more solid, 
being composed of quartz and spar. High assays are reported. 
In order to explore the vein at greater depth a winze is now 
being sunk. 

Oatman, July 10. 



July -M. 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



103 



CALIFORNIA 

The scarcity of oil-well casing is resulting in the abandon- 
ment of various old wells for the purpose of salvaging the cas- 
ing. The State Mining Bureau insists on strict compliance 
with its recommendations as to methods of abandoning wells 
so as to prevent future damage to oil lands. Each well re- 
quires special treatment and no general rules can be issued. 
Owners of land upon which such wells may be situated are 
particularly cautioned to see that the work complies with reg- 
ulations, as the land is made liable under the law for the cost 
of remedying improper work. 

Reports filed with the State Mining Bureau for the week 
ended July 7. show L'O new wells started, making a total of 
697 since the first of the year; 1G wells were reported ready for 
test of water shut-off, 12 deepening or re-drilling, and two 
abandoned. 

Calaveras County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Lockwood mine, situated 
two and one-half miles north-east of West Point, is controlled 
by W. O. Pray, who is also superintendent. He is putting in a 
cyanide-plant. There is in the mine thousands of tons of ore 
in sight that averages $7 to $9 per ton. The Rehfus Bros, 
are cyaniding their tailing at the Gilbertson mine, near West 

Point. The Extension of the Comet mine near Railroad Flat 

has started a small crew of men working two shifts. The 

Black Wonder mine, situated in the Blue Mountain mining 
district, has started operations. It is a contact vein of slate 
and granite and assays well. From the Eureka Gold Mining 
Co. at Virginia City, Nevada, the owners bought a 60-hp. hoist- 
ing-engine and a compressor. The ore though base is high- 
grade. Some Eastern capitalists, reported to be Kansas peo- 
ple, are sampling the Sawyer claims, which are owned by Wm. 
Foltz of Seattle. The Comet mine is still working and pros- 
pects are getting better every day. The owners of the Mason 

& Phillips mine have just taken out a large quantity of ore, 
which was hauled to the Porteous custom-mill and the bullion 
shipped to the San Francisco mint. Both walls of this mine 
are granite. It is situated in the East Belt. 

The Secretary mine has just cleaned up and the mill returns 

went $50 per ton. W. 0. Pray, of the Lockwood mine, has 

an option on the Lone Star mine two and a half miles from 

West Point on the Mokelumne river. The difficulties at the 

Blazing Star mine, which has been in litigation for many 
years, have been finally adjusted and in the transaction which 
followed, W. O. Pray & Co. have acquired the controlling inter- 
est and now virtually own it outright. It will soon start up. 

A new strike has been made by a miner, doing assessment 
work at the Camille, or 'Corn-Meal' mine, who uncovered a vein 
14 ft. wide in slate. A moderate excitement took place locally 

over this development. Wendell Phillips, of Lodi, has 

cleaned-up 20 tons of free-milling ore, which averaged $30 per 
ton. Judge Condon is doing assessment work at the Enter- 
prise mine for Fred Plagemann, and has found rich sulphide 

ore. At the North Star mine, situated midway between the 

Lockwood and the Blazing Star, the shaft has reached a depth 
of 57 ft. The vein is 22 in. wide with a greenstone hanging 
wall and a granite foot-wall. The vein consists of blue quartz 
with sulphide, assaying all the way from $2 to $110 per ton. 
The pay-shoot goes $100 per ton. The present owner has had 
the claim for 33 years. It would seem a good proposition for 
some company to develop it, as the owner is unable to do the 
work that the mine justifies. At the Deerfoot mine, con- 
trolled by the Rehfus Bros., they are cyaniding 500 tons of ore 
that runs from $5 to $9 per ton. 

West Point, July 10. 

Del Norte Cotjnty 

(Special Correspondence.) — Chrome ore mining is becoming 
increasingly important in the hills back of Adams station on 
the Crescent City stage-road. This station is on Smith river, 



just west of Gasquet. A large uumber of claims are leased by 
R. J. Rowen, M. E. Young, and Geo. S. Barton, all of Grants 
Pass. Oregon. About 40 openings have been started, in most of 
whirh a good showing of chrome haB been made. At one place 
5000 tons of ore has been developed. The claims are on what 
is locally called French hill. Shipments will be made by trucks 
to Crescent City and from there by water to San Francisco. 
Development work has been in progress only two months, but 
the ore developed warrants the commencement of shipments. 
The ore runs from 50 to 62% chromium oxide. 

Near the Old Altaville mine, in the Low Divide district, John 
L. Childs and Mr. McMurray have located what is proving to 
be a large body of chrome. This property adjoins the Tysen 
Chrome and produces the highest grade of ore in the district. 



O R E G O N 








S""' -L _-*-~,>.~ 


, 


. 


-. 


f <fiu,Wf bSSG -irTK=3«js 














<v 


•jr^c; 


\&'\ 


j 








1 * 


/■tv e*0,.*f a JJ%X~V/ 






I 


XcHvtA * \£r.+.'t*-r, ftiJAj/. ^ *y V^f T 






7 , 


M^fCi^jF ,*M*fa^\ t «,zm* J a 


Htettotf 




w 


-euHtttr&ron 














jh«»,«X YREK A J^^TlAj^SC*-^' **■■**»* 


Jerome 






\- vtf " «^*/^i> ^uf&tL 


MV? 






\ / V. swii ** e $*£<*% 


-&*/ 






Gter»eQ^r FtJb *™ \ f J r"" HJV.wrtw 








jfcLrtw i J **^Eg»r,***» 














s i s . K A !/v i "7 r Y 


o 




u 


*9< .yS^&ifz; 
























-wr*-™^. / V / 1^ 






















SEWAo* 


















X**-^ /,'--X.' V* -f— -- 








— 



TABT OF CHROME REGION OF CALIFORNIA 

Several auto-trucks are now hauling ore to Crescent City from 
this district. 

W. J. Ehrman has been in Grants Pass for the past week 
making arrangements to get machinery hauled in to his Dia- 
mond Creek cinnabar property. There is a good road to the 
mine from the main stage-road, and the machinery is to be at 
the mine this week. This is the only developed cinnabar prop- 
erty in this district. Most of the ore is high-grade and it is 
thought that it will soon be a profitable producer. 

Crescent City, July 6. 

El Doraoo Countt 

The Noble and Farmer chrome mines are employing more 
than 100 men in mining and transporting chromite to the rail- 
road, and the industry is growing as other deposits are being 
opened in various places. 

( Special Correspondence.) — The Teddy Bear gold-quartz mine, 
situated on the main Mother Lode, between the old Church- 
Union and the Laus Padre mines, about three miles south of 
El Dorado railroad station, will be extensively developed by 
the EI Dorado Exploration Co. of Seattle, under the manage- 
ment of John W. Cover. Five men have been working in the 
mine for some time, and Mr. Cover recently returned from 
Seattle for the purpose of pushing the development of the 
property. June 29 a 5-ft. vein of ore, similar in appearance to 
the high-grade ore of the old Church-Union mine, was found 
in sinking a winze, on the Teddy Bear claim, near the face of 
the 150-ft. cross-cut adit, at a vertical depth of about 160 ft. 
below the surface. The average assay-value of the ore is $60 
gold per ton. Burr Evans, consulting engineer, of Placerville, 
who recently visited the mine, states that the management will 
sink the winze to a depth of 500 ft. and open up the pay-shoot 
by driving north and south. After the orebody is developed a 
raise over the winze will be cut, thus making a shaft to the 
surface, and a mill of 50 tons daily capacity will be installed. 
A mill-test run of a dozen tons or more of the rich ore from 



104 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



the vein in the winze will be made in a 5-stamp mill on Grant 
Busick's mine. 

William Vaughn, of Georgetown, arrived at Placerville on 
July 9 with his six-mule team loaded with two and a half tons 
of high-grade chrome ore in sacks, from the Bald Mountain 
chrome deposit, 23 miles north-east of Placerville. Over 250 
tons of ore has been shipped from this deposit, and there is a 
large amount still to be mined. The ore averages 63% chrome 
oxide and less than 3% silica. 

Placerville, July 10. 

Into County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Darwin Development Co. is 
steadily increasing the development of its group of minis near 
Darwin and has blocked out an extensive tonnage of gold- 
bearing ore. A 25-ton mill, using flotation and a magnetic 
system of separation, is in operation and its capacity is to be 
increased to 75 tons daily. Late mine developments have been 
reported as satisfactory. 

The lower tunnel of the Santa Rosa, in the White mountains, 
26 miles from Keeler, has cut the orebody at a vertical depth 
of 400 ft. Approximately 200 veins and shoots have been cut, 
ranging from a few inches to 8 ft. wide. The ore contains 
silver and lead, and heavy shipments are being made to the 
Mldvale smelter. Ten leases are also active. In all 55 men 
are employed. 

Shipments from the Cerro Gordo are averaging around 50 
tons daily, with much of the ore running high in silver, lead, 
and zinc. Shipments of slag from the old smelter-dumps con- 
tinues to be profitably made. The large zinc deposit recently 
uncovered is stated to be developing well. 

Keeler, July 10. 

Nevada County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Cherokee and Columbia Hill 
districts, near the famous old hydraulic mining camp of North 
Bloomfield, are active. Fully 100 men are employed in prospect- 
ing gravel deposits and tailing from pioneer hydraulic opera- 
tions, and several drills are in operation. It is reported the 
area will be drilled to Lake City. Many of the properties in 
this field have been idle since the anti-hydraulic mining laws 
went into effect. It is understood the Guggenheims are inter- 
ested in the new work, and that it is purposed to work the 
lower gravels with dredges. 

The Roger group of quartz claims at Beauty Flat, near Wash- 
ington, is being developed by the North Star Mines Co. of Grass 
Valley. The tunnel is advancing in promising ground and 
equipment will be installed. The company is understood to be 
considering the purchase of several placer properties in this 
district. The passing of the June dividend by the North Star 
Co., due to increased mining costs and lower gold content of 
the ore, has caused alarm in Grass Valley, where the regular 
quarterly dividends have come to be taken as a matter of 
course. 

Dewatering of the Allison Ranch mine is proceeding and 
considerable work has been commenced above the 400-ft. level. 
Rich shoots have been exposed and the management expects to 
have the mill in operation shortly. The company has acquired 
the Benoit tract of 168 acres, adjoining the Allison Ranch on 
the east, and plans a thorough exploration of the area. The 
company, the Grass Valley Consolidated Mines, now owns 300 
acres of mineral land, all to be worked from the Allison Ranch 
shaft. C. K. Brockington is manager. 

Fifteen men are working the Goodwin placer property at 
You Bet, under management of Iiouis Gidette. It is said Aus- 
trian capitalists have purchased the property and that an effort 
may be made to work the gravel by hydraulicking, as other 
methods have not proved satisfactory. 

Grass Valley. July 11. 

The Golden Centre Mining Co. at Grass Valley has decided 
to discontinue all stoping and milling operations and to devote 
all energies to development of orebodies. The board of directors 



has authorized the expenditure of $200,000 to carry on this 
campaign of development, which includes the sinking of the 
shaft an additional 1000 ft. This will give the mine a total 
depth of 2000 feet. 

Shasta County 

(Special Correspondence.) — At the electric smelter at Heroult, 
the blast-furnace will be completed by the end of the month. 
This furnace will have a capacity of 30 tons per day, and smelt- 
ing will be done by blast as well as by electricity. Great incon- 
venience is caused by the inability to get electrodes for the 
electric process, as they are needed. The electric furnace is 
turning out ferro-manganese at the rate of 8 to 10 tons per day, 
the ore coming from Livermore and Mendocino county. Ferro- 
manganese is selling in New York around $450 per ton. 

The Afterthought Copper Co. at Ingot is employing 150 men. 
The flotation-plant will be completed by the close of the month. 
When that comes about the mining of ore will begin. The 
mine and smelter had been idle since January 1908 until re- 
cently. George L. Porter is superintendent. 

At the Bell Cow mine, twelve miles west of Ono, on Arbuckle 
mountain, C. L. Wilson, who has the property under bond, has 
completed an assay-office, which with equipment has cost 
$1000. The 5-stamp mill is being overhauled and will be in 
operating condition by the end, of the month. The mill has a 
daily capacity of 25 tons. It will be used in making a working- 
test of the ore taken out in development work. 

The Mountain Copper Co. keeps 20 men at work on its New 
Year's claim in the heart of Balaklala ground. Ore shipments 
are made regularly by way of Coram to the smelter at Mar- 
tinez. 

At the Silver King mine, four miles west of Redding, L. C. 
Parker has put in heavier machinery and will soon begin to 
sink 125 ft. deeper to open up a new level. 

The Star shaft at Bully Hill has been unwatered to the 

900-ft. level. J. Barnes, operating the Summit mine west of 

French Gulch, has leased the Black Tom mine in the same 
neighborhood. 

Redding, July 9. 

Trinity County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Trinity Star Co. is hauling 
lumber to the site of its new dredge to be built at Lewiston, 
on the Paulsen ranch. The pit for the dredge has been dug. 
It is 100 ft. square and 9 ft. deep. The dredge will have a 
wooden hull. Most of the machinery is in Redding awaiting 
transportation. 

Redding, July 9. 

Tulare County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Approximately 72,000 tons of 
magnesite has been taken from mines in the district around 
Porterville, in Tulare county, during the six months ended 
June 30. The total value of this magnesite is nearly $1,000,000, 
about $160,000 being the average amount paid out monthly for 
magnesite both crude and calcined during the past six months. 
This is an increase of 200% over the output of ore for the same 
period last year. 

From 600 to 700 men are employed at present in the various 
phases of the magnesite industry in this district, mining and 
trucking the ore, and in and around the calcining-plants and 
offices of the several companies operating in the Porterville 
district. This number of employees represents an average 
monthly pay-roll of about $85,000 during the past six months. 

The American Refractories Company, of Pittsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, is the biggest buyer of magnesite in this district at 
present, handling approximately two-thirds of the output. Daily 
shipments of magnesite from Porterville now average about 
400 tons. This district is at present producing from one-third 
to one-half the total output of magnesite in the United States. 

Porterville, July 10. 

Siskiyou County 

(Special Correspondence.) — W. R. Beal, of Happy Camp, the 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



105 



owner of the Know-Nothing sold quartz mine on Know-Nothing 
creek. In the Salmon River district, adjacent to Happy Camp, 
recently took the mine under lease. It had been idle for 20 
years. He i9 now having the S-stamp mill overhauled and re- 
modeled, and has bought a compressor and will use macliinc 
drills. The machinery Is operated by water-power, which is 
ble throughout the year. He Is purchasing a large quan- 
tity of pipe and auxiliary machinery and has contracted with 
the Ladd Bros., of Happy Camp, to pack the machinery 7 miles 
to the mine from Forks of Salmon. He contemplates having 
the mine and mill running within six weeks. There is enough 
good ore in sight to operate for three years. 

The Fledderman Bros., of Etna, have purchased a 3-ton 
Packard truck and are hauling chrome ore from their mine 
near Etna to the railroad. They have shipped two car-loads of 
ore and are loading the third car. 

J. B. Nesbit and Wm. Magill, of Happy Camp, have made a 
road and established a camp at their copper mines on Deer 
Lick gulch on Indian creek. This property adjoins the Gray 
Eagle mines. 

Harry C. Dannehower, of Philadelphia, who represents cap- 
ital from that city, is investigating the copper deposits in 
Happy Camp district. 

Dan. L. Harrington, manager for the Sullivan Machinery 
Co. of Chicago, has been superintending the drilling for his 
company on the Gray Eagle mine on Indian creek near Happy 
Camp. He reports that the contract for 6000 ft. of drilling on 
the property is about completed, and that his company has 
entered into a new contract for several thousand additional 
feet. 

Harry Wilson, of Happy Camp, who has been employed at 
the Clear Creek copper mines, which were closed down, has left 
for his holding on Elk creek, which he will further develop. 

While freighting a massive boiler up the Indian Creek road 
one of the Reichman freight teams crashed through the bridge 
at the George Crumpton ranch, completely demolishing the 
bridge, but with little damage to the freighting equipment or 
machinery. A new and safe bridge was constructed without 
delay. 

Hornbrook, July S. 

Tuolumne County 

O. A. Ellis, manager of the Chaparral mine, which adjoins 
the Buchanan mine on the south, has placed a Chile mill of 
novel design on his property for the purpose of testing the ore, 
and later to regularly operate the property if results are satis- 
factory. The mill weighs 5500 lb. and instead of the usual 
upright grinding mullers that roll around the basin, iron balls 
weighing 400 lb. each have been substituted. The upper part 
of the mill, which revolves, rests on the balls and causes them 
to roll around the groove at the edge of the basin of the mill, 
crushing the ore as it falls beneath them. 

COLORADO 

Park County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Because of the lateness of the 
opening of summer, work here has been held back more than 
a month. However, the good weather during June has made 
the resumption of mining possible and several properties are 
working, and many more will receive attention during the 
summer. C. R. Welsh and associates, who have been working 
the Wheeler mine since August last, are planning the installa- 
tion of a compressor and air-drills. The power will be fur- 
nished by a gas-engine. A new adit is to be driven to cut the 
ore 140 ft. below that now opened up in No. 2 level. The ore 
contains from 25 to 48% lead, 2 oz. gold, and 2% copper per 
ton, and occurs as a Assure vein in the granite. Besides the 
shipping ore the mine contains a fair tonnage of milling ore. 
Mr. Welsh has purchased a burro train for his own use, but 
will be able to do considerable packing for other miners. 

W. J. H. Milller is removing the ice from the adits of the 



Atlantic and Pacific properties which are reported to contain a 
large tonnage of low-grade gold ore. Any milling ore found In 
these properties will be treated by the Commonwealth Mining 
Co. The Hock Hocking mill was started June 1 and Is exceed- 
ing the expectations of the management. The new oil-engines 
are satisfactory. Development work at the mine Is being car- 
ried well in advance of the daily mill capacity. The Common- 
wealth Mining Co. has again started work on the tramway, 
which will he completed about August 1. The mill soon will 
he ready and will handle custom ore In addition to that from 
the company mine. 
Alma, July 10. 

San Juan County 

The United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Exploration 
Co. has acquired controlling interest in the Sunnyside and 
Gold Prince groups of mines on Hanson's peak near Silverton. 
The properties are extensively developed and are reported to 
have blocked-out 850,000 tons of ore. The Sunnyside and No 
Name are the important veins, and these have been explored 
for a horizontal distance of 4590 feet. There are eight levels 
in the Sunnyside that aggregate 11,580 "ft. of work. The veins 
run from 6 to 7 ft. wide. The ore is uniform in character and 
averages approximately 0.1 oz. gold, 6 oz. silver, 5J% lead, }% 
copper, and 9% zinc per ton. At Eureka, the town nearest the 
mines, a 500-ton flotation mill is being built. Much of the 
steel frame work of the old Gold Prince mill is being used in 
the construction of the new mill. 

IDAHO 

Shoshone County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The million-dollar smelter of the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan M. & C. Co., at Kellogg, was blown-in a 
few days ago. There was not a hitch of any kind, everything 
working smoothly from the start. Ingots bearing the initials 
of the company, 'B. H. S.,' were run from the first metal han- 
dled, and distributed among the visitors as souvenirs. The 
smelter has been so constructed that it may be enlarged from 
time to time. The next improvement will be a zinc electrolytic 
plant. 

Spokane, July 11. 

(Special Correspondence.) — On the 400-ft. level of the Giant 
Ledge Mining Co.'s property, on the North Fork of the Coeur 
d'Alene river, 25 ft. of good milling ore has been developed 
and the company has decided to build a mill of 150 tons 
capacity, to be enlarged later if a greater output can be made. 
Charles G. Taylor, of Murray, Idaho, is manager of the prop- 
erty. This mill and the development of the property was made 
possible by the Washington Water Power Co., of Spokane, 
which extended its power-line into the Murray district to sup- 
ply the Guggenheim dredging operations. The power-line will 
pass over the ground of the Giant Ledge company and is ex- 
pected to be completed by early fall. 

Stockholders of the Northern Light Mining & Milling com- 
pany at their annual meeting at Wallace elected directors and 
decided to build a 150-ton concentrator at the property on Pine 
creek. Plans already are being prepared and the plant will be 
built this summer. This is a lead-zinc property which has 
been well developed. It has three veins, on one of which work 
has been done to the 400-ft. level, where an ore-shoot 250 ft. 
long with an average width reported of 57 ft. The stockholders 
are mostly Eastern men. 

The flotation-plant in course of construction for the Consoli- 
dated Interstate-Callahan company will increase the production 
25%, according to an announcement by John A. Percival, the 
president, at Wallace. The shipment of 8000 tons monthly is 
expected when the flotation-plant is completed. The lead ship- 
ments for June aggregated 1000 tons, the largest in the history 
of the mine. It is believed this output can be maintained. 
When the flotation-plant is in service the zinc output is ex- 
pected to be 7000 tons monthly. 



106 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



Lead producers of the Coeur d'Alene have agreed to divert 
one-sixth of their July output to the Government. A meeting 
was held in response to a call issued by Harry L. Day, member 
of the lead committee, at the request of Chairman Crane. 
Nearly all big producers of the district were present. 

Spokane, July 2. 

MONTANA 

Silvee Bow County 

Press dispatches indicate that the mining industry at Butte 
is almost at a standstill, thousands of men being idle as a re- 
sult of the strike of electricians, who are demanding of the 
Montana Power Co. a higher scale of wages. The power com- 
pany has made concessions and there is hope that the difficul- 
ties soon will be settled. 

The Butte Miner states that letters have been received from 
a high official of the American Federation of Labor urging a 
speedy termination of the strike and that the men return 
peaceably to work, for there is good reason to believe that if 
this is not done the Federal authorities at Washington will 
conscript the strikers, take control of the copper mines, and 
require the miners to work for a much lower rate of wages 
than they have ever received at Butte. It is argued that the 
Government would not be willing to pay men that were thus 
drafted to serve at their occupation as miners a much higher 
rate of wages than is paid men in the trenches, where the 
risks are infinitely greater. Foreseeing that the liberal wages 
now paid in the Butte district are in jeopardy, the high officials 
of organized labor are urging the men to take a common-sense 
view of the situation, to cease agitation, and hold on to their 
jobs. 

As a result of a disagreement between the striking miners 
and electricians at Butte, it was proposed to form a new union. 
At a meeting of the Metal Mine Workers' Union, held July 12, 
a resolution was passed without a dissenting vote, to the 
effect that one delegate for every 500 men in the union be sent 
to Denver not later than August 1 for the purpose of meeting 
to form an international union. 

NEVADA 

Esmeralda County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The east cross-cut from the 320- 
ft. level of the Cracker Jack mine has entered what appears to 
be the Columbia Mountain fault-vein 700 ft. from the shaft. 
The rock is badly crushed and appears to be a widely shattered 
zone. It is stated to assay around $7 gold per ton. Cross- 
cutting continues in expectation of intersecting the Rabbit 
Trail vein. 

The main north drift from the SSO-ft. level of the Jumbo 
Junior is being extended through the leased section of the 
Kewanas mine to connect with the main workings of the latter. 
The orebody has been exposed for about 150 ft, ranging from 
1 to 3 ft. of good ore. The latest assays average $56 per ton. 
It is planned to make a small shipment. 

The Red Hill Florence Co. is developing the Florence vein 
on the 500-ft. level and reports encouraging results. Work is 
also proceeding from several points higher. Negotiations for 
control of the Florence mine continue and most of the large 
stockholders and creditors are said to have signified their 
approval of the project. 

The Goldfleld Consolidated Co. is using the aerial-tramway 
between the tailing-pond and mill and is treating some of the 
old mill material in its cyanide-plant. Developments are now 
largely confined to the deeper levels for the purpose of aug- 
menting the reserves of copper-gold ore. Recent work in the 
deep levels of the Laguna and Mohawk are reported to be par- 
ticularly satisfactory. The company has not yet begun to treat 
ore from the Atlanta, although arrangements to this end were 
made several months ago. 

Goldfleld, July 12. 



Personal 



jtfote: The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointments. This information is interesting to our readers. 



H. R. Wagneb has returned from Chile to New York. 

F. Le Roi Thurmond has opened an assay-office at Anchorage, 
Alaska. 

L. A. Parsons has returned from Cobalt to Copper Cliff, 
Ontario. 

John H. Banks has returned to New York from Jerome, 
Arizona. 

Milton A. Allen is now with the Arizona Bureau of Mines 
at Tucson. 

Homer L. Care, of New York, is visiting the mining districts 
of California. 

A. O. Gates has obtained a commission in the U. S. Naval 
Reserve Forces. 

J. B. Tyrrell now represents the Consolidated Mines Se- 
lection Co. in Canada. 

E. B. Hopkins, geologist, has gone to Mexico for the Asso- 
ciated Geological Engineers. 

S. E. Woodworth has become an ensign in the Navy and is 
undergoing training at Annapolis. 

George J. Young, professor of metallurgy in the Colorado 
School of Mines, is in Tuolumne county. 

E. C. Gamble and W. S. Stewart of Oakland, California, 
have been examining mines in Mariposa county. 

S. C. Dickinson is now safety engineer with the Arizona 
State Bureau of Mines, with headquarters at Tucson. 

F. C. Frey, manager of the Redjang Lebong mines, in 
Sumatra, has returned to Reno, Nevada, on a holiday. - 

Richard B. Moore, of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, passed 
through San Francisco on his way from Denver to Tucson. 

Arthur C. Terbill has returned to Lawrence, Kansas, from 
inspection of Osage City coal mines and Blue Rapids gypsum 
mines. 

Walter R. Vidleb, of Cripple Creek, has been in the Llano- 
Burnet district of Texas, and at Bowie, Arizona, on profes- 
sional business. 

F. J. Hoenigmann and W. G. Farnlacher have returned to 
San Francisco from Nevada and Utah, respectively, to do 
military service. 

H. J. Sheafe, superintendent of the Globe Mines, California, 
has obtained a commission as captain in the Engineer Officers 
Reserve Corps. 

Forest Rusherford has resigned as general superintendent 
of reduction works for the Copper Queen Co. at Douglas, Ari- 
zona, and will open an office as consulting metallurgical en- 
gineer after a summer's rest. His present address is Pueblo, 
Colorado. 



Obituary 

Frank M. Murphy, a prominent mine and railroad operator, 
of Arizona, died at Prescott, on June 24, at the age of 62 years. 
For many years Mr. Murphy had been identified with the de- 
velopment of northern Arizona. In 18S7 he succeeded in inter- 
esting "Diamond Jo" Reynolds in the Congress mine, near 
Wickenburg, and for years Mr. Murphy was the successful 
manager of that famous gold mine. It was largely through his 
efforts that the Santa Fe built its connecting line between Ash 
Fork and Phoenix, and was for a long time its manager, and 
secured the building of a number of important branches of the 
road. He also established the Prescott National Bank, and 
was prominent in many other important business enterprises, 
including the extensive operation of several groups of mines 
in the Bradshaw mountains and elsewhere in Arizona. He was 
a man of recognized business ability and integrity. His loss 
will be sincerely regretted by all who knew him. 



Julv 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



107 



THE METAL MARKET 



::'ii.:Il' raWltllli.! V! . ■ h,. |],;,f|i 



liiimmi'iiniiimii.iiuiniiiiiiiii i ,: 



METAL PRICES 

Sao Fram-isco, July 17 
Antimony. OttntS per pound 20 

olytic copper, cents per pound 33 

Pur lead, cants per pound 13.96 — L2.50 

Platinum, soft and hard metal, per ounce $105—111 

Quicksilver. per ll.isk of 7."> lb $105 

Sin-lttT. cento pit pound 11 

Tin. cents per pound 80 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 20 

OKE PRICES 

San Francisco, July 17 

Aluminum-dust (100-lb. lots), per lb $1.00 

Aluminum-dust (ton lots), per lb $0.95 

Antimony. 50% metal, per unit $1.35 

Chrome. 40% and over. fob. cars California, cents per unit. . 50 — 55 

Masnesite. crude, per ton $8.00 — 10.00 

Tin. cents per pound 60 

Tungsten. 60% W0 3 . per unit $25.00 — 30.00 

Molybdenite, per unit for MoS. contained 40.00 

Manganese. 45% {under 35% metal not desired), cents, unit. 33 — 37 

Manganese prices and specifications, as per the quotations of the Car- 
negie Steel Co. schedule of prices per ton of 2240 )b. for domestic man- 
ganese ore delivered, freight prepaid, at Pittsburg, Pa„ or Chicago, 111. For 
ore containing 

Per unit 

Above 49% metallic manganese $1.00 

46 to 49% metallic manganese 0.98 

43 to 46% metallic manganese 0.95 

40 to 43% metallic manganese 0.90 

Prices are based on ore containing not more than 8% silica nor more 
than 0.2% phosphorus, and are subject to deductions as follows: II) for 
each 1% in excess of 8% silica, a deduction of 15c. per ton. fractions in 
proportion: (2) for each 0.02% in excess of 0.2% phosphorus, a de- 
duction of 2c. per unit of manganese per ton, fractions in proportion; 
(3) ore containing less than 40% manganese, or more than 12% silica, or 
0.225% phosphorus, subject to acceptance or refusal at buyer's option; 
settlements based on analysis of sample dried at 212° F., the percentage of 
moisture in the sample as taken to be deducted from the weight Prices 
are subject to change without notice unless specially agreed upon. 

EASTERN METAL MARKET 

{By wire from New York) 
July 17. — Copper is weak and nominal at 30 to 29.75c. Lead is dull 
and easy at 11 to 10.87c. Zinc is inactive and lower at 9c. Platinum 
remains unchanged at $105 for soft and $111 for hard metal. 



Prices 

Date 

July 11 . 

i3: 



COPPER 

of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 

Average week ending 



Sunday 



.30.75 
.30.50 
.30.50 
.30.25 



.30.00 
. 29.75 



June 5 32.62 

12 32.75 

19 32.58 

" 26 32.42 

July 3 32.25 

" 10 31.50 

" 17 30.29 



Jan. 

Feb. 
Mch. 
Apr. 
May 
June 



1915 
.13.60 
.14.38 
.14.80 
.16.64 
.18.71 
.19.75 



1916 
24.30 
26.62 
26.65 
28.02 
29.02 
27.47 



Monthly Averages 
1917 



29.53 
34.57 
36.00 
33.16 
31.69 
32.57 



1915 

July 19.09 

Aug 17.27 

Sept 17.89 

Oct 17.90 

Nov. . . 18.88 

Dec 20.67 



1916 
25.66 
27.03 
28.28 
28.50 
31.95 
32.89 



Secretary of the Navy Daniels has agreed to pay for copper 75% of 25c. 
per lb. for 60,000,000 lb. of copper and leave 25% of 25c. per lb. for 
adjustment when cost of producing copper shall have been determined by 
the Federal Trade Commission. It is not known whether the copper pro- 
ducers will accept, without further parleys, the offer of Secretary Daniels 
to purchase 60.000,000 pounds of copper at what is the equivalent of 
18%c. (75% of 25c). with adjustment later on the 6He. (25% of 25c), 
which is the balance of the 25e. figure named by the producers. Any 
price less than 25c would involve serious labor controversies and just 
now labor is demanding more than it has already agreed to accept on the 
sliding-seale basis, and has tied up the copper producing industry of Ari- 
zona, the biggest producing section of the country, in order to force its 
demands. 

SILVER 

Below are given the average New York quotations, in cents per ounce. 
of fine Bilver. 



Date 

July 11 80.00 

" 12 80.25 

" 13 80.75 

14 80.75 

" 15 Sunday 

" 16 81.25 

" 17 80.67 



Average week ending 

June 5 74.80 

12 75.83 

" 19 77.00 

" 26 78.12 

July 3 77.98 

10 78.70 

" 17 80.62 



Jan. 
Feh, 
Mch. 
Apr. 
May 



1915 
.48.85 
.48.45 
.50.61 
.50 25 
.49.87 



June 49.03 



1916 
56.76 
56.74 
57.89 
64.37 
74.27 
65.04 



Monthly Averages 
1917 



75.14 
77.54 
74.13 
71.51 
74.61 
76.44 



1915 

July 47.52 

Aug 47.11 

Sept 48.77 

Oct 49.40 

Nov 51.88 

Dec 55.34 



1916 
63.06 
66.07 
68.51 
67 86 
71.60 
75.70 



As high as 83c per oz. has been paid for silver in San Francisco, ac- 
cording to the Boston 'News Bureau,' against an 80c market in New York, 
the cost of transportation from the Pacific Coast to New York being but 
one-half cent per ounce. The premium paid for the metal over New York 
was 2%e. per oz. over the New York quotation. 



The absence at Btlfl war riak premiums, prevalenl between mi mi, 

;"" BM' 1 ' '•- ■')■• route to the Far Bast, h. n the d 

factor in BwttcbJu* - n - actlyltj in il„. diver market from 

",' "l 1 " """"V'' v ll "' '' r market, o centr. , that city i 

Banding the tool hat United States pr iced i , „ h. 

output, has shifted her,. Such a large proporl 

,,» country's yield of silver bul In conjunction a lanada Mexico 

the North American stiver output under normal conditions rank, hSth 

At the present lime ,!„■ -ilv.-.- market has no rea atra ,, 

worlds price. The actual metal itselr. however, does not go tin gl, tin 

"","/ ■''" '"■■ni.'Hy and spread ,„„ ,„ „„„:,. China, and r SXumta. 

Scm,mt W posiSon n<,W ' """* '° " ""•" *** "' « '""•"• ">' 

.1™ , w ° 1 : l,l , 1 w " k ' ^"V"" 1 '"'' silv '' 1 ' "'■' coinage purposes taken in eonji - 

tion with the curtailment in output in Mexico and elsewhere must be re- 
garded as the chief cause for the present strength in silver which has 
century ""'* S tha " " l any other time in tl,c Dast Quarter" 

The president of a prominent silver-producing company says- "The world 
rLnH n ' 0nnt ' S v Ve C'- and m ' odu « i ' Jn is not up to requirements. As a 

result pn.-es are climbing and are going higher. Gold is light and the 

S^lve^nS £^257 ta,te " d °< ™ N "'' »" h «• ™™ 
LEAD 
Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 



Date 
July 11 



11.12 

12 11.00 

13 11.00 

14 11.00 

15 Sunday 

Jg 11.00 

17 10.87 



Jan. 

Feb. 
Mch. 

Apr 

May 4.24 

June 5.75 



1915 
. 3.73 
. 3.83 
. 4.04 
4.21 



1916 
5.95 
6.23 
7.26 
7.70 
7.38 
6.88 



Monthly Averages 
1917 



Average week ending 

June 5 11.46 

„ }~ 11.83 

,. Jg 12.00 

' 26 11.75 

July 8 11.57 

10 11.25 

17 10.98 



7.64 

9.01 

10.07 

9.38 

10.29 

11.74 



July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



1915 

. 5.59 

. 4.67 

. 4.62 

. 4.62 

. 5.15 

. 5.34 



1916 
6.40 
6.28 
6.86 
7.02 
7.07 
7.55 



Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery 
in cents per pound 



Da 
July 


e 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


Sunday 




9.12 
9.12 
9.12 
9.00 


June 

July 

Average 

July 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Oct. 


Avf 
19 
10 

8 


rage weefi 


ending 




" 
























" 


























1915 


1918 

18.21 
19.99 
18.40 
18.62 
16.01 
12.85 


Monthly 

1917 

9.75 

10.45 

10.78 

10.20 

9.41 

9.63 


1915 
20.54 
14.17 
14.14 
.14.05 
. 17.20 
16.75 


1916 
9.90 
9.03 
9.18 
9.92 
11.81 
11.26 


1917 










Mch. 












. . 9.78 




May 
June 




. . 17.03 

22.20 








QUICKSILVER 







1916 


1917 




1915 


1916 


222.00 


81.00 


July . . 


. . . 95.00 


81.20 


295.00 


126.25 


Aug. . . 


. . . 93.75 


74.50 


219.00 


113.75 


Sept. . . 


. . . 91.00 


75.00 


141.60 


114.50 


Oct. . . 


. . . 92.90 


78.20 


90.00 


104.00 




.. .101.60 


79.50 


74.70 


85.50 


Dec. . . 


. . .123.00 


80.00 



The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 76 pounds: 
Week ending 

Date I July 3 86.00 

June 19 82.00 " 10 100.00 

" 26 80.00 | " 17 105.00 

Monthly Averages 

1915 1916 1917 1916 1916 1917 

Jan 51.90 

Feb 60.00 

Mch 78.00 

Apr 77.50 

May 75.00 

June 90.00 

Spain's production of cinnabar in 1915 was 20,717 tons, an increase 
of 3003 tons over 1914. In the Province of Ciudad Real, containing the 
famous mine of Almaden, 10,094 tons was mined, 1062 tons less than in 
1914: but the decrease was offset by the increased output of Cranada's 
two mines and Oviedo's 14. all much smaller. At Almaden 297 excava- 
tions were made in the mineral deposits consuming 125 days and costing 
about $70,000 for labor. 

The mines of Oviedo yielded 8153 tons of ore, which also contained 
arsenic and those of Granada 2407 tons in 1915. The output of refined 
quicksilver at these works was 22 tons,, 20.6 tons coming from Ovedo. 
The Oviedo works — La Pena, El Terronal. La Margarita — also produced 83 
tons of arsenic The mones of Granada are the Ella and Resurreccion. 
These and the mines of Oveida are the property of private companies. 

TIN 

Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly Averages 
1916 1917 
41.70 44.10 
42.60 51.47 
50.60 64.27 
51.49 55 63 
49.10 63.21 
42.07 61.93 



1915 

Jan 34.40 

Feb 37.23 

Mch 48.76 

Apr 48.25 

May 39.28 

June 40.26 



1915 

July 37.38 

Aug 34.37 

Sept 33.12 

Oct 33.00 

Nov 39.50 

Dec 38.71 



1916 
38.37 
38.88 
36.66 
41.10 
44.12 
42.65 



108 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



Eas&sm Metal Market 



New York, July 11. 

Decided weakness is manifested in nearly every metal, ex- 
cept tin which is higher. Continued uncertainty as to pur- 
chases by the Government and the Allies is the main cause. 

Copper is stagnant and weaker. 

Tin is higher hut not specially active. 

Lead is dull, uncertain, and lower. 

Zinc is almost paralyzed and is again lower. 

Antimony has declined and the demand is very poor. 

Aluminum is a little lower, hut still inactive. 

The chief market influence in the steel-world is the expecta- 
tion that some form of price-regulation, either by the Govern- 
ment or by producers under Government sanction, will be 
effected. A dictatorship of steel manufacture and distribution 
seems less a possibility today than last week. Estimates, by 
steel-makers, of the Government and Allies' total buying of 
steel-products, expressed in terms of ingots, approximate 
12,000,000 tons for the coming year, or about 30% of the coun- 
try's present steel-production. Government use of plates and 
shapes is expected to reach 40 or 50%. New business is less 
than in two years and export dealings are being held up by 
Washington. The actual effect of the embargo, set for July 15, 
in the domestic market, is not expected to be important, since 
exports of the principal steel-products to neutrals have been 
small. 

COPPER 

The market is stagnant and weaker. Yesterday, after a 
week or so of easy tendencies, decided softness was discernible, 
and both Lake and electrolytic were again lower at 30.75c, 
New York. One explanation of the fall to lower levels is that, 
in the absence of business, some sellers may have become tired 
of sitting still and may be offering at concessions. Whether 
this is coming from first or second-hands is difficult to decide. 
One reason for this change in prices and sentiment is at- 
tributed to the possible conviction on the part of some that 
future prices for copper, purchased by the Government and its 
Allies, will he lower than 25c. per pound, perhaps as low as 
cost-price plus a reasonable profit. The continued haggling at 
Washington on this subject may result in a dead-lock, in which 
case the Government would take a hand and have its own way 
and the copper producers would be deprived of the expected 
cinch. Added to this consideration is the reported rejection by 
the Government of the proposal of the aluminum producers to 
furnish that metal at 27Je. per lb. While the market is with- 
out features, there is at the same time much less gossip. 
Strikes among metal miners and producers continue disturb- 
ing. Quotations for later positions have also eased off about 
ic. per lb. to 29.50c. for the third quarter, and to 28.50c. for 
the fourth quarter. There are no changes in the London quo- 
tations as reported last week. 

TIN 

The tin market, while stronger, has developed some peculiar 
features. Demand has been varied and spotty during the past 
week. While inquiry for futures one day has been good, with 
that for spot poor, the next day the contrary has been the 
case, with futures neglected and nearby metal in demand. 
For instance, on July 5 there was a |ood future demand amount- 
ing to 200 to 250 tons, which ended in business, but spot de- 
livery was dull. On the 10th, however, futures were neglected, 
with nearby inquiry for tin afloat resulting in fair sales, but 
the spot market was quiet. Prices have consistently advanced 
the past week to 63c, New York, yesterday for spot Straits, 
an increase of lc per lb. since July 2. This has been due 
largely to the fact that stocks of spot Straits are now light and 



it is easier to buy 5 tons than 25 tons. The cable situation has 
continued to be disturbing. With hardly an exception London 
cables have been delayed almost daily, hampering business here 
decidedly. The weekly complaint regarding Government in- 
decision as to taxes and other matters is also a factor, and 
these two elements have almost caused a halt in general 
business. Tin arrivals to July 10 inclusive have been 700 tons, 
with the quantity afloat at 4354 tons. The London market 
has advanced £3 over that of July 2, spot Straits being quoted 
at £247 there yesterday. 

LEAD 

Lead is again lower and yesterday was quoted at lie, St. 
Louis, or 11.124c, New York. Demand has declined almost 
daily and lower prices have consequently resulted. Some lots 
to large Duyers have been offered at under lie, St. Louis. 
There is very little if any difference now between the trust and 
the outside market, the quotation of the former still being 
unchanged at lie. New York. It is reported that some of the 
large producers have no metal to sell for July, while others 
have, and the situation is unusual. The attitude of the Gov- 
ernment is a disturbing feature, and while more orders from 
this source are expected, developments may be such in the near 
future as to cause a decided reaction further downward. 

ZINC 

The entire market is extremely dull and is weakening. De- 
mand is almost nothing and sales scarce. Attempts are being 
made to hold the quotation for early delivery at not much 
under 9c, St. Louis, but it is believed that some quiet scalping 
has been done and that sales have been made at 8.87Je, St. 
Louis, or 9.12JC, New York. At these prices, however, some 
producers are certain to be operating at a loss and many may 
have to shut-down soon entirely. Some have already done so, 
giving needed repairs as the excuse. Futures continue a little 
higher than early deliveries, perhaps ic higher, but demand is 
quiet and there is not much inclination to sell for this posi- 
tion. It is not unlikely that labor troubles will be an im- 
portant factor in the not distant future. Labor difficulties of 
great seriousness are reported from the Butte and Lake Su- 
perior districts. No details are yet available as to the re- 
ported purchase by the Government of 11,000 tons of high-grade 
spelter at 13.50c per lb. Some credit it; others believe it is 
not a fact. Continued uncertainty as to Government needs 
and prices exert a demoralizing influence and the prospect is 
not bright. According to statistics completed by W. R. Ingalls 
of the Engineering and Mining Journal, the production of 
spelter in the last quarter of 1916 was 189,572 net tons, the 
largest of any quarter since or before the War, the largest 
just before the War having been 92,816 tons in the second 
quarter of 1914. His classification of the 1916 consumption of 
spelter shows 207,849 tons as consumed for galvanizing, 175,435 
tons for brass, 40,053 tons for sheet zinc, with the balance of a 
total of 450,<s04 tons for other purposes. 

ANTIMONY 

The antimony market is not only dull but lifeless. Demand 
is so slack that quotations have fallen to 17c to 17.50c, New 
York, for Chinese and Japanese grades. 

ALUMINUM 

No. 1 virgin metal, 98 to 99% pure, is a litlte lower because 
of the slack demand and for early delivery is quoted at 57c 
to 59c, New York. It is reported that the Government has 
rejected the producers' proposal to furnish aluminum at 27.50c 
per lb. — the 10-year average price plus 2c per pound. 



July 21, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



109 



Company Reports 



TONOPAH MINING COMPANY OF NEVADA 

The fifteenth annual report o£ the Tonopah Mining Co. of 
Nevada for the year ended December 31, 1916. states that a 
total of 81.7S2 tons of ore was milled, containing 15,636 oz. of 
gold and 1,387,557 oz. of silver, of a gross value of $1,279,157.86. 
The average recovery of the value was 94.2% of the gold and 
90.3% of the silver. The recovery of value based on net smelter 
returns was 90.1%. In October the crusher-plant was almost 
totally destroyed by fire. The plant was re-built upon a less 
elaborate plan, but sufficient to meet present requirements. 
In the meantime the crushing-plant of the Western Ore Com- 
pany at Millers was used where all the ore was crushed and 
sent to the mill. By this arrangement little time was lost. 
Operating statistics follow: 

Operating Statistics 

Tons of ore mined 74,991 

Tons of ore shipped from dump 5,542 

Tons of ore treated at Desert mill 81,782 

Costs Pee Ton 

The average cost to mine and mill the ore and market the 
products for the past year was as follows: 

Mining costs and costs of handling dump ore $ 4.61 

Milling costs 3.16 

Freight on ore milled 0.72 

Marketing mill products 0.22 

Total costs per ton $ 8.71 

Metal losses in milling and refining 1.34 

Profit per ton ' . 5.60 

Average gross value of ore milled .$15.65 

Subsidiary Companies of the Tonopah Mining Company of 
Nevada 
Tonopah Placers Company 
Operating at Breckenridge, Colorado 
The three dredges were put in operation during the month 
of March, and continued in operation until the end of De- 
cember, at which time the two large dredges were closed down, 
and the smaller dredge continued in operation until the latter 
part of January 1917. The dredges were closed down on ac- 
count of the winter weather and for necessary repairs. An 
indebtedness of $56,000 to the Tonopah Mining Co. was paid 
off during the year 1916. No. 2 dredge was operating during 
the whole season upon property owned by the Farncomb Hill 
Gold Dredging Co., under a contract with that company. The 
net earnings of the dredge, while on this property, will be 
divided equally between the Farncomb Hill Gold Dredging 
Co. and the Tonopah Placers Company. 

The Mandy Mining Company 
Operating in Manitoba, Canada 
A property located in the Province of Manitoba, Canada, was 
acquired during the past year, and the Mandy Mining Co. was 
organized to own and operate it. The Tonopah Canadian 
Mines Co. owns 85% of the stock of the Mandy Mining Co. 
About 20,000 tons of high-grade copper ore has been developed 
on this property, and shipments of this ore to the smelters 
are being made. 

The Eden Mining Company 

Operating in Nicaragua 

The electric-power plant of the Tunky Transportation & 

Power Co. was completed and put into operation during the 

month of May, and has been in continuous operation since that 

time. 



The mill made its first run on ore March 1, 1917, 
In the month of June, J. L. Phillips resigned as general 
superintendent, and Robert Hawxhurst, Jr., was appointed as 
his successor. 

Tonopah Nicaragua Company 
Operating in Nicaragua 
A property known as the Santa Rita Mines, located about 
thirty miles from the property of the Eden Mining Co. in 
Nicaragua, was purchased during the past year for $10,000, 
and the Tonopah Nicaragua Co. was organized to own and 
operate this property. A force of men is now engaged in 
clearing the property and in development work, and it is ex- 
pected that shipment of the products from this property will 
be made during 1917. The Tonopah Mining Co. owns about 
92% of the stock of this company. 

The Tonopah Canadian Mines Company and Brutus Mining 
Company 

Mining claims adjoining those of the Mandy Mining Co. were 
acquired and located during the past year, and the Tonopah 
Canadian Mines Co., and the Brutus Mining Co., which is con- 
trolled by Tonopah Canadian Mines Co., were organized to 
own and operate these properties. The Tonopah Mining Co. 
owns about 92% of the stock of the Tonopah Canadian Mines 
Company. 

The option upon the property of the Mispah Extension Co. 
was extended in January 1917, for one year, and work is being 
continued upon the property, but no decision has as yet been 
made as to its acquisition. 

THE GREAT BOULDER PROPRIETARY GOLD MINES, LTD. 
The annual report of the Great Boulder Proprietary Mines, 
Ltd., in Western Australia, for the year ended December 31, 
1916, shows the following: 

£ s. d. 

Expenses in opening up 120,900 tons of ore 7,574 6 10 

Expense stoping 175,787 tons of ore 112,271 2 8 

Sulphide mill expense, 175,787 tons of ore 73,912 17 2 

Cyanide mill expense, 175,787 tons 33,376 17 8 

Residue re-treatment, 206,443 tons 14,958 13 1 

General charges 8,917 6 3 

Sundries 5,418 18 2 

Total expense 256,430 1 iO 

Gold realized 442,629 18 6 

In process of realization 81,767 7 8 

524,397 6 2 
Less cost of minting 916 3 8 

523,481 2 6 
Sundry receipts 101 9 7 



523,582 12 1 
The total cost per ton of ore treated in 1916 was 27s.l0d. 
Extensive diamond-drilling operations were carried on dur- 
ing the year, a total of 54,921 ft., equivalent to 10.401 miles 
having been bored. 

There is estimated to be still available in the mine 372,791 
long tons, having a total gross value of 271,706 oz., equivalent 
to about $5,434,000. 

Labor shortage was responsible for less development having 
been done than had been planned. With a view to acquiring 
another property, many mines offered were examined, but, so 
far, none was found sufficiently promising to warrant develop- 
ment. Dividends paid during the year were as follows : 

June 22 £65,625 

Sept. 29 65,625 

Dec. 23 65,625 

A fourth dividend of £65,625 was paid March 24, 1917, 
making a total within a year of £262,500. 



110 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 




The Pliocene Citeonelle Formation of the Gulf Coastal 
Plain and Its Floea. By George Charlton Matson and Ed- 
ward Wilber Berry. Professional Paper No. 9S-L. U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey. Pp. 41. 111., Index. 



The Inorganic Constituents of Marine Invertebrates. 
By Frank Wigglesworth Clarke and Walter Calhoun Wheeler. 
Professional Paper No. 102. U. S. Geological Survey. Pp. 56. 
Washington, 1917. 

The Oregon Basin Gas and Oil Field of Park County, 
Wyoming. By Victor Ziegler. Bulletin No. 15 of the office of 
the State Geologist of Wyoming. Pp. 32. 111. and maps. 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, 1917. 

This bulletin describes the location, physiography, and 
geology of the oil-gas fields of Park county, together with a 
brief description of numerous wells. 

A Bibliography of the Geology and Mining Interests of 
the Black Hills Region. By C. C. O'Harra. Issued by the 
South Dakota School of Mines, as Bulletin No. 11. Pp. 216, 
with index and map. Rapid City, 1917. 

This will prove to be a useful volume to those who are in 
search of information relating to the greatly varied mineral 
resources of that wonderful mineral province known as the 
Black Hills. 



Notes on the Geology and Iron Ores of the Cuyuna Dis- 
trict of Minnesota. By E. C. Harder and W. A. Johnston. 
Bulletin 660-A. U. S. Geological Survey, prepared in co- 
operation with the Minnesota Geological Survey. Pp. 26. 
Maps. Washington, 1917. 

Describes the general geology of Minnesota and more par- 
ticularly the rocks and geology of the iron deposits of the 
Cuyuna district. 

Geology and Mineral Resources of the Reefton Subdi- 
vision, the Westpokt and North Westland Divisions of New 
Zealand. By J. Henderson. Bulletin 18 (new series) of the 
New Zealand Geological Survey. Pp. 232. 111., maps, and 
index. Wellington, N. Z., 1917. 

This publication is a general geological treatise on the ore 
deposits, geology, and mining industry in the several districts 
mentioned in the title. 



Twenty-fifth Annual Report of the Ontario Bureau of 
Mines. Pp. 311. 111., maps, index. Toronto, 1916. 

This publication reviews the mineral industry of Ontario 
in 1916, devotes a chapter to mining accidents, describes the 
mines of Ontario, giving a detailed geological description of 
numerous deposits. One chapter is devoted to a scientific 
study of certain minerals of the Cobalt district. The metal- 
lurgy of the ores is also described with flow-sheets of some of 
the mills. 

The following publications have recently been issued by the 
United States Bureau of Mines. Washington, D. C: 

Bulletin 124. Sandstone quarrying in the United States, by 
Oliver Bowles. 1917. 143 pp., 6 pi., 19 fig. 

Technical Paper 82. Oxygen mine-rescue apparatus and 
physiological effects on users, by Yandell Henderson and James 
W. Paul. 1917. 106 pp., 5 pi., 6 fig. 

Technical Paper 135. Bibliography of recent literature on 
flotation of ores, January to June, 1916, compiled by D. A. Lyon, 
O. C. Ralston, F. B. Laney, and R. S. Lewis. 1917. 20 pp. 

Technical Paper 140. The primary volatile products of the 
carbonization of coal, by G. B. Taylor and H. C. Porter. 1916. 
59 pp., 1 pi., 25 fig. 



Technical Paper 143. The ores of copper, lead, gold, and 
silver, by C. H. Fulton. 1916. 45 pp. 

Technical Paper 160. The determination of nitrogen in sub- 
stances used in explosives, by W. C. Cope and G. B. Taylor. 
1917. 46 pp., 1 pi., 4 fig. 

Technical «Paper 166. Motor gasoline; properties, labor- 
atory tests, and practical specifications, by E. W. Dean. 1917. 
27 pp. 



lB@©lk MmiMmm 



The Efficient Purchase and Utilization of Mine Supplies. 
By Herbert N. Stronck. Pp. 97. 111. diagrammatically. John 
Wiley & Sons, New York and London. For sale by the Mining 
and Scientific Press. 

This little book will be found most useful to mine superin- 
tendents who wish to handle their mine-supplies in a method- 
ical and economical manner. It includes chapters on the pur- 
chasing department; the receiving and testing department; 
the stores system with accurate accounting; the issuing sys- 
tem; reports on consumption of supplies, and methods of pre- 
venting waste. There are numerous styles of blank forms for 
all purposes connected with the warehouse and stock-rooms of 
a mine, and many valuable suggestions to the store-keeper and 
accountant. 



Steam Turbines. By James Ambrose Moyer. Third Edi- 
tion. Pp. 460 and index. 111. John Wiley & Sons, New 
York and London. For sale by the Mining and Scientific 
Press. Price, $3.50. 

This excellent work is a compendium for power users, 
being a practical and theoretical treatise for engineers and 
students. It reviews completely the recent improvements in 
the economy of steam-turbines, and as the author says: The 
low cost of power where fuel is cheap makes the large turbine- 
electric generating-plant almost an unrivaled competitor of 
water-power for metallurgical purposes. Many changes have 
been made in some departments of the book and it is in every 
sense up-to-date. All who contemplate large power installa- 
tions should secure this book in order to be fully informed in 
the most modern practice in the generation of power for any 
purpose whatsoever. In an appendix is a series of questions, 
with answers, for the student who soon may have these very 
questions presented to him in actual practice. 



Properties of the Calcium Silicates and Calcium Alumin- 
ates Occurring in Normal Portland Cement. Technologic 
Paper of the Bureau of Standards, No. 78. By P. H. Bates and 
A. A. Klein. Pp. 38, ill., has no index. Washington, D. C, 
1917. 

This pamphlet is replete with new data concerning the char- 
acteristics of cement, revealing by microscopic investigation 
the constitution of the clinker obtained from different mixes, 
and the resultant compounds after wetting, and setting in 
briquettes. It throws light on the conditions that give 
strength and weakness to cements, and should be carefully 
studied by engineers. The conclusions are succinctly set forth 
in a summary which shows among other things that tri-calcium 
silicate has all the important properties of Portland cement, 
especially those of the rate of setting and strength developed. 
It also shows that plaster of paris when added to any of the 
compounds or mixtures studied generally increased the 
strength at all periods. The authors state that the ideal ce- 
ment should apparently have an excess of di-calcium silicate, 
which would give a moderately dense hydrated material that 
will gain strength with aging of the concrete. 



July Jl. l!H7 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



L'l 



mmmmmmmammmmmmsmmmtamea 



INDUSTRIAL 2PI&<D@!ri!g*}£J 



Use of the Cement-Gun at the Anaconda Mine 

For the following description of t tie cement-gun we are in- 
debted to C. H. Aballng, E. M., of Butte. Montana. 

The ores of the Butte district carry a high sulphur content. 
Fires occur, at times, from spontaneous combustion and from 
other causes. Areas of smoldering ore, though they be rela- 
tively small, emit sulphur fumes and gases that are dense 



enough in the confined spaces of drifts and stopes to prohibit 
any mining operations near these areas. 

A number of mines operated by the A. C. M. Co. are con- 
nected in their underground workings. The fumes from a 
small area of smouldering ground will, therefore, penetrate 
to the workings of several mines. 

The only feasible way thus far found to overcome these fires 
is first to seal the affected area from other workings. This is 




Fig. 1 



Fig. 2 







Fig. 3 



22 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 21, 1917 



accomplished by building cement-bulkheads' at all openings 
leading from the burning area. Working in such a small 
space, it is next to impossible to place this cement by hand in 
a short time. When in place it is found to be porous and 
cracked, due to shrinking and settling. Sealing with the 
cement-gun later is accomplished in one-fifth the time re- 
quired by hand-work. 

The cement-gun has solved this difficulty and made possible 
the construction of bulkheads under conditions where hand- 
placing would have been impossible. These bulkheads are 
absolutely tight and were constructed in record time. 

The cement-gun was first used in February 1917, and in the 
construction of all bulkheads since that date the cement-gun 
has been used wholly or in part. The limited number of guns 
obtainable on short notice prohibit the building of all the 
bulkheads with the gun. 

In February 1917 fumes from an area in the Leonard mine 
necessitated the construction of several cement-bulkh ads. 
Other emergency bulkheads were constructed beyond these 
points closer to the shaft; these being built as a precaution- 
ary measure in case fire or fumes should enter the area be- 
tween the two bulkheads. 

Views No. 3 and 4 show the upper and lower parts of a large 
bulkhead built on the 2000-ft. level of the Leonard mine. This 
bulkhead is over 13 ft. wide, 18 ft. high, and 5 ft. thick, and 
contains over 1200 cu. ft. of concrete. 

Six inexperienced operators of the cement-gun constructed 
this bulkhead in 36 hours. The men were distributed as fol- 
lows: One man operating the gun, one man operating the noz- 
zle, two men mixing, and two men screening sand. All ma- 
terial was delivered at the gun. 

The longitudinal-section, A, and elevation, B, of this bulk- 
head gives a clear idea of its construction. As the cement 
was shot into place by the cement-gun, rock was placed in the 
form to aid in its rapid construction. 

The cement-gun plays its most important part in the joining 
of the bulkhead to the back of the drift or stope. The finished 
work shows that the mixture of sand and cement has been shot 
into every crack and fold of the rock until it can hardly be 
distinguished from the rock itself. In some instances, on 
account of fumes, it was necessary for the norzle-man to wear 
a compressed-air hood. 

View No. 2 is an emergency-bulkhead on the 2000-ft. level of 
the Leonard mine. This bulkhead is approximately 9 ft. 8 in. 
high, 9 ft. wide, and 4 ft. 6 in. thick. The passageway is 6 ft. 
high and 4 ft. wide. A heavy sheet-iron door is provided to 
place over this opening on short notice. The upper half of 
two of these bulkheads were completed in 8 hours. This in- 
cluded moving, conecting-up of machine, and laying of the 
mixing-floor. 

In preparing the ground for these bulkheads, no other work 
than picking out the loose rock on the bottom, sides, and back 
was done. The loose rock in the bottom extended from 16 to 
24 in. below the track-level. 

In some cases there were large loose boulders in the back 
which it was not feasible to remove. They were held in place 
by stulls and cement was shot in the crevices between them. 
When this had set, the stulls were removed and the bulkheads 
built from the floor up to meet them. 

In some cases, after the completion of these emergency-bulk- 
heads, cement was shot on the entire back and sides of the 
drift on either side of the bulkhead for a distance of 16 to 
18 ft. in length. This sealed all seams that were likely to by- 
pass fumes around the bulkhead. Heavy blows will not cause 
this coating to sliver off nor to show any line of cleavage. The 
only result is a powdering of the cement directly under the 
hammer-head. Immediately above the passageway in these 
bulkheads, pipes were cemented in to allow of passing air, 
water, and electric-wire through the bulkhead. 

View No. 1 shows a 50-ft. approach to the 2200-v. trans- 
former-station on the 1200-ft. level of the Leonard mine, pro- 



tected with gunite placed with the cement-gun. The object of 
this work was to fire-proof that section from possible fire at 
the transformers. 

The Anaconda Copper Mining Co. is contemplating the con- 
struction of 1^)0 lineal feet of this work in the near future. 
This is in drifts through which high-tension electric-cables are 
installed. 

Preparatory to guniting this approach, mine-lagging was 
placed behind the posts and on top of the caps. On this was 
placed horizontally, No. 24-gauge, AAA grade, flat herring- 
bone steel expanded-lath. The ends were sprung outward and 
bent to fit the contour of the posts. On this lath was shot 1 
to 1} in. of cement. In this way every crack, however small, 
on any flat surface or in any angle has been thoroughly sealed 
by the cement-gun. 

Considering that the nozzle-man was obliged to stand at 
from two to three feet from the wall upon which the cement 
was being placed, the finished surface is remarkably smooth 
and presents a very neat appearance. 

On account of the dimensions of the N-l gun, allowing of its 
being lowered on the cage without being dismantled, and of 
its easy passage into drifts and cross-cuts, this size was 
adopted. 

The wheels and trunnions were removed and the machine 
fastened to a sheet-iron plate mounted on an ordinary mine- 
truck. 

The Anaconda Copper Mining Co. has six of the N-l size 
cement-guns and two more are on the way from the factory. 
It is the intention to equip each of its mines with a sufficient 
number of these guns adequately to take care of all bulkhead- 
construction. 

The data and views used in this article were obtained 
through the courtesy of C. L. Berrien, assistant general super- 
intendent of mines, Anaconda Copper Mining Company. 

Smelter Stacks 



The metal-stacks of smelters are subjected to particularly 
severe conditions. It is known that chemical activity in- 
creases rapidly at high temperatures and it is a common sight 
to see smelter stacks rusty. Paints have been sought to pro- 
tect these surfaces from rust, as the cost of replacement is 
high. Smelter stacks are subjected to high temperatures, from 
600 to 800° F., and to severe conditions due to the fumes 
incident to smelting. Oronite enamel-paint has been success- 
fully used by some of the large copper-smelting companies in 
Arizona and Nevada and has proved its worth. Oronite is 
made by the Standard Oil Company. 



Commercial Paragraphs 

The Lidgeewood Manufacturing Co., of 96 Liberty street, 
New York, has issued a new bulletin, No. 20, descriptive of its 
electric hoists. These machines are made in a great variety 
of shapes and sizes, from small portable hoists, mounted on a 
4-wheeled truck, to large hoisting machines designed for 
mines. It also includes hoists for quarries, ships, buildings, 
and for other purposes, such machines being designed to meet 
the requirements of their particular use. The catalogue can be 
secured by application to the manufacturers. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., of East 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, has issued illustrated folders and 
sheets descriptive of the following electric or electrically op- 
erated devices: A new recording-demand watthour meter; 
crane protective panels; headstock equipments for wood- 
working lathes; harmonic analyzers; outdoor metering equip- 
ments; electric-speed indicators; type HB overhead relays; 
portable fault localizers (DS-959); potentiometers (DS-990), 
for hot spot temperature measurement; synchronous booster 
converters; and motors for paper-finishing mills. 



EDITORIAL STAFF: 
T A FUCKARD - - Editor 
COLRTENAY DE KALB. 

AMOCUte Editor 

\V. H. STORMS • New. Edict 



Mining sc-l Press 



ESI IH.MIHI I860 
Published hi -l_'i» Market Si., Son Kraticleco, by lite I heavy ntblfwltfiijl i totnpatu 



I.I S|\| SS -.1 \|| : 

C. T. HUTCHINSON. M.n.gr, 

« 

E. H. LESLIE 

600 Fuhet Bd« . CkJewo 

V 

A S. BREAKEY 

1/611 Wm.lwotch Bda.. New Ynk 



Science has no enemy save the ignorant 



Incited Every Saturday 



San Francisco, July 28, 1917 



$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

EDITORIAL 
Sni i. (in the PMUFIO Coast 



Work of the Council ok National Defense. 



Page. 
. . 123 



Page. 
.. 112 



High iirice of pig-iron bringing iron industry to the 
West: Merrimae Steel & Smelting Co. constructing 
plant in Nevada; Crocker-Thane syndicate financing 
large steel industry in State of Washington. M. & 
S. P., July 28, 1917. 

Sampling Larue Low-Gkade Orebooie.s 113 

Summary of opinions by Messrs. Loring, Webber, Par- 
sons. Burch, Parker, Leggett, and others; discrepan- 
cies between sampling and exploitation; how to ap- 
praise a mine. M. & S. P., July 2S, 1917. 



DISCUSSION 

Sampling Lakge Low-Gkade Orebodies. 

By Albert Burch 115 

Agrees with Mr. Webber that pockety mines exist 
which it is needless to sample; valuation on basis of 
past production erroneous; moil-sampling ordinarily 
most advantageous, but should be checked by mill- 
tests. M. & S. P., July 2S, 1917. 

California Field Artillery 116 

Announcement of a new branch of the service for 
speedy training of officers. M. & S. P., July 28, 1917. 



ARTICLES 
Relief from Annual Assessment Work. 



116 



Outlook fob Iron and Steel on the Pacific Coast. 

By Ernest A. Hersam 117 

Steps to promote a Pacific Coast steel industry desir- 
able; no supply of cheap pig-iron available in the 
West; iron-ore deposits in California; fuel resources; 
oil, gas, and coke compared; methods for making pig- 
iron without coke should be thoroughly studied; manu- 
facture of f erro-compounds ; high prices offer oppor- 
tunity to establish a Western steel industry. M. & S. 
P., July 2S, 1917. 



Summary of leading features in a report of work 
accomplished, issued by the Council. M. & S. P.. July 
28, 1917. 



Need of Chemical Research 124 

Importance of research-work in pure science; without 
science to apply there can be no applied science. M. & 
S. P., July 28, 1917. 

Mill-Tests v. Hand-Sampling in Valuing Mines. 

By Morton. Webber 125 

Two methods open to the mine-sampler, hand-sampling 
or mill-tests; type of orebody will determine course to 
pursue; mill-tests should be limited to ascertaining the 
sampling-error. M. & S. P., July 2S, 1917. 

Flotation — The Butte & Superior Case — I. 

By W. A. Scott 130 

Part of argument for the defendant; shifting of ground 
by Minerals Separation. M. & S. P., July 28, 1917. 

Rapid Shaft-Sinking 132 

Gadsden shaft, Warren, Arizona, 3-compartment, sunk 
at rate of 9 ft. daily. M. & S. P., July 28, 1917. 

Blasting-Caps and Delay-Electric Igniters 133 

DEPARTMENTS 

Review of Mining 135 

Special Correspondence from Cripple Creek, Colorado; 
Toronto, Ontario; Juneau, Alaska; Yerington, Nevada; 
Leadville, Colorado; and Sutter Creek, California. 

The Mining Summary 139 

Personal 144 

The Metal Market 145 

Eastern Metal Market 146 

Company Reports 147 

Mining Decisions 148 

Books Received 148 



Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Press; name changred October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 



Branch Offices — Chicago, 600 Fisher Bdg. : New York, 1760 Woolworth 
Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price. 15 cents per ■ copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance: 
United States and Mexico. $4 ; Canada, S5 : other countries in postal union, 
25s.- or $6. 



20 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 28, 1917 




Prospecting 



Gold 





Transporting Union Drill over 40 Mile Trail 

These Field Pictures 
Tell The Story 

The Union Prospecting Drill 

is incomparably light and can be transported, 
handled and operated with an ease heretofore 
unknown for a drill having its capacity. 

The Type B Drill shown in the bottom illustration 
weighs 2150 lb. Drills of this type are drilling (i0 ft. 
ground and deeper, at the rate of 20 to 25 ft. a day, 
using 6-in. casing, which cuts a 6% in. diameter hole. 
The engine burns n /w of a gal. of gasoline per hour. 

Kvcry Drill guaranteed. 

Bulletin, givinfr complete 'description, on request 

Union Construction Company 



604 Mission Street 



San Francisco 



H. G. PEAKE W. W. JOHNSON 

Engineers and Dredge Builderi 

Aurnta for Bucyrun Placer Dredeca on th« 
Pacific Coul, in Britlah Columbia and Alaaka 




July 88, i:»l7 



MINING and Scienlific PRESS 



III 



D I T O 



I A L 



R I C K A R D , Editor 



SUBMARINE "is the last argument of kings," said the 
Crown Prince. We believe that to be true, but we do 
not place the emphasis ou 'kings.' 

"VTAKK SULLIVAN, in Collier's, speaks of "Thou 
-*-" slialt not make money out of the War" as "an 
ethical hallelujah." Most men would rather make their 
money and then have the privilege of giving it to pa- 
triotic purpose; but when they have made it, some of 
them are eoutent with the 'hallelujah.' 

A LTHOUGH the embargo on exports may prove an- 
•**■ noying not only to neutrals but to our own people, 
it must be noted that the value of exports of the more 
important commodities to Denmark, Norway, Sweden, 
Holland, and Switzerland increased from $66,053,595 in 
1913 to $177,144,085 in 1916, whereas other exports, not 
required by the Enemy, decreased slightly, from $201,- 
000,000 to $192,000,000. These figures wiU take a lot 
of explaining by neutral governments. 

"C^ROM the acting Chief Inspector of Mines at Cairo 
■*- we have received a letter objecting to the statement 
made by Mr. Ernest H. S. Sampson in our issue of 
March 3, saying that the Egyptian government "has 
wisely made laws that preclude any possibility of in- 
dividual enterprise." We are informed by the Chief 
Inspector that "this statement is incorrect and liable to 
create misapprehension," so he sends us a copy of the 
'Rules and Regulations as to Mining,' published by the 
Department of Mines of the Ministry of Finance, Egypt, 
for the year 1916. The text of these regulations shows 
a willingness on the part of the Government to facilitate 
individual mining enterprise in Egypt. 



/""•H AIRMEN of English mining companies sometimes 
^-* make technical statements such as are authoritative 
only when backed by the name of a responsible engineer. 
Unfortunately, shareholders are apt to swallow asser- 
tions of a technical character when made by untechnical 
gentlemen prominent in finance. Thus Sir Lionel Phil- 
lips, at the Central Mining meeting, made sundry posi- 
tive assertions concerning deep developments on the 
Rand, rich zones being said to succeed poor zones in 
depth. Now, if in giving such information he had quoted 
Mr. H. F. Marriott or some other reputable engineer 
in the employ of the Central Mining Corporation, we 
would be inclined to consider the information as having 
scientific value. Under the circumstances, we do not; 
for we remember that Sir Lionel said, in March 1910, at 
the East Rand Proprietary meeting, that "there seemed 
to be no evidence whatever that the gold contents at the 



deepest levels are not fully as high as they were at the 
surface, or within 300 ft. of the actual surface." At that 
time he had the evidence of Mr. Frederick Hcllman, the 
manager of the East Rand Proprietary, to the very con- 
trary. We read in a recent copy of the Financial Times 
that the present chairman of this same company, Mr. 
E. A. Wallers, at the last annual meeting had to an- 
nounce that owing to "the extremely poor development 
experienced during recent years", it was impossible to 
supply the mills with adequate ore, and that there was 
"no prospect of dividends for some time to come." 



TN the evening paper that published the details of the 
-*- draft for an American army, we were given part of 
the text of the new German Chancellor's speech before 
the Reichstag, in which he sneered at our military effort. 
A lack of the sense of humor is the mark of "the beast 
with the brains of an engineer," as Upton Sinclair 
phrased it; otherwise the recollection of the former 
Chancellor's unfortunate reference to another "con- 
temptible little army" might have prevented Dr. 
Michaelis from repeating a stupidity. His predecessor 
has gone into the discard with his "scrap of paper" and 
it is now the task of General Pershing and his brave men 
to make the present exponent of Prussianism feel the 
force of another organized democracy. Our Allies have 
'done their bit,' our men will 'do their durndest' 



TVTE publish a letter from Mr. W. G. Devereux, an en- 
' * gineer known to our readers as the manager of the 
Melones Mining Company, in which he makes a bid for 
volunteers to serve in the regiment of Field Artillery 
now being raised as a Californian unit in the army going 
to Europe. This is to be a Western regiment of Western 
men fighting under the sign of the Bear. We commend 
the service to our young mining engineers and miners. 
The artillery is a technical branch of the military organ- 
ization and one for which the members of our profession 
are particularly fitted. We hope that they will become 
keenly interested in the opportunity offered to them and 
that they will get some of the younger men in their em- 
ploy to enlist in the same regiment. Everybody cannot 
obtain a commission, but those that are capable and keen 
can feel assured of promotion in due course. In the 
fighting of today the intelligent and skilful soldier is not 
overlooked, as we know from the rapid promotion that 
has eome to our mining-engineer friends already in the 
field. Rally to the Californian Field Artillery ! 



A CCORDING to press reports, the Secretary of the 
-^*- Navy has offered to purchase 60,000,000 pounds of 
copper at 18f cents per pound with an adjustment later 



112 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 28, 1917 



by the Federal Trade Commission for the difference be- 
tween this price and the 25 cents quoted by the pro- 
ducers of the metal. The latter are said to claim that 
they should receive not less than 25 cents per pound, in 
view of the rising cost of labor. Moreover, the Govern- 
ment has agreed to pay 8 cents for lead in contrast with 
the average of 4.59 per pound for the last 15 years. A 
price of 18$ cents for copper would, it is said, entail 
further labor controversies, because wages would have to 
be reduced in accordance with the sliding scale, but this 
is an ingenuous argument, seeing that 60,000,000 pounds 
represents only about 3% of the annual production or 
about one-third of the monthly production of copper in 
this country at this time, disregarding the temporary 
effect of current labor disturbances. The President has 
said that such prices should be fixed by the Government 
as "will sustain the industries concerned in a high state 
of efficiency, provide a living for those who conduct them, 
enable them to pay good wages, and make possible ex- 
pansion of their enterprises," all of which depends upon 
the definition of 'efficiency,' 'living,' 'good' wages, and 
' expansion. ' It seems to us that this can be effected better 
by allowing the market to take its course and then im- 
posing a heavy tax on excess profits. The lowering of 
price may not be much more artificial than the process 
by which the quotation for copper has been raised so 
high, and kept so high, during the last three years, but 
in the effort to treat everybody equitably it must be con- 
ceded that a drastic lowering of price will fall unequally 
on the various producers. One produces copper for 10 
cents and another for 20 cents per pound, so that a lower- 
ing of 5 cents in the price from 30 cents reduces the 
profit of the first by 25% and of the other by 50% ; and 
if the intention be to promote intensive exploitation of 
our copper resources it is best to give everybody a nearly 
equal inducement to go ahead. By the way, we are be- 
ginning to get new estimates of the cost of production. 
The Boston Neivs Bureau, for example, says that "the 
average cost of producing American copper is not far 
from 15 cents per pound," Whereas not long ago this 
same paper published plentiful statistics to show how the 
principal copper-mining companies were winning copper 
for 6 to 8 cents, and even as low as -i cents per pound. 
Most of these low figures were fictitious, because they 
represented the bare operating cost, disregarding much 
of the 'overhead' expenditure, most of the development 
and equipment, and ignoring amortization of capital. 
Our Boston contemporary remarks piously: "Unfor- 
tunately many producers have not heretofore made due 
allowance on their cost-sheets for construction and de- 
velopment expenditures and depreciation, to say nothing 
of any allowance for depletion of^mineral assets," and 
yet the Boston News Bureau has publlished such essen- 
tially fictitious statements with infinite gusto. "When 
the Devil was sick a monk he would be." In these days 
of stress we shall learn real economics, just as in England 
the mining financier has succeeded at last in persuading 
the tax-collector to understand that a mine is a wasting 
assH and that a dividend is not necessarily income. 



Steel on the Pacific Coast 

One year ago pig-iron was selling at $18 per ton. The 
steel-makers we're excited when the price touched $20 in 
February. The market has grown so used to the excuse 
of the War for boosting prices that it no longer thrills 
when the current price of pig-iron is over $50. These 
fancy prices, which are not in any respect an expression 
of cost plus a reasonable profit, now turn to the advan- 
tage of the Pacific Coast and may effect a permanent 
change in the industrial relationships between the two 
sides of the continent. It might have been otherwise 
had the Government committed itself frankly and fairly 
to price regulation. That is one aspect of the situation. 
Prom the standpoint of the man in the street it was 
hoped that a plain, sensible, democratic principle would 
be applied, but he is now disillusioned. Certain com- 
modities only are to be regulated, and we are not sure 
that, under the law, these can be controlled effectively. 
For awhile Congressional committees dallied with amend- 
in. nts that included the iron and steel industry, and 
then, when the Administration undertook to hurry Con- 
gress in order to get some kind of a food bill, the steel 
incumbrance to legislative speed was thrown to one side, 
in consequence of which, whether the legislation be demo- 
cratic or not, a new chapter in the industrial history of 
the Pacific Coast may be written. At $50 per ton for 
pig-iron, and on the assumption that the War will last 
for two years, it would seem possible for blast-furnaces 
established in California or in the State of Washington 
to produce sufficient steel in one year of active operation 
to gain a profit that would amortize at least the larger 
part of the capital required. Even though only 5% of 
the total steel output of the country is consumed on this 
Coast, this proportion represents a big quantity. Just 
what the cost of producing pig-iron would be is difficult 
to say, but it is evident that there is an opportunity to 
establish enterprises of this character on this Coast that 
would survive the War. One corporation has already 
broken ground for an iron furnace on the Carson river, 
in Nevada. This is the Merrimac Steel & Smelting Com- 
pany. The coke will come from Utah and the iron ore 
will be derived from magnetite mines in the vicinity. De- 
posits of hematite also exist near-by, and these could be 
utilized if necessary. This plant will be in operation 
within about nine months. A still larger enterprise is 
contemplated by one of the strongest capitalistic groups 
in California, including Messrs. W. H. Crocker, S. F. 
B. Morse, and B. L. Thane. It is hinted that Mr. D. ('. 
Jackling and his friends also are interested in the ven- 
ture. For two years these gentlemen have been making 
a survey extending from San Diego to Alaska. They 
have examined every iron deposit along the Coast, and 
have made elaborate investigations into the available 
source of iron ore and have completed arrangements for 
making by-product coke. The smelting-plant will be 
established at Lake Washington on the outskirts of 
Seattle. The plans of the company have not been made 
public, and. in fact, we understand that the financing of 



.Inl\ 28, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



118 



il Deration baa tiol yel been perfected. This seems, 

however, to be a mere detail, tor n is certain thai ground 
will soon !»■ broken for a plant if arrangements oan be 
made to insure delivery of the o ssary equipment with- 
in such a period of time as will enable them to lake ad- 
vantage of the prevailing high prices. It is this great 
margin thai offers the opportunity Eor establishing an 
enterprise that may endure. 

The in. Tease in the manufacture of steel on the West 
( 'nasi has beoome important. Four years ago there was 
mil a single sieel-plaui fronting the Pacific Ocean. To- 
day lti open-hearth furnaces are in operation, mainly on 
scrap, which is selling at the rale of $29 f or cast-iron and 
$42 for steel. The Noble Electric steel Company, which 

began many years ago to experiment on the manufacture 
of steel with the Iieroult type of furnace, has passed 
through a costly experimental stage to one of profitable 
production as a manufacturer of ferro-silicon and ferro- 
manganese. A special type of furnace has been de- 
veloped known as the Friekey, possessing features said 
to introduce greater economy than was possible by tbe 
original Heroult process. Each of these is equipped with 
four graphite electrodes manufactured at Niagara Falls. 
In the production of ferro-silicon they use a local supply 
of exceptionally pure siliea and a remarkably high-grade 
magnetite, which, as charged into the furnace, assays 
70% metallic iron. The same company is erecting three 
single-phase furnaces,- each of 2| tons capacity, for the 
manufacture of ferro-chrome. The two larger furnaces 
making ferro-silicon and ferro-manganese have a ca- 
pacity of eight tons each per diem. All of these products 
are being sold to steel-makers on the Pacific Coast that 
ventured to engage in the industry under the stimulus 
of War prices. In view of the fact that the expected 
benefit from the Panama Canal in low freight-rates for 
our domestic inter-oceanic commerce is not to be re- 
alized, the new iron and steel industry developing on the 
West Coast will always enjoy the protective differential 
corresponding to the trans-continental freight-rate on 
pig-iron. An academic discussion of the iron and steel 
problem on the Pacific Coast by Mr. Ernest A. Hersam is 
printed elsewhere in this issue. It will be read with 
interest because it reveals the difficulties under which 
the development of such an enterprise has hitherto 
labored. Professor Hersam is justified in saying that 
the special process for producing iron without the use of 
blast-furnaces and high-grade coke deserve to be care- 
fully investigated with reference to Western needs, and 
it would seem, furthermore, that the great abundance of 
electric power cheaply available in the mountains of the 
West presents an opportunity for a greater development 
of the electric iron and steel industry than is possible 
anywhere else in the world, with the exception of Nor 
way. About 44% of the total available water-power in the 
United States lies west of the Sierra Nevada, neverthe- 
less, it is interesting to see that the starting of the iron 
industry on the Pacific Coast will be along old lines, sus- 
tained by a favoring margin of profit made possible be 
cause of inflated prices due to the War. 



Sampling Large Low-Grade Orebodies 

The editorial article published in our issue of .May 'Jti 
on this subject has elicited the discussion desired. Mr. 

\V. .1. Loving lays emphasis on the fact thai it is nol 
the number or weight of the samples, lint their repn- 
seiitativcness that eiiunls in the appraisal of a mine. 
The two examples he quotes, and the description of the 
method by which the work was done, should prove help- 
ful to our young engineers, for Mr. Luring has 'made 
good' on the samplings he describes by developing profit- 
able enterprises on both of them. The collection of evi- 
dence is only half the task: the deduction from that 
evidence is at least as important. The first must be ac- 
curate in order that the second may be correct; but it 
is easier to make a careful sampling than a true diag- 
nosis; therefore the personal equation continues to be 
the basic factor in mine-appraisal. Next we have the 
letter from Mr. Morton Webber, who also contributes a 
thoughtful article to this issue. We are grateful to an 
engineer so busily engaged for finding time to enrich our 
pages so effectively. In his letter, which followed Mr. 
Loring's, he returns to his former friendly controversy 
with Mr. L. A. Parsons, whose article we re-published in 
our issue of May 26. Mr. Webber insists that there are 
mines that cannot be sampled ; in such mines the dis- 
tribution of rich ore is so sporadic and irregular that no 
rigid system of sampling is of use as a means of obtaining 
reliable data for valuation. The argument is that if a 
large cake contains a dozen raisins distributed at random, 
no two, nor even four, cross-sectionings of the cake by a 
knife would furnish a basis for estimating the number of 
raisins in that cake. The only way to find out would be 
to eat the whole cake. Skill in sampling, therefore, is 
wasted on a 'pockety' mine. Mr. Albert Burch, who 
writes in this issue, agrees with Mr. Webber, instancing 
the Tightner as a case in point. He also describes a 
similar mine in Oregon. A wise man knows the limita- 
tions of his technique. To Mr. Richard A. Parker we 
are indebted for the suggestion that sub-sampling is 
necessary for discriminating inferences ; he states a truth 
known to experienced practitioners, like himself, that any 
pronounced departure from the normal average of an 
orebody should be investigated by re-sampling the ab- 
normal length of lode, taking fresh samples at short in- 
tervals, in order to ascertain the importance that should 
be given to the abnormality. Mr. Parsons contributes a 
valuable article, in the writing of which, he informs us, 
he consulted Mr. William W. Mein. These engineers are 
vigorous exponents of the moil and hammer, although 
recognizing the proper function of the mill-test. Samples 
must be representative and accurate, he says rightly. 
The mill-test may be representative, but it represents only 
one or two parts of the mine; it is likely to be "broad- 
ly selective." That is a true word and right worthy of 
acceptation. On the other- hand, the mill-test is more 
accurate because the bulk of it is so large as to minimize 
the aberrancy caused by particles of gold. Such free 
gold vitiates the accuracy of a 50-pound sample much 



114 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 28, 1917 



more than that of a 100-ton mill-test. In the one it may 
be abnormal ; in the other it and others like it are normal. 
The accuracy of the moil-sample is dependent upon the 
human factor; mind no less than muscle is required 
for taking a true sample. On the other hand, the 
breaking of many moil-samples distributed at uniform in- 
tei vals over the length and breadth of the orebodies 
gives an opportunity for collecting much collateral in- 
formation concerning the geological structure and other 
peculiarities sure to exert an important influence upon 
the subsequent exploitation of the mine. All these points 
are brought out by Mr. Parsons most lucidly. Next, our 
friend Mr. T. H. Leggett lays stress on the word 'repre- 
sentative,' and thereupon suggests that mill-tests may 
lack this quality because the ore mined for milling usu- 
ally does not come from a sufficient number of places, or, 
rather, that not a sufficient number of mill-tests of ore 
from various parts of the mine are made. That is why 
moil-sampling is usually more reliable. To make mill- 
tests so numerous as to be representative may entail a 
costly scheme of development. The engineer has to out 
the garment according to his cloth ; for time and money 
are two basic factors in engineering. Mr. Leggett says, 
a mine that cannot be sampled is a good one — for the 
owner — to keep. With this opinion we are inclined to 
agree. It is unwise to buy a pig in a poke. The un- 
samplable mine is rarely appraisable ; the element of 
risk is so large ; the venture is so much of a gamble, that 
such mines are best left to men that have plenty of 
capital and their own experience to guide them. If 
Messrs. A. DeW. Foote and William Hague made money 
out of the Tightner mine, for example, it was because 
they were living in the district and knew not only the 
past history of the mine, but the idiosyneracies of the 
deposits in that locality. Mr. Burch encores Mr. Leg- 
gett in the emphasis upon ' representative ' and closes his 
own contribution with the sensible advice that where re- 
liable data are available a preliminary moil-sampling 
may be set aside in favor of mill-testing, although it is 
clear from the context that he does not expect the data 
furnished by the vendor to be often so reliable as to 
warrant abstention from the moil-sampling. He refers 
to the ' cleaning-up ' of the mill as a source of error. Of 
course, it is ; and one that always predisposed the present 
writer against mill-tests on a small scale. 

The foregoing summary of the high lights in the pre- 
ceding discussion of a most practical subject will serve 
to increase interest in the article by Mr. Morton Webber 
on the respective merits of moil-sampling and mill-tests. 
He has gone to some pains to make clear his argument by 
citing three examples taken out of his own recent ex- 
perience. He lays stress on the fact that the terms of an 
option necessarilj' influence the choice of method; the 
mine-valuer must have business acumen as well as tech- 
nical skill if he is to prove a safe adviser to the buyer of 
mines. The choice between the moil and the mill is con- 
ditioned upon the circumstances of each option and of 
the mine optioned. In making a representative shipment 
of ore, it is necessary that each stope shall contribute its 



representative weight, says Mr. Webber. That is a point 
well taken ; so also is the suggestion that the comparison 
of the moil-sampling with the mill-test of a stope gives a 
sampling-factor, or ratio of sample-assay to mill-bullion, 
that is most valuable. He lays stress on a detail usually 
overlooked, namely, the uniform mixing of samples after 
they have been crushed, by allotting a definite period 
for the operation. He believes that a mill-test is useful 
for ascertaining the metallurgical character of the ore 
and for establishing the sampling-error, and in his third 
example he shows that moil-sampling of ore already ex- 
posed may not furnish the information most requisite 
for estimating the future prospects of a mine. His 
article is one of the most useful we have had the pleasure 
of publishing; it is a clear gain to the technology of the 
subject. It remains to state once more that sampling of 
any kind must be made to yield results indicative of 
future mining operations, those operations anticipated 
by the purchaser of the mine. Sampling misleads be- 
cause it is done on a laboratory scale and style, as it were. 
That is why sometimes a mill-test furnishes a check, be- 
cause in blasting ore for a mill it is broken in a manner 
more nearly like ordinary stoping. As Mr. Parsons sug- 
gests, the moil-sampling of a narrow width of ore is 
likely to disregard the stoping-width. The moil breaks 
the ore more cleanly than the dynamite in a drill-hole; 
the sample is free from the casing, wall-rock, and other 
diluents that create discrepancies between the report 
on a mine and its subsequent life-history. What we 
need today is a sufficient collection of post-mortems, say, 
two or three hundred reports by capable engineers sup- 
plemented by the later records of the mines themselves, 
to furnish us with the factors of error, and the reasons 
for them. One factor is incontestable, and that is the 
lowering of the grade. Most reports on most mines give 
a grade of ore lower than is subsequently mined. This 
is due not only to the cleaner breaking of ore by the 
samplers, but to the advancement of metallurgy, the bet- 
terment of ore-breaking, and other improvements that 
enable the mine-manager to reduce the grade below that 
of the appraising engineer's report and to prolong the 
life of the mine economically, that is, within limits that 
recognize the value of money and the need for amor- 
tizing capital. Finally, we suggest to the profession that 
there is an inherent discrepancy between the sampling 
of a mine and the actual exploitation of it. The sam- 
pler's ideal is to obtain a true average, to be non-selective, 
whereas the miner, the manager of a mine, inevitably 
selects, he extracts ore that will yield the profit on which 
the enterprise is predicated. That is why the sampling 
of a mine under option so rarely corroborates the esti- 
mate based on past production. To be a good appraiser 
therefore the engineer must be a man of constructive 
imagination, a man with foresight, able to foresee how 
the mine is going to be worked. He must be able, in a 
measure, not only to write last year's almanac but also 
to predict the future; and to do that he must have been, 
at some time, a mine-manager himself. 

We shall be glad to publish further discussion. 



.Inly 28, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



115 



DISCUSSIO 

(htr naden nrt invited to use this department for the discussion of technical and other matters pt riaining to 

minim] nwl metallurgy. The Editor welcomes expressions of views contrary to his own, believing thai <-unjnl 

criticism is more valuable than casual compliment. 



Sampling Large Low-Grade Orebodies 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have read with considerable interest the dis- 
cussion of this subject, as printed in recent issues of your 
paper, which. 1 understand, had for its inception articles 
from the pens of Messrs. Morton Webber and L. A. 
Parsons. 

Mr. Webber took the ground in the beginning that 
there are mines (his class 5) the sampling of which is 
useless and on this point Mr. Parsons takes issue, but I 
decidedly agree with Mr. Webber, though I also think 
that, fortunately, mines of class 5 are rare and there- 
fore relatively unimportant. They are "freak" mines, 
but. they do exist and, in a later letter, Mr. Webber cites 
the well-known case of the Tightner as an example. 
Prom my own experience I might mention one that is 
even more extreme than the Tightner, being a mine in 
eastern Oregon which I visited several years ago. 

At the time of my visit, the un-stoped portion of the 
vein was well blocked out by drifts, cross-cuts, and raises, 
which could have readily been sampled, but the mine 
had been well managed and an examination of the well- 
kept records of production extending over a period of 
several years showed that sampling would have been en- 
tirely useless. These records showed that the average 
ore had about paid expenses, and that the dividends paid 
coincided almost exactly with the combined values of 
two pockets of extremely high-grade ore totaling less 
than two tons in weight. I understand that a few other 
mines of a similar character have been found in the 
same district, but this is the only one of which I have 
personal knowledge. Such examples would seem to me to 
establish the existence of mines belonging to Mr. Web- 
ber's class 5, and nothing that has been said by his 
critics, including Mr. Parsons, has convinced me that it 
is not useless to sample them. The discussion, com- 
menced in this way, has been broadened by your edi- 
torial of May 26 and applied to mines of a different and 
more important class, namely, those containing large 
bodies of rock which, taken as a whole, constitute pay- 
able ore, but within which the gold is so unevenly dis- 
tributed as to render them difficult but not impossible of 
sampling, and the question has narrowed to one of moil 
versus mill-test sampling. On this question, I believe, 
Mr. Leggett has hit the nail squarely on the head by the 
use of the word "representative"; for if the mill-tests 
can be made on rock as truly representative of the aver- 
age ore as the moil-samples, then it would seem that the 
mill-test method should be more accurate than that by 



moil-samples, because of the elimination of many of the 
minor inaccuracies incident to such sampling. The 
three most frequent causes of error by this method are 
probably (1) tendency of operator to cut a dispropor- 
tionate amount of either hard or soft rock, (2) liability 
to mixture of sample with particles of dust and pieces of 
rock falling from points outside the sample cut, and (3) 
danger of salting from a single small piece of gold 
which finds its way into the very small proportion of the 
original sample that finally goes to the assayer's crucible. 

Admitting then, for the sake of argument, that the 
mill-test can be made the more accurate of the two meth- 
ods, if it is quite as representative, how can it be made 
representative? First, the openings to be sampled must 
be in such positions within the vein as to develop ore of 
the same average grade as that of the entire orebody, 
and this applies quite as much to openings which are to 
be sampled by hammer and moil as to those from which 
mill-tests are to be made ; and in the failure to so make 
the preliminary openings upon the vein, I believe we find 
the source of future disappointments more often than 
in inaccurate sampling. Given properly placed openings 
the next step in sampling by mill-test should be to cut a 
sample of uniform width, but this must also be done in 
moil-sampling, and except in cases of soft or caving 
ground is quite as easy in the one case as the other. It 
is true that the length of a cut for a mill-test must be 
made several times as great as that of a single moil 
sample in order to avoid frequent cleaning up of the 
mill, which is itself a source of error, but, as the object 
is to determine the average value of a large orebody 
which previous development has shown to be probably 
valuable and not to pick out pay-streaks, for selective 
mining, there could be no objection to including within 
a single mill-run all of the samples from an entire cross- 
cut, or a long section of a drift. 

As to the valuation of a mine upon the basis of past 
production, there can be no doubt that such a method 
is erroneous unless the past production has come from 
workings uniformly distributed through sections of the 
orebody to be mined in the future. Otherwise such past 
production is representative of nothing except the part 
of the mine already exhausted, and as you have very 
well pointed out, a good miner is quite likely to select 
the best part of his mine for his first stoping. I have 
frequently said that one could pick out the best part of 
any orebody by examining a longitudinal section of the 
workings and noting what portions had been carried in 
advance of the remainder. 

Regarding the questions of cost and of time consumed, 



111! 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Jul) 28, 1917 



there would seem to be no doubt that ordinarily tl 
vantage I i<*M with moil-sampling, though this advantage 
in the matter of coat Deed not be so verj great, if, 
usually the >'iinc under mining options, the purchaser has 
the right to retain all of the mineral recovered, 
small royalty. Furthermore, it ooata a great deal of 
iiiiun m operating |>l«ut for a large low grade 

mine, and no one financially able to build Buch a plant 
should negleot to forestall the chance of losing liis entire 
investment l>y failing to use the best means availabl 
determining in advance the value of his mine, even 
though t lio beat method should be more expensive than 
the next best 

in conclusion, 1 would advocate for a large low grade 
mine al which no reliable data suits of develop- 

ment are available, a preliminary moil-sampling fol- 
low,-, I by mill-teal sampling, but, where anch data are 
available, l believe one might safely dispense whh the 
tampling and depend solely upon mill-tests for de 
termining the value of the property. 

Sim Franoisco, Julj 18 Albert Buroh. 



California Field Artillery 
The Editor; 

sir it ma \ be interesting to those of your readers 
who contemplate military service, but have not as yet de- 
termined in what arm or branch they prefer to serve, to 
know thai a Field Artillery unit of four batteries 

mthori ed to be raised through the National Guard 
of California which will, in effect, be a volunteer organi- 
sation. The recruiting of this organisation lias been 
given to the San Franoisco Cavalry Troop, which is an 
officers' training organisation that has been commanded 
and trained by a regular army officer for the past twq 
ami which will be us,-,l to form the nucleus of the 
commissioned personnel 

The movement has the hearty endorsement of such 
tuninent officers as Major General John J. Pershing, and 
Major-General Hunter Liggett, Commander of the West 
,in Department 

The commander of the new organisation will be an 
expert artillery officer from the Regular Army. Some 
of the commissioned positions are open to be filled from 
the enlistments, as well as most of the non-commissioned 
personnel. 

The Field Artillery is the branch of the service that 
pre-eminently appeals to the mining profession and to 
the technical man. and in the present war has rapidly 
grown to he the most important arm. 

The most desirable qualifications, second to actual 
military experience, are a knowledge of horses, and the 
mental and manual training obtained from having han- 
dled machinery, but any able>1mdied man is acceptable. 
It is expected that tl - ttion w ill see act i\ a service 

-. soon as in training reaches the required degree 
o( perfection, and it is hoped that the quality of the men 
who will join will reduce this period to a minimum. 

Full information can be obtained at the Recruiting 
Headquarters, 310 Montgomery St.. where enlistments 



are rapidly coming in. We have assurance that as fast 
as batteries are recruited to the neeesaary strength, they 

"ill !' ed Slid the men "ho have enrolled will 

mpt 4rom the draft. 

t'u.iFOHNu Field Abtillebt. 
By Wiu.iwi c, Dkvebeux, 
Vice-Chairman Recruiting Committee. 

Relief From Annual Assessment Work 



[The following resolution exempting enlisted men 
from the obligation to perform annual labor on mining 
■ us has passed both houses of Congress, and is 
merely awaiting die signature of the President to be- 
come la". For the benefit of those whom it may affect 
we reproduce it verbatim.- Burros.] 

Join 

lieve the owners of mining claims who have been 
mustered into the military or naval service of the 
United States as officers or enlisted men from per- 
forming assessment work during the term of such 

I ICC. 

Resolved by thi Se-natt and / //inn 

of the United States of Atneriea i» Congress assembled. 

That the |- ■'. section twenty-three hundred and 

twenty four of the Revised Statutes of the United v 

which requite that on each mining claim located after the 
tenth day of May. eighteen hundred and seventy-two. 
and until patent has been issued therefor, not less than 

$100 worth of labor shall lie performed or improvements 

made during each year, shall not apply to claims or parts 
of claims owned by officers or enlisted men who have 
mustered into the military or naval service of the 
United States, so that no mining claim or any part there- 
of owned by such person which has been regularly lo- 
cated and recorded shall be subject to forfeiture for 
nonperformance of the annual assessments until six 
months after such owner is mustered out of the service 
or until six months after his death in the service: 
/'roc/,/,,/. That the claimant of any mining location, in 
order to obtain the benefits of this resolution, shall tile, 
or cause to he tiled, in the office where the location notice 
or certitiiM irded, within ninety days from and 

after the passage and approval of this resolution, a notice 
of his muster into the service of the United States and of 
his dltflim to hold said mining location under this i - 
t ion. 

Mvnovn . iii large quantities are character- 

istic of a number of the silver deposits at Philipshurg. 
Montana, notably in the Cliff and Trout mines. The 
mineral occurs as pyrolusite derived from the alteration 
of rhodocrosite, which is abundant in the gangue of the 

Philipshurg ores The accumulations o( pyrolusite in 
these deposits have again attracted attention owing to 
the high price o\' manganese, and the shipments of this 
ore from the district now amount to approximately ">IH1 
Ions weekly. 



July 88, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRF.SS 



11" 



Outlook for Iron and Steel on the Pacific Coast 



By ERNEST A. HERSAM 



Whether or not the Pacific (.'oast states can profitably 
produce iron and stool from the ore, or can develop later 
an extensive iron industry, is a question that demands an 
answer. If the industry is practicable, steps to promote 
it are important and should be encouraged. If there are 
qualifications or limitations to iron smelting in the West, 
the people ought to know of it. To consider the possi- 
bility of developing an extensive iron and steel industry 
through the actual smelting of iron ore, leads to some 
fundamental scientific and economic considerations. It 
is an easy matter to define the requirements of iron man- 
ufacture as represented in present practice, and to ob- 
serve whether or not these can conform to given local 
conditions in future practice. It appears at once to be 
extraordinary that the iron ores of the West Coast have 
not contributed more abundantly toward the iron-output 
of the United States, yet the Pacific-Coast States are im- 
porting from the East and from abroad practically all 
of the iron used by them in local construction and manu- 
facture. This backwardness is seen to limit the local 
expansion of manufacturing industry, dependent as it is 
upon pig-iron and the iron and steel products derived 
from pig-iron. 

In the ordinary process of iron and steel manufacture 
the mills and foundries designed to supply the metal in 
the forms required in commerce are based upon supplies 
of pig-iron that are easily accessible in ample quantity. 
Without such an abundant supply of pig-iron, no well- 
developed and extensive manufacturing industry can 
exist. Foundries and rolling-mills that rely on distant 
sources, produce only with difficulty and at high cost, and 
the manufacture of small articles, machinery, and varied 
appliances, in which iron and steel are essential, is monop- 
olized by districts favorably situated. 

As a fundamental commodity pig-iron ranks with tim- 
ber, food, and fuel ; and these elements of the commer- 
cial world are the determinants of industrial growth, as 
are air, water, and sunlight of human life. An available 
supply of iron indicates that a region will become densely 
populated, that the harbors will be crowded with ship- 
ping and that great cities will be built. The industries 
on the western coast of the United States, that started 
from resources other than iron, and have grown despite 
the absence of a local iron-supply, have remained at the 
limit set by the local cost of iron and steel. 

There are some who hope for an abundant supply of 
Californian pig-iron in the near future, at a price not 
higher than that prevailing in the iron regions of the 
Bast. Others believe that the Pacific Coast does not pos- 
sess the essentials for a self-supporting iron-industry, and 
that no relief from the high prices would result even if 



local production were attempted. A potential supply of 
iron does not consist solely in the presence of the ore. but 
requires also a fuel sneh as can be used to smelt it. The 
economic tendency of the iron-industry, the world over, 
is toward centralization, and is opposed by the extension 
of iron-production to the West. Though there are ores, 
and oil, and electric power, and markets on the Pacific 
Coast, similarly there are hundreds of millions of tons of 
unmined ore available in the densely peopled states of 
the East, but remaining unused because of cheaper ore 
1000 miles distant. 

The ore resources of the Pacific Coast appear to war- 
rant the development of an iron-smelting industry. The 
hematite deposits of Eagle mountain, in southern Cali- 
fornia, have been shown to be ample for operating a blast- 
furnace for 200 years. Some of this ore is pronounced 
to be of the finest quality. Much is judged to be capable 
of being enriched by sorting. Shasta county, in Califor- 
nia, is also capable of supplying iron ore for an impor- 
tant industry'. In Madera county. California, there is a 
body of ore estimated at 50 to 100 million tons of good 
quality. Elsewhere, as in San Bernardino county, in the 
Kingston mountains, and also in Oregon and Washing- 
ton, there is ore said to be suitable in quality and amount 
for smelting operations. While the deposits of iron ore 
on the western coast are small compared with the great 
reserves in the East and in the Lake Superior region, 
they are adequate, so far as the ore is concerned, to meet 
the local demand, and are worthy of attention. In recent 
years the extensive deposits of black-sand, which abounds 
on the Pacific Coast and elsewhere, has been looked to 
as an attractive source of iron. These sands are known 
to contain, amongst other minerals, a small proportion 
of magnetite. While there is little possibility of using 
widely scattered material of this character for extensive 
iron-manufacture, yet the improvements in separation 
and the demand for the contained minerals, other than 
the magnetite, suggest using the material for iron or 
steel-manufacture in a small way. The backwardness of 
the iron-industry in the "West is the direct outcome of the 
economy of production in the East ; and it is the relative 
cheapness of the Eastern supply that renders the western 
condition tolerable. Moreover the demand for iron and 
steel in the West covers a wide variety of forms; and 
plants to supply the Western needs are called upon to 
furnish shapes difficult to produce at any single estab- 
lishment. The local consumers would be limited if made 
dependent upon a local supply. A single blast-furnace 
would fail to supply the varied demand for local con- 
sumption. The limitation, however, that is most serious 
to production in the West is the absence of fuel of the 



118 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 28, 1917 



kind commonly required in iron smelting. To obviate the 
cost of transportation of coke there arise the problems 
of novel metallurgical methods utilizing the heat-energy 
that locally can be had. 

The sources of coke available in the West are those 
from China or abroad, the development of the coking 
coals of Alaska, the coke of Utah and Colorado, and 
finally there arises the question of adaptation of practice 
to permit of employing coke that can be made from the 
coals of Washington. There remains the possible sub- 
stitution of other fuels for the needed coke. The produc- 
tion of a satisfactory coke has been claimed to be possible 
as a by-product from petroleum, when treated by a 
special process in gas manufacture, with this end in 
view. Commercial demonstration of the possibility of 
doing this, however, is as yet wanting. The use of nat- 
ural oil, with regenerative appliances, is possible, but 
only under important limitations and with diminished 
heat-efficiency. California, which is one of the most 
productive oil fields of the world, would be in a position 
to profit by the use of its natural resources in this way. 
The use of electric energy in iron-smelting has been 
demonstrated as not only possible, but practicable, under 
certain limitations. In this particular the West, possess- 
ing available water-power in the Sierra Nevada and the 
Cascade ranges, offers a cost comparing favorably with 
such power elsewhere, and is in a position to profit by 
this extension of the industry. 

The treatment of iron ores, by the standard processes, 
is an industry involving large tonnages and broad mar- 
kets, while the mining, transportation, and smelting are 
circumscribed by the low value for a given weight. The 
average value of iron ore, such as is now derived from 
the Lake Superior region, or from Cuba, Spain, Canada, 
and elsewhere, is normally about $3 per ton at seaboard, 
or at the smelting-centers. The cost of the ore at the 
mine may be rated at 50c. to $1 per ton. The cost of ore, 
at $3, at the Eastern smelting-centers consists, therefore, 
largely in the cost of transportation, which commonly 
amounts to two or three times the cost of mining. The 
handling and transportation of large tonnages of iron 
ore of this relatively low value calls for accessibility, 
either through natural ways of transportation or the 
actual proximity of the ore to regions where the metal is 
consumed. The average value of coke at tidewater, for 
example, at Baltimore, may be taken as normally about 
$2.50 per ton. Coke in the State of Washington costs 
twice this amount. Nearly two tons of ore and one ton 
of coke are required to produce one ton of pig-iron. This 
ton of pig-iron, of average grade, and at normal times, is 
worth approximately $15. The price at present is three 
times this sum. In terms of normal operation, over a 
long period, three tons of ore and fuel, having a value of 
$8 or more, are required to produce one ton of pig-iron 
valued at $15. When such prices and production are 
contemplated for the West, the cost of transportation 
eclipses all other items. The increment in the ton-value 
of the material affected by the transportation and smelt- 
ing, based upon the combined weight of fuel and ore, is 



less than $2 per ton. A slight increase in the cost of 
transportation easily consumes any allowance for the 
cost and profit in smelting. Water-transportation in the 
movement of»iron-ore has been rated at 0.09c. per ton- 
mile, and land-transportation at 0.66c. on well developed 
lines. At this rate, the entire increment of operation 
would be consumed by a land-haul of the coke of 1000 to 
1100 miles, or of the ore for 500 miles or more, or of the 
ore and coke for about 333 miles. In water-transporta- 
tion, the distance would be seven or more times as great 
at a corresponding cost. 

The freight-cost on pig-iron, at 60 to 75e. per hun- 
dred, from Pittsburg or New York, or 55c. from Chicago, 
brings war prices to the western coast in times of peace. 
Iron produced locally can be marketed, normally, at 
nearly $30 per ton. At any time, however, local smelting 
brought into competition only with existing prices, with 
the freight-costs added, brings no relief to local indus- 
tries as a whole. The cost of production in the West 
must more nearly approach that in the East to warrant 
interest in the turning of industry from its established 
channels. 

The extension to the West Coast of the standard in- 
dustry of iron-smelting with coke is seen to require, not 
so much a gradual growth of many industrial interests 
as a single independent and energetic interest. By the 
standard methods of treatment, we could consider the 
iron industry to comprise five dependent steps. The ore 
is reduced to metal and manufactured into rails, rods, 
bars, plates, sheets, and structural shapes, or cast into 
forms for the consumer. The first, and primary opera- 
tion, that of smelting the ore in the blast-furnace, is the 
only missing element to a complete chain of independent 
production in the West. This operation, carried on ex- 
tensively in the Central, Eastern, and South-eastern 
parts of the United States, and in the West as far as 
Colorado, supplies pig-iron for the iron-foundry and the 
steel-plant, which may be regarded the second and the 
third branches of the industry. No large-scale substitute 
for the production of pig-iron in the blast-furnace has 
been demonstrated, as yet, to be practicable. The iron 
foundries are commensurate with the local need. By 
these the waste cast-iron, gathered from the surrounding 
country, is brought again to useful application. In the 
West, many foundries are relatively small, and are op- 
erating at a profit. Coke is the fuel commonly employed, 
but while a superior quality is to be preferred, grades 
inferior in some regards can be used. Oil fuel has been 
used in the foundry-cupola with the promise of economy 
and success. In experiments at one of the foundries in 
San Francisco, it was stated that about 8 gallons of 
crude oil per ton of iron would serve the cupola. The 
steel-plants on the Pacific Coast are relatively small, but. 
for some years have been growing in importance. Plants 
of the open-hearth and bessemer types are represented. 
In the open-hearth plant, as operated in the East, pig-iron 
furnishes the greater part of the metal for the steel prod- 
uct, but with the pig-iron is used a suitable proportion 
of pure iron ore and also steel and iron scrap. So far as 



July 28, 1917 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



11!) 




F.LECTRIC FURNACES AT HEROUI.T, CALIFORNIA, PRODUCING EERRO-SILICON 




NOBLE ELECTRIC STEEL PLANT, HEROULT, CALIFORNIA 



120 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



July 28, 1917 



ore is used, this furnishes metal direct to the steel. The 
plant, to this extent, becomes a direct producer of steel 
from ore. The fuel commonly desired is producer-gas, 
but for the manufacture of gas a wide variety of fuels, 
including oil, can be used. The adaptation of the process 
to the West has led to the use of oil-fuel direct, with much 
sucee s. Since, however, the tonnage of metal produced 
at the steel-mill practically equals that received in the 
raw condition, there is always the competition of steel 
made in proximity to the iron-furnace. The limitation 
falls more seriously upon the bessemer process than upon 
that of the open-hearth. The rolling-mills may be re- 
garded as the fourth division of the industry. These 
supply the smaller shapes of structural steel to the build- 
ing-trades and to the manufactories of machinery, in- 
cluding bolts, nails, rivets, and a great variety of iron 
and steel articles. These industries are acquiring im- 
portance in the West. The steel-foundries may be con- 
sidered the fifth branch of the industry. There is an 
increasing demand for steel castings, which gives reason 
to believe that the time will come when light steel-cast- 
ings will replace much of the heavy iron-structure in 
machinery. Waste steel has offered a supply of metal at 
a price not before equalled. The local supply of iron 
and steel is becoming depleted, however, by the heavy 
demand and high prices prevailing. The cost of pro- 
ducing steel from scrap in the West has been such that, 
in the past, in spite of the local supply of waste metal, 
manufacturers have found it less costly to purchase 
steel from the Bast than to produce the metal locally 
from the scrap-material available. The steel-foundry 
can operate with coal, coke, producer-gas, oil, or with 
electric energy. In these plants throughout the country 
the labor is skilled, and the demand for the products is 
largely local. The plant in many cases is an adjunct of 
a factory for making special machinery. The appliances 
are varied in which the melting of steel is performed. 
Much cast-steel is made by the crucible process. In the 
past few years the electric-are re-melting furnace has 
come into application in many places. 

There has been no success, so far, in making pig-iron 
on an extensive scale without coke. The use of fuel-oil, 
or of electric energy for the production of iron from ore. 
would be the first expedient in the development of a 
Western industry. Whether or not such methods can 
be developed to compete with existing practice is the 
problem to be considered. For the treatment of iron ore 
in the manufacture either of steel or iron, it is seen that 
the direct use of the ore along with a due proportion of 
the reduced metal is possible to a limited extent. Here 
the ore. or oxide, not only furnishes metal, but serves a 
useful purpose as an oxidizing agent. The oxidizing 
action, however, pre-supposes that there has been a pre- 
vious reduction of some constituent of the charge. The 
direct use of iron ore in large foundry-furnaces for pro- 
ducing cast-iron directly from ore reverts back to the 
earliest days of blast-furnace smelting, and promises 
little in the way of practical economy. The direct re- 
duction of iron, as in the American bloomary-process. is 



primitive and impracticable under existing labor condi- 
tions. The reduction of iron sponge, in a separate op- 
eration by the use of fuel other than coke, followed by 
the melting and casting of this reduced metal into steel- 
ingots of low carbon-content, involves a double operation 
which, compared with the standard processes is costly, 
since it divides the operation which, in the blast-furnace 
is conducted with the fullest econonry in a single opera- 
tion, into two separate steps, performed at different times, 
and with two separate applications of heat. 

In the smelting of iron there is chemical and physical 
work to be done, only in part by the application of heat. 
There is slag to be melted, water-vapor, carbon di-oxide 
and other gases to be expelled, and various heat-absorb- 
ing side-reactions to be satisfied. A part of the heat is 
wholly lost in the liquefaction of products and in the 
formation and expansion of escaping gas. Notwithstand- 
ing the complex distribution of the energy, there is a part 
that is to be regarded as peculiarly and unalterably 
necessary to the process. This energy performs the serv- 
ice of reducing the oxide to metal. The heat consumed 
in fusing the metal may be partly recovered upon solidifi- 
cation, by improvements in construction that have been 
suggested from time to time. So also heat that is lost 
by conduction and radiation may be further decreased 
by improved heat-insulation or by improved furnace de- 
sign. 

In the case of the energy that is required to reduce the 
iron and form the desired iron-carbon alloy, it will be 
seen that the interchange of the forms of energy is more 
difficult. In any case, the low value of the material and 
the high tonnage to be treated require low cost. Hydro- 
electric energy comes into open competition with the 
energy derived from petroleum or from coal. Electric 
power, light, and heat, however, with the improvements 
in modern industrial and domestic applications, has be- 
come a refined form of energy meeting an increasing 
general demand. Oil, similarly, as a direct source of 
heat, is to be expected to find an indefinitely increasing 
market through the extension of known devices and 
methods of application and facilities for transportation. 
The maintenance of the high temperature required in 
the hearth of a blast-furnace requires consideration apart 
from that for other appliances. A reaction is sought in 
the blast-furnace by which metallic iron and a carbide of 
iron are formed. The reaction, which occurs only at a 
high temperature, absorbs heat at that temperature. 
Such reactions are likely to require appliances that are 
wasteful of energy. There is loss of heat in elevating 
the materials to the temperature of reaction and of ob- 
taining a return from the heat contained in the products. 
Here the reduction of the oxide to metal requires a 
temperature ranging from 800° to 1800° F. In electric 
smelting, it is a simple matter to produce the heat, re- 
quired for the reduction, by the arrangement of the 
electric arc, or by other suitable electric resistance. Re- 
duction work, however, is not obtained by the heat alone. 
Carbon